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Full text of "The dictionary of national biography : founded in 1882 by George Smith"

{2P 

DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 

1931-1940 



sSAffe THE 

DICTIONARY 

OF 

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



/ Founded in 1882 by 
GEORGE SMITH 



1931-1940 

Edited by L. G. Wickham Legg 



With an Index covering the years 1901-1940 
in one alphabetical series 



506426 

It. 4. so 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON: GEOFFREY CUMBERLEGE 
1949 



Oxford University Press, Amen House, London E.G. 4 

aiiASQOW NEW YOBK TOBONTO MELBOUBNE WELLINGTON 
BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADBAS CAPE TOWN 

Geoffrey Cumherlege, Publisher to the University 



PBINTED IN OBEAT BBITAIN 

AT THE tTNIVEBSITY PBESS, OXFOED 

BY CHABLES BATEY, FBINTEB TO THE UNIVKESITY 



PREFATOEY NOTE 

THE Supplement to the Dictionary of National Biography which is 
now offered to the public contains the names of King George V and 
729 of his subjects who died during the decade from 1931 to 1940. The 
Editor has endeavoured to follow in the steps of his predecessors and 
to keep a mean between too much stiffness in refusing and too much 
easiness in admitting names, bearing in mind that the purpose of the 
Dictionary (as he conceives it) is to assist the student by opening its 
doors as widely as circumstances and reason will permit. 

Between the earliest birth and the latest death recorded in this 
volume there is a space of 104 years. The senior in the list is Arch- 
deacon J. M. Wilson, mathematician, schoolmaster, and antiquary, 
whose name is the only one to come down from the reign of King 
William IV ; the junior is ' Gino ' Watkins, the Arctic explorer, who, 
with Humfry Payne, the archaeologist, represents the many who 
were born in the twentieth century and called away out of due time. 
All the others are men and women born under Queen Victoria, in 
almost the middle of whose reign comes the birth of King George V. 
Round him are here clustered stars of the very first magnitude. Of 
all in this galaxy the brightest are those who belong to the constella- 
tions of natural science. First and foremost are two physicists, alike 
both in the hopes and in the apprehensions which their labours have 
aroused, Rutherford and J. J. Thomson. The future alone can reveal 
their true place in the history of mankind ; it is easier to assess the 
place of other scientists. In prophylactics, it needs no great imagination 
to realize the measure of relief to human suffering that is associated 
with the names of David Bruce, Ronald Ross, and W. J. R. Simpson. 
And it is surely no disparagement of the work of such men as Sharpey 
Schafer in physiology, or of Henry Head and Robert Philip in thera- 
peutics, or of Robert Jones, Moynihan, and Trotter in surgery, if 
those who have cause to bless their memories are, in mere numbers, 
far fewer than those who should remember with gratitude the inven- 
tion of Henry Wellcome. Among biologists, Karl Pearson may weU 
rank as the founder of a new school ; the important work of William 
Pope will show the lay reader that 'wonders of modern science' is 
a phrase which the nomenclature of biochemistry raises into the very 
province of letters. Among the practical engineers, Charles Parsons, 
held by some to be the most original engineer produced by this country 
since James Watt, takes rank in historical significance with R. J. 
Mitchell, the designer of those ' Spitfires ' in which a band of heroes 
saved their country from subjugation in the Battle of Britain. And 
let it be remarked in passing that the senior veteran of all the fighting 
men here commemorated is an engineer, Colonel R. E. B. Crompton, 
who as a boy of eleven earned the Crimean war medal by a visit to the 



Prefatory Note 



trenches before Sebastopol. It is of course from younger generations 
that are drawn the warriors whose names appear in these pages, for 
they include almost the last of those great admirals and generals who 
by the aid of the inventions of the engineers led their men to victory 
in the war of 1914-1918: Beatty and Jellicoe at sea, AUenby, Byng, 
Plumer, and Robertson on land, together with that master of irregular 
warfare, the soldier-scholar ' Lawrence of Arabia ', whose capture of 
the imagination of the world should not obscure the services of Percy 
Cox in the Middle East, nor the career of Reginald Johnston in China, 
nor the ' saga ' of ' the most picturesque Scotsman of modern times ', 
*Don Roberto' Cunninghame Graham of Ardoch. In days when 
man's view of the world is ever more distorted by the fog of mechanics, 
and enterprise is discounted by the yearning for social security, these 
men showed that something not unlike Elizabethan adventure could 
still be open to those born in the nineteenth centiiry. 

Whether in the region of art, letters, and politics there are names 
which can be conlpared with the great lights of natural science is a 
question which does not call for discussion here. Critics will doubtless 
long dispute over the value of the compositions of Delius and Elgar, 
and of Tovey's contributions to musical learning ; but none who heard 
Melba in her prime will deny her supremacy among the singers, nor 
will those who saw Mrs. Patrick Campbell contest her pre-eminence 
in the theatre. Roger Fry taught the public to see beauty where the 
Ught of nature unaided would not reveal it, but it may be that Tonks 
exercised an even greater influence on rising artists of his day. Yet 
it may well be questioned whether their teaching did more for the 
survival of a true aesthetic in this country than did those great 
successors of the old aristocratic patrons, the merchant collectors like 
Eumorfopoulos or great dealers like Duveen. They at any rate have 
now, in museums and elsewhere, held up standards of former days 
before a generation which, striving towards originaUty in technique, 
is as yet uncertain of the line to be drawn between the beautiful and 
the bizarre. 

Of those who in political life helped to shape the destinies of the 
subjects of the Crown, we here find the names, not only of two prime 
ministers of Great Britain, Ramsay MacDonald and Neville Chamber- 
lain, but also of Lyons in Australia and Borden in Canada. Round the 
first two, fierce fires of party strife will blaze for many a year. Sub- 
ordinate statesmen like Austen Chamberlain, Grey of Fallodon, and 
Arthur Henderson at the Foreign Office, with others like Lothian and 
Reading, all strove to promote harmony in the world and a better 
understanding between the mother country and all her daughters. 
In contrast to the moderating influence exerted, not in parliament 
only, by Speaker Whitley, the names of Carson, Healy, Plunkett, and 
Snowden will recall bitter controversy, and so, too, wiU those of 
O'Dwyer in India and Percy FitzPatrick in South Africa; but if 



Prefatory Note 



statesmanship is to be measured by peace brought to the greatest 
number of human beings, the pahn may well be awarded to Hubert 
Murray, the great AustraUan administrator of Papua. Nor can those 
be overlooked who have advanced the development of features 
characteristic of modern society : Goodenough and Schuster among the 
bankers of London, Boot and Lipton in the development of the 
multiple shop, Tata in the growth of a steel trust, Ellerman and 
Inchcape in shipping, all helped to illustrate the old adage that 
competition tends to monopoly; and readers will here find some 
attempt to pay tribute to another characteristic of our life to-day in 
recording the achievements of Guy Nickalls on the river, of John Ball 
on the links, and of 'K. S. Ranjitsinhji' on the cricket field. 

In the region of letters, the star of KipUng shines with a lustre which 
no political detraction can dim. As a poet he stands beside Henry 
Newbolt and William Watson, as a writer of fiction beside Arnold 
Bennett and John Buchan, to say nothing of Galsworthy and Barrie 
who as playwrights as well as novelists call to mind the contemporary 
Irish literary movement here represented by 'AE', Lady Gregory, 
George Moore, and W. B. Yeats. Among essayists, it is not easy to 
find a rival to Chesterton, and journalism has good reason to remember 
with honour G. E. Buckle, C. P. Scott, and J. A. Spender, who 
maintained its high traditions in days when they began to be seriously 
menaced. Andrew Bradley and Saintsbury as critics in English 
. Hterature may not unfairly be mentioned in the same breath with such 
a giant as A. E. Housman in the classics, while the uncanny cleverness 
of D. S. Margoliouth both in Greek and in oriental scholarship is 
balanced by the rigid accuracy of A. A. Bevan. If the versatility of 
H. A. L. Fisher makes it uncertain whether he should be classed among 
the historians, the statesmen, or the educationists, there can be no 
such doubt about Firth, the last survivor of a generation of great 
historians, and one of the most prolific and most valued contributors 
to this Dictionary. In any age, the contribution of Frederick 
Pollock to the science of jurisprudence would stand conspicuous, as 
judges like Buckmaster, Scrutton, Sumner, or Trevethin would be 
the first to recognize. In philosophy Samuel Alexander and Seth- 
Pringle-Pattison gained reputations comparable to that of Mohammed 
Iqbal in India. In theology Gore's chapter in Lux Mundi first revealed 
how far the younger disciples of the tractarian movement had broken 
away from the fundamentalism of Pusey and Liddon. Nor was this 
field wanting in practical workers: Cardinal Bourne and Archbishop 
Edwards of Wales were both champions of the interests of their own 
flocks, and Donald Eraser, Robert Laws, and E. de M. Rudolf in the 
missionary and social fields are of them that have left a name behind 
them for many years to come. 

Like his predecessors, the Editor must first and foremost give grate- 
ful recognition to the help given by his sub-editors in the preparation 



Prefatory Note 



of this volume. Without the experience of Miss Margaret Toynbee, 
her accurate eye for detail, and her tenacious memory, it would have 
been impossible for the Editor to overcome the many difficulties that 
have been attendant on the preparation of this volume. He would 
also like to express his thanks to Mrs. Christopher Ritchie who for 
some months assisted in the work of sub-editing. For help and advice 
given from all quarters with great liberality, the Editor is under 
an obligation too multifarious to be acknowledged in its entirety, 
but he would like especially to mention the information and advice 
tendered by the late Sir Hugh Allen, Dr. E. H. Alton, Mr. C. T. 
Atkinson, Sir Vincent Baddeley, Mr. A. M. Binnie, Mr. Martin S. 
Briggs, Sir Frank Brown, Mr. B. Burdekin, the late Sir Richard Burn, 
the late Mr. L. Burpee, Sir Patrick Cadell, Lord David Cecil, Dr. R. W. 
Chapman, Dr. G. N. Clark, Dr. Hugh Clegg, Dr. Alexander Cooke, 
Mr. R. C. K. Ensor, Professor M. G. Fisher, Mr. Hamilton Fyfe, 
Professor H. A. R. Gibb, Mrs. E. S. Goodrich, Sir C. N. Hinshelwood, 
Mr. R. H. Hodgkin, the Rev. Dr. Hodgson, Lord Horder, Sir Robert 
Hutchison, Mr. E. A. A. Joseph, Professor R. W. Lee, the late 
Sir H. V. Lovett, the Very Rev. John Lowe, the Very Rev. Dr. 
Norman Maclean, Dr. C. A. Malcolm, Sir Dougal Malcolm, Colonel K. 
Mason, the Rev. Dr. N. Micklem, Sir Humphrey Milf ord (whose reading 
of the proofs has put the Editor under a special obligation), Mr. John 
Parker, Mr. K. T. Parker, Lord Eustace Percy, Mr. A. L. Poole, 
Professor G. V. Portus, Dr. D. R. Pye, Sir Bruce Richmond, the late 
Admiral Sir Herbert Richmond, Sir David Ross, Mr. Albert Ruther- 
ston. Sir Charles Sherrington, Professor Nevill Sidgwick, the late 
Dr. W. T. S. Stallybrass, Mr. C. W. Stanley, Mr. J. A. Stevenson, the 
Hon. W. Downie Stewart, Rear-Admiral H. G. Thursfield, Mr. J. R. H. 
Weaver, Mr. Geoffrey Whitworth, and the Hon. Hugh Wyndham. He 
also asks his contributors who by their courtesy and forbearance have 
lightened the burden of his work to accept this expression of his 
thanks ; but a very special meed of gratitude is due from the Editor to 
the secretary and staff of the Clarendon Press. Help so generously 
given enables this lexicographer to say that, whether harmless or not, 
he has never been a drudge. 

L. G. W. L. 
January 1949. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 



Adams, William George Stewart: 

Plunkett. 
Ady, Cecilia Mary: 

Paget, Violet (Vernon Lee); Toynbee. 
Allen, Walter Godfrey: 

Simpson (J. W.). 
Altrincham, Edward William Macleay 
Grigg, Baron: 

Hichens; Poynder (Islington). 
Anderson, David: 

Mott. 
Anderson, John George Clark: 

Ramsay. 
Andrews, Hilda: 

Terry (R. R.). 
Andrews, John Miller: 

Craig (Craigavon). 
Arber, Agnes: 

Scott (D. H.). 
Armfield, Maxwell Ashby : 

Wilkinson (N.). 
fARMSTRONG, Edward Frankland : 

Cross. 
Atkins, John Black: 

Butler (E. S.). 
Atkins, William Ringrose Gelston : 

Young. 
Atkinson, Christopher Thomas : 

Butler (R. H. K.); Cobbe; Fortescue; 

Hunter (A.); Methuen. 

Baddeley, Sir Vincent Wilberforce : 

Backhouse; Colville; Douglas; Henderson 

(R. G. H.); Madden; Milne; Murray 

(O. A. R.); Pakenham; Wemyss (Wester 

Wemyss). 
Baerlein, Henry: 

Dillon (E. J.). 
Bailey, Cyril: 

Conway (R. S.). 
Baillie, Donald Macpherson : 

Mackintosh. 
Baillie, John: 

Kennedy. 
Baird, Matthew Urie : 

Gordon, I. M. (Aberdeen). See under 
Gordon, J. C. (Aberdeen). 
Baker, Charies Henry Collins : 

Holmes (C. J.). 
Baker, John Randal: 

Bourne (G. C). 
Ballard, Philip Boswood: 

Adam^. 
Balston, Thomas: 

Gertler. 
Barber, Eric Arthur: 

Famell. 
fBARBOUR, George Freeland : 

Gordon, J. C. (Aberdeen). 
Barry, Frank Russell, Bishop of Southwell 
(Fr. Southwell) : 

Dearmer. 



Bartlett, Frederic Charies : 

McDougall. 
Barton, Sir William Pell : 

Mysore. 
Battiscombe, Georgina: 

Anderson (Benson, S.); Caine; Ford; Harri- 
son (Lucas Malet); McNeile (Sapper). 
Beazley, Sir John Davidson : 

Payne. 
Beharrel, Sir John George : 

Geddes (E. C). 
Bell, Sir Harold Idris : 

Hunt (A. S.). 
Benians, Ernest Alfred: 

Tanner. 
Bentley, Edmund Clerihew: 

Lawson (Bumham). 
Bethune-Baker, James FrankUn: 

Barnes (W. E.); Burkitt. 
Bishop, WiUiam John : 

Dudgeon; Kettle; McLeod; McMurrich; 

Robertson (G. M.). 
Blacker, Lady Doris : 

Peel. 
fBLAKiSTON, Herbert Edward Douglas : 

Jones (H. Stuart). 
Bolitho, Henry Hector: 

Greville (Warwick). 
Bonham-Carter, Sir Edgar : 

Wilson (A. T.). 
BoNNEY, Victor: 

Sutton. 
BosANQUET, Ellen Sophia : 

Bosanquet. 
fBoTTOMLEY, Gordou : 

Shannon. 
BowLEY, Arthur Lyon : 

Foxwell. 
Boycott, John Agg : 

Boycott. 
fBRADBY, Henry Christopher : 

Vaughan. 
Braithwaite, Richard Bevan: 

Johnson. 
Bramwell, John Crighton: 

Bramwell. 
Brand, Robert Henry Brand, Baron : 

Kerr (Lothian). 
Briggs, Martin Shaw: 

Champneys; Dawber. 
f Brown, Alfred Barratt : 

Furniss (Sanderson). 
Brown, Sir Frank Herbert : 

Bhownagree; Butler (S. H.); Fuller; Nehru; 

Yate. 
Brown, Sir Harold Arthur : 

Oram. 
Bucknill, Sir Alfred Townsend, Lord Justice 
Bucknill : 

HiU. 
fBuRMESTER, Sir Rudolf Miles : 

Calthorpe. 



List of Contributors 



BtJKNETT, Richard George : 

Hocking (J. and S. k!). 
BuKROw, Thomas: 

Rapson. 
BtTRTON, Herbert: 

Anstey; Lyons; Quick; Ryrie. 
Butler, Harold Edgeworth : 

Clark; Deller; Foster (T. G.). 

Cadell, Sir Patrick Robert: 

Baroda; Besant; Nawanagar. 
f Caixender, Sir Geoffrey Arthur Romaine : 

Jellicoe, J. R. (Earl). 
Calman, William Thomas : 

M'^Intosh. 
Cantelupe, Dorothy Jeffreys, Viscountess : 

Louise (Argyll). 
Carlyle, Edward Irving: 

Banbury; Buxton; Cavendish (Devonshire); 

Dyke; Evans (L. Worthington); Ewing; 

Ferguson (Novar); Hicks (Brentford); 

Macnamara; Russell, A. O. V. (Ampthill); 

Shortt; Thomson (B. H.). 
Carnegie, Moir: 

Mackenzie (A. C). 
Cecil, Algernon: 

Bailey (J. C). 
Cecil, Lord Edward Christian David Gas- 
coyne: 

Morrell; Strachey (G. L.). 
Chalmers, William Scott: 

Beatty. 
Champion, Harry George: 

Troup. 
Chandler, Noel Raymond : 

Royce. 
Chapman, John Alexander: 

Ross (E. D.). 
Chapman, Sydney: 

Lamb. 
Chapman-Huston, Desmond: 

Low. 
Charlton, Gteorge: 

Tonks. 
Chaunby, Theodore William: 

Elliott; Rogers (L. J.). 
Choksi, Rustum: 

Tata. 
Christie, EUa Robertson : 

Haldane (E. S.). 
Christophers, Sir Samuel Rickard : 

Bruce (D.); Ross (R.). 
Clapperton, Gladys Laura: 

Yapp. 
Clark, George Norman : 

Firth; Montague; Poole (R. L.). 
Clark, Sir Kenneth McKenzie: 

Fry. 
Clegg, Hugh Anthony : 

Herringham. 
Cleveland-Stevens, William : 

Dibdin. 
Cobb, John WUham: 

Smithells. 
Cobham, John Oldcastle: 

Hoskyns. 
fCocHRANE, Alfred: 

Baillie, C. W. A. N. R. Cochrane- (Laming- 



ton); Boot (Trent); Buchanan, J. (Wool 

ington); Clarke, G. S. (Sydenham); Cc 

ridge; Falkner; Guest (F. E.); Guest, I. 

(WimI)orne); Harris, G. R. C. (Lor 

Hawke; Lunn; Mills (B. W.); Nawanag 

Noble; Philipps, J. W. (St. David 

Philipps, O. C. (Kylsant); Vestey. 
Cochrane, Sir Arthur William Steuart : 

Charrington; Howard of Penrith; Kii 

Nathan. 
Cockerell, Sir Sydney Carlyle : 

Walker (E.). 
Coffey, Diarmid: 

Campbell, J. H. M. (Glenavy). 
Cohen, Sir Lionel Leonard, Lord Just 
Cohen : 

Warrington. 
Cook, Stanley Arthur : 

Bevan; Kennett. 
Cook, William Lewis : 

Hartshorn. 
CoRBYN, Ernest Nugent : 

Currie (J.). 
fCouLTON, George Gordon : 

Fowler (H. W.). 
CouPLAND, Sir Reginald: 

Thesiger (Chelmsford). 
CowEN, Zielman: 

Duffy. 
Craig, Maurice: 

Devlin. 
fCREWE, Robert Offley Ashburton Crev 
Milnes, Marquess of: 

Birrell; Paul. 
Critchley, Macdonald: 

Wilson (S. A. K.). 
CuNDELL, Edric: 

German; Ronald. 
Cunningham, William Ross: 

Rait. 
CuRGENVEN, Sir Arthur Joseph : 

Sankaran Nair. 
CxmLE, Alexander Ormiston : 

Macdonald (G.). 
Curtis, William Alexander: 

Paterson. 

Dale, Sir Henry Hallett : 

Andrewes. 
Dampier, Sir William Cecil Dampier: 

Glazebrook; Leathes. 
Danby, Herbert: 

Cooke; Montefiore. 
fDARK, Sidney: 

Waggett. 
Darlington, William Aubrey: 

Drinkwater; Robertson (J. Forbes-); Wyi 

ham (Moore). 
Darwin, Bernard: 

Ball; Hutchinson (H. G.). 
•{■Daukes, Sidney Herbert : 

Wellcome. 
Davidson, Sir Nigel George : 

Lawrence, A. T. (Trevethin). 
fDAViES, Sir Alfred Thomas : 

Hopkinson. 
Da VIES, David: 

Horridge. 



List of Contributors 



Dawes, George: 

Tucker. 
Dawkins, Richard MacGillivray : 

Giles (P.). 
De la Mare, Walter: 

NewbolL 
Denny, Sir Maurice Edward, Bart. : 

Denny. 
Dent, Edward Joseph: 

Baylis. 
Desch, Cecil Henry : 

Carpenter; Hadfield; Rosenhain. 
DiLLiNG, Walter James : 

Cash. 
fDiLNOT, Frank: 

Wallace. 
Dingle, Herbert: 

Fowler (A.). 
Dixon, Henry Horatio : 

Joly. 
Douglas, Claude Gordon: 

Haldane (J. S.); Pembrey. 
Douglas, James Archibald : 

Sollas. 
Driver, Godfrey Rolles : 

Cowley; Langdon. 
fDuGDALE, Blanche Elizabeth Campbell : 

Sidgwick. 
DuGGAN, George Chester: 

Pollock (H. M.). 
Duncan, Gleorge Simpson: 

Milligan. 
DcTNCAN, Leslie: 

Laws. 
Duncan- Jones, Arthur Stuart: 

Edwards. 
DuNSANY, Edward John Moreton Drax 
Plunkett, Baron: 

Watson. 

Eason, Herbert Lightfoot: 

Perry. 
Edmonds, Sir James Edward : 

Snow. 
Egerton, Sir Alfred Charles Glynn : 

Bone. 
Elliott, Thomas Renton : 

Bradford; Fletcher (W. M.). 
Ellis, Lionel Frederic : 

Bamett. 
Elton, Godfrey, Baron: 

MacDonald (J. R.). 
fELTON, Oliver: 

AbercTombie; Sampson (J.). 
Emmet, Dorothy Mary : 

Stocks. 
Ensor, Robert Charles Kirkwood : 

Birrell; Dalziel; Ellis; Hobhotise; Side- 

botham; Snowden. 
Enthoven, Reginald Edward : 

Temple. 
Ervine, St. John Greer: 

Du Maurier; Kendal; McNeill, R. J. 

(Cushendun); Pinero. 
Esdaile, ArundeU James Kennedy : 

Wise. 

Falls, Cyril Bentham : 
Allenby; Byng. 



Farmer, Herbert Henry : 

Oman. 
Ferguson, Allan: 

Lodge (O.). 
•j-FFOULKEs, Charles John : 

Dillon, H. A. (Viscoura). 
Field, Guy Cromwell: 

Morgan (C. L.). 
fFiSHER, Edwin : 

Goodenough. 
Fisher, Matthew George: 

Johnston, C. N. (Sands). 
Fletcher, Sir Frank : 

Page (T. E.). 
Fleure, Herbert John : 

Haddon. 
FoRDYCE, Christian James: 

Lindsay (W. M.). 
Foss, Hubert James : 

Tovey. 
Franckenstein, Sir George : 

De Bunsen. 
French, Sir James Weir: 

Barr. 
Fyfe, Henry Hamilton : 

Donald; Harmsworth (Rothermere); Mar- 
lowe; Riddell. 

Galbraith, Vivian Hunter: 

Clarke (M. V.); Lyte. 
Garrod, Heathcote William: 

Allen (P. S.). 
Garvin, Viola Gerard: 

Wolfe. 
Geddes, Arthur: 

Geddes (P.). 
GiBB, Sir Claude Dixon: 

Parsons. 
GiBB, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen : 

Iqbal; Poole (S. Lane-). 
Gibson, Charles Stanley: 

Pope. 
GiLLON, Stair Agnew: 

Buchan (Tweedsmuir). 
GiRDLESTONE, Gathomc Robert: 

Jones (R.). 
Godfrey, Walter Hindes : 

Burnet. 
GoDLEY, Hon. Eveline Charlotte : 

Godley (Kilbracken). 
Gold, Sir Harcourt Gilbey : 

Nickalls. 
Gooch, George Peabody: 

Temperley. 
Gore, John: 

Holland (Knutsford). 
Graham-Camfbell, Archibald Rollo : 

Brooke. 
Graham-Smith, George Stuart: 

Nutiall. 
Graves, Philip Percival : 

Cox (P. Z.). 
Gray, Basil: 

Eumorfopoulos. 
Greenwood, Major: 

Pearson (K.). 
Greg, Walter Wilson : 

McKerrow. 



List of Contributors 



Grensted, Laurence William : 

Knox; Streeter. 
Gbier, Lynda: 

Hadow (G. E.). 
Griffiths, Ezer: 

Griffiths. 
Grimsditch, Herbert Borthwick : 

Dyson {W. H.); Grahame; Jagger; Ldszld; 
Upton; Orage; Rackham; Ramsden; Speyer; 
Thornton; Wilkinson (N. R.); Wyllie. 
tGuBBAY, Moses Mordecai Simeon: 

Mackay (Inchcape). 
GuNN, George Battiscombe : 

Griffith (F. L.); Peet; Sayce. 
GuNN, James Andrew: 

Dixon {W. E.). 
GuTTERiDGE, Harold Cooke: 

De Montmorency. 
GwYER, Barbara Elizabeth: 
Rogers {A. M. A. H.). 



Hackett, Felix Edward Walsh: 

Orr. 
Hadley, Patrick Arthur Sheldon: 

Delius. 
Hadley, William Waite: 

Chamberlain {A. N.). 
Hamilton, Mary Agnes : 

Henderson {A.); Lansbury; Smillie. 
Hamilton-Edwards, Gerald Kenneth 
Savery : 
Stevens. 
fHAMMOND, John Lawrence Le Breton • 

Scott (C. P.). 
Hanbury, Harold Greville : 

Buckley (Wrenbury); Dreyer; Eve; Mc- 
Cardie. 
Hannon, Sir Patrick Joseph Henry: 
Ashley {Mount Temple). 
fHARDY, Godfrey Harold: 

Hobson (E. W.); Mercer. 
Hare, Tom: 

Hobday. 
Harington, Charles Robert : 

Barger. 
Harris, Henry Albert: 

Smith (G. E.). 
Harrison, John Vernon : 

Gregory (J. W.). 
Harvey, Godfrey Eric : 

Keith; Scott (J. G.). 
Hay, Agnes YeUand, Lady Dalrymple- • 
Hay. 
fHAYNES, Edmund Sidney Pollock: 

Bottomley. 
fHEADLAM, Arthur Cayley: 

Nairne. 
Headlam, Maurice Francis: 

Chalmers; Heath; Murray (G. H ) 
Heaton, Trevor Braby: 

Thomson (A.). 
Hetherington, Sir Hector James Wright 

MacAlister. * 

HiELD, Robert: 

Colvin. 
Hill, Archibald Vivian: 
Hardy. 



Hill, Walter Scott: 

Dixon (R. B.). 
Hinkson, Pamela: 

Harrell. 
Hirst, Francis Wrielev: 

Cox(H.). ^ 

Hodgson, Stuart: 

Lygon (Beauchamp); Maclean. 
HoDSON, Henry Vincent: 

Dove. 
HoLLiNS, Clara Joyce Elizmar : 

McCormick. 
Hone, Joseph Maunsell : 

Graves; Healy (T. M.); McNeill ( 
Sexton (T.); Yeats. 
Horner, Norman Gerald: 

Sprigge. 
Hornyold-Strickland, Henry: 

Strickland. 
Howes, Frank: 

Dolmetsch. 
Humphreys, Sir Travers : 

Avory. 
HuRD, Sir Archibald: 

Beardmore (Invernairn); Isherwood; Ism 
HuRD, Sir Percy Angier: 

Hewins. 
HuTTON, John Henry: 

Balfour (H). 
Huxley, Elspeth Josceline : 
Cholmondeley (Delamere). 
Hyamson, Albert Montefiore: 
Gaster; Sutro. 

Illingworth, Charles Frederick William i 

Wilkie. 
Irvine, Su- James Colquhoun: 

Morgan (G. T.). 



James, Howell Ewart : 

Evans (E. V.). 
James, Sir WiUiam Milburne: 

Bayly; Custance. 
Jamison, Evelyn Mary: 

Lodge (E. C); Wordsworth. 
Jeffery, George Barker: 

Pilon. 
Jenkins, Claude: 

Robertson (A.); Robinson; Sheppard. 
Jenyns, Roger Soame: 

Johnston (R. P.). 
Johnson, Charles: 

Crump. 
Johnstone, Alfred Ernest: 

Rundman. 
Jones, Bernard Mouat : 

Baker. 
Jones, Sir Harold Spencer: 

Brown (E. W.); Dyson (P. W.). 
Jordan, Karl: 
Rothschild. 

Kenyon, Sir Frederic George: 

Lindsay, D. A. E. (Crawford); Warner 

Wnght. 
King, William Bernard Robinson: 

Marr. 



List of Contributors 



Knowles, Dom Michael David : 
Butler, E. J. A. {Dom CtUhberl). 

Knox, Edmund George Valpy : 
Lucas (E. v.); Reed; Seaman. 

Knox, Ronald Arbuthnott: 
Fraser, S. J. (Lovat). 



■j-Laird, John: 

Alexander; Pattison. 
Lamb, Sir John : 

GilmouT. 
Landon, Philip Aislabie : 

Astbunj; Mathew. 
Laski, Harold Joseph : 

Robertson (J. M.). 
Laski, Neville Jonas : 

Darling. 
Latham, Sir John Greig : 

Murray (J. H. P.). 
Laver, James: 

Gilbert; Greiffenhagen; Jones (A.); Tweed. 
Lavrin, Janko : 

Maude. 
Lawrence, Sir Henry Staveley : 

Patel. 
Layton, Thomas Bramley: 

Symonds. 
Leathes, John Beresford : 

Mellar^y. 
Lee, Amice : 

Macdonell. 
Lee, Robert Warden : 

Jenks. 
Le Fanu, William Richard : 

Ballance; Moynihan. 
Legg, Leopold George Wickham: 

Bourne (R. C). 
Levien, John Mewburn: 

Butt; Cowen; Melba. 
Levy, Reuben: 

Le Strange. 
LiTTLEwooD, Samuel Robinson : 

Asche; Greet; Poel. 
LocKHART, John Gilbert: 

Wood {Halifax). 
"fLovETT, Sir Sackville Hatton Harrington 
Vemey : 

Besant; Craddock; O^Dwyer. 
f LowiNSKY, Thomas Esmond : 

Philpot; Ricketts. 
Luce, Arthur Aston : 

D'Arcy. 
LtJNN, Arnold: 

Conway of Allington. 
Lynd, Sylvia: 

Hinkson {Tynan). 



MacAlister, Sir Ian : 

Caroe. 
MAcARTHtJB, Sir William Porter : 

Keogh. 
McDowALL, Robert John Stewart : 

Halliburton. 
Mackenzie, Agnes Mure : 

Terry (C. S.). 



Mackie, John Duncan : 

Fleming. 
•fMAcKiNNON, Frank Douglas, Lord Justice 
MacKinnon : 

Hamilton {Sumner); Scrution; Talbot 
{G. J.). 
Maclagan, Michael: 

Gibbs. 
McLaren, Martin John : 

McLaren {Aberconway). 
Maclean, Norman: 

Balfour {F.); Fisher {R. H.). 
Macmillan, Hugh Pattison Macmillan, 
Baron : 

Home; Shaw, T. {Craigmyle). 
Macmunn, Sir George Fletcher: 

Plumer. 
Macnaghten, Hon. Sir Malcolm Martin : 

Clarke {E. G.). 
MacNalty, Sir Arthur Salusbury: ' 

Balfour {A.); Buchanan {G. S.). 
Magee, William Kirkpatrick: 

Russell, G. W. {AE). 
Maine, Basil Stephen : 

Elgar. 
Major, Henry Dewsbury Alves : 

Gardner {P.). 
Malcolm, Sir Dougal Orme : 

Joel {S. B. and J. B.); Oliver. 
Mansbridge, Albert: 

McMillan {M.). 
Manson, Thomas Walter: 

Charles. 
Marriott, Charles: 

Collier; Mackennal; McKenzie {R. T.); 
Ouless. 
f Marriott, Sir John Arthur Ransome : 

Horton. 
Marshall, Francis Hugh Adam : 

Schafer. 
fMARTEN, Sir Clarence Henry Kennett : 

Fletcher {C. R. L.). 
Martin, Sir Alec : 

Duveen. 
Martin, Sir Charles James : 

Harden. 
Martin, Thomas: 

Jackson {H.). 
Makyon- Wilson, Sir George Percy Maryon, 
Bart.: 

Jellicoe {J. B. L.). 
f Mason, Alfred Edward Woodley: 

Barrie; Hawkins {Anthony Hope). 
Mason, Kenneth: 

Bruce (C. G.). 
Masterman, Lucy: 

Lyttelton. 
Mauchline, John: 

M'Fadyen. 
Maurice, Sir Frederick Barton : 

Birch; Marshall; Robertson {W. R.), 
Mawson, Sir Douglas : 

David. 
Maxwell, Sir Alexander: 

Ruggles-Brise. 
Mayor, Henry Bickersteth : 

Wilson (J. M.). 



xm 



List of Contributors 



Meek, Charles Kingsley: 

Girouard. 
Meikle, Henry William : 

Hannay; Mathieson; Maxwell. 
Mellanby, Sir Edward : 

Laidlaw. 
Melville, Harry Work: 

Walker (J.). 
Metcalfe, Sir Herbert Aubrey Francis : 

Grant; Patiala. 
Middleton, James Smith : 

Allen of Hurtwood; Barnes (G. N.); Cook; 

Graham (W.); Hodge; Purcell; Saklat- 

vala; Sexton (J.); Shaw (T.); Smith (H.); 

Ward (J.). 
Middleton, Noel: 

Baieson. 
MiLLiCAN, Percy: 

Norgate. 
Mills, William Hobson : 

Lowry. 
Milne, Edward Arthur : 

Love. 
MiLNEB, Violet Georgina Milner, Viscountess : 

Maxse. 
Morgan, Charles: 

Moore (G. A.). 
Morgan, John Hartman : 

Murison; Petty-Fitzmaurice (Fitzmaurice). 
Morgan, Louise: 

Ellerman. 
MoRSHEAD, Sir Owen Frederick : 

Bigge (Stamfordham); King George V. 
MoRTLOCK, Charles Bernard : 

Lacey. 
Mure, Geoffrey Reginald Gilchrist: 

Joachim. 
Murray, George Gilbert Aim6: 

Fisher (H. A. L.); Galsworthy; Margo 

liouth. 
Murray, Sir John : 

Huxley. 
Murray, John: 

Stewart (J. A.). 
fMYERS, Charles Samuel : 

Seligman. 
Myres, Sir John Linton: 

Fotheringham. 

Newberry, Percy Edward : 

Carter. 
Newton, William Godfrey: 

Worthington. 
NoppEN, John George : 

Lethaby. 
Nuttall, Geoffrey Fillingham: 

Bartlet. 



tOLLARD, Sidney LesUe : 

Brightman. 
Orwin, Charles Stewart: 

Prothero (Ernie); Strachey, E. (Strachie); 

Tumor. 
OsBORN, Theodore George Bentley: 

Druce; Ewart; Vines. 
O 'Sullivan, Donal: 

Lynch. 



Owen, Charles Venn: 

Blood; Cochrane (Dundonald); Curr 
(A. W.); Harington; Lake; Monast 
Philipps (I.); Bundle; Weston; Whi 
(C. B. B.). 

Page, Frederick: 

Dames; Monro. 
Paget, Grace Hartley, Lady: 

Paget (M. E. V.). 
Parker, John: 

Benson (F. R.); Grossmith; Homima, 

Lytton; Ropes (Adrian Ross). 
f Parker, Richard Barry: 

Unwin (R.). 
Parsons, Leonard Gregory: 

Barling. 
Pearson, Egon Sharpe : 

Gossett. 
Peel, Albert: 

Stewart (H.). 
Peers, Sir Charles Reed : 

Page (W.). 
Peirson, Lewis Guy: 

Meyrick. 
Petrie, Sir Charles Alexander, Bart. : 

Chamberlain (J. A.). 
•j-Phipps, Sir Edmund Bampfylde : 

Arthur of Connaught. 
•fPiTMAN, Charles Murray: 

Bourne (G. C). 
Playford, Humphrey Blake : 

Fairbaim. 
Powell-Price, John Cadwgan : 

Morison. 
PowiCKE, Sir Frederick Maurice : 

Norgate. 
•j-Previt^-Orton, Charles WiUiam: 

Whitney. 
Proctor, Philip Dennis : 

Dickinson. 
Purser, OUve: 

Purser. 

Ramsbottom, John: 

Rendle. 
Randell, Wilfrid Lawson : 

Crompton. 
Rattenbury, Owen Alfred: 

Perks. 
Redmayne, Sb Richard Augustine Studde 

Joicey; Merz. 
Reed, Sir Stanley : 

Lawrence (W. R.). 
Rice, David Talbot: 

Brown (G. B.). 
Richardson, Sir Owen Willans : 

Thomson (J. J.). 
Richmond, Sir Bruce Lyttelton: 

Buckle; Maitland. 
Richmond, Ian Archibald : 

Ashby. 
Ridley, Maurice Roy: 

Bradley. 
Risley, Sir John Shuckburgh : 

Lucas (C. P.). 
Ritchie, Sir John Douglas : 

Kearley (Devonport). 



List of Contributors 



RiVETT, Sir Albert Cherbury David : 


Simpson, Sir George Clarke : 


Masson. 


Schuster (A.). 


RoBBiNS, Lionel Charles: 


Simpson, Percy: 


Cannan. 


Herford. 


f Robertson, Sir Charles Grant : 


Singleton, Sir John Edward: 


Bain; Lodge (R.); Muirhead. 


Swift. 


Robertson, Donald Struan : 


SiTWELL, Sir Osbert, Bart. : 


Housman; Pearson (A. C). 


Sassoon. 


fRoBERTSON, Sir Robert : 


Smith, David Nichol: 


Mond; Petavel. 


Saintsbury. 


Robinson, Lennox: 


Smith, John Sandwith Boys: 


Gregory (I. A.). 


Creed. 


Rodd, Ernest Harry : 


Smith, Sidney: 


Armstrong. 


Budge. 


■fRoLLESTON, John Davy: 


Smith, Walter Campbell : 


Browne; Cheyne; Craxofurd; Garrod; Head; 


Hutchinson (A.); Thomas. 


Whitla. 


Southwell, Richard Vynne : 


Ross, Hugh Munro : 


Jenkin. 


Brennan; Buchanan (G. C); Clerk; Dew- 


Sparks, Hedley Frederick Davis : 


ranee; Edge; Hunter (G. B.); Mills (W.); 


White (A. J.). 


Snell. 


Spence, James Calvert: 


Ross, Sir WiUiam David : 


Murray (G. R.). 


Phelps; Smith (J. A.). 


Spencer, Leonard James : 


fRowE, Frederick Maurice : 


Ttaton. 


Peridn. 


Stanley, Carleton Wellesley: 


RuDMOSE Brown, Robert Neal : 


Borden; Gordon, C. W, (Ralph Connor); 


Freshfield; Jackson (F. G.); Watkins; Wild. 


Parker. 


Rudolf, Cyril de Montjoie : 


Stenton, Sir Frank Merry: 


Rudolf. 


Childs. 


Russell, Geoffrey William: 


Stevenson, John Alexander: 


Buckmaster. 


Foster (G. E.); Graham, H. (Aiholstan); 




McLennan; Macphail. 


Sadleir, Michael: 


Stewart, Hon. William Downie: 

Bell. 
Storrs, Sir Ronald : 


Benson (E. F.); Harraden; Savage {Ethel 
. M.Dell). 
fSANKEY, John Sankey, Viscount : 
Duke (Merrivale); Talbot (E. S.). 


Lawrence (T. E.). 
fSTURT, Henry: 

Slrhillpr 


Sansom, Sir George Bailey : 
Eliot. 


Sutherland, Halliday Gibson: 


Saunders, Hilary Aiden St. (Jeorge : 

Houston. 
Savory, Douglas Lloyd : 

Carson. 
ScHOLFiELD, Alwyn Faber : 

James. 
Schuster, Claud Schuster, Baron: 


Philip. 
Swan, Kenneth Raydon: 

Steel-Maitland. 
Swinnerton, Frank Arthur: 


Bennett; Harris, J. T. (Frank). 
SwiNTON, Sir Ernest Dunlop : 


Wilkinson (H. S.). 


Schuster (F. 0.). 




Scott, John Waugh : 


Tate, Sir Robert WiUiam: 


Mackenzie (J. S.). 


Ross (J.). 


fSEYMOUR, Sir Edward : 


Tatlow, Tissington: 


Victoria. 


Eraser (D.). 


fSHAW, Richard James Herbert : 


Tawney, Richard Henry: 


Healy (J. E.). 


Hobson (J. A.); Postan (Power). 


Shepherd, Edwin Colston : 


Taylor, Frank Sherwood : 


Mitchell; Salmond; Samson; Smith 


Gunther. 


(C. E. K.). 


Temple, Reginald Cecil: 


Shera, Frank Henry : 


Aston; Paris. 


Hadow {W. H.). 


Tennant, Frederick Robert : 


Shewring, Walter: 


Sorley. 


Gill. 


Tennyson-D'Eyncourt, Sir Eustace Henry 


Shuckburgh, Sir John Evelyn : 


William, Bart. : 


Dohhs. 


Biles; Yarrow. 


SiEPMANN, Harry Arthur: 


Thomas, Frederick William : 


Blackett. 


Waddell. 


Simon, John AUsebrook Simon, Viscount : 


Thomas, Ivor: 


Isaacs (Reading). 


Heath. 


Simpson, David Capell : 


Thomas, Mary Gwyneth Lloyd : 


Lock. 


Newall (Phillpotts). 



List of Contributors 



Thompson, Alexander Hamilton : 

Baillie (J. B.); Frere. 
Thompson, John Eric Sidney: 

Gann. 
Thomson, Gladys Scott: 

Russell, H. A. and M. du C. {Duke and 

Duchess of Bedford). 
Thursfield, Henry George : 

Duff; Fisher {W. W.); Jerram; Kelly; 

Ottley; Phillimore. 
TiLLEY, Cecil Edgar : 

Harlcer. 
TizARD, Sir Henry Thomas : 

Rutherford; Threlfall. 
Tobias, Theodore Cronhelm : 

Atkinson. 
ToMLiN, James William Sackett: 

Welldon. 
Tomlinson, Henry Major: 

Graham (R. B. C). 
ToYNBEE, Jocelyn Mary Catherine : 

Gardner (E. A. and P.). 
ToYNBEE, Margaret Ruth : 

Finberg; Wain. 
Trevelyan, George Macaulay: 

Grey. 
Tkewin, John Courtenay: 

Campbell (Mrs. P.); Terry (F.). 
Tucker, Bernard WilUam : 

Jourdain. 
TwYMAN, Frank: 

Taylor. 



Unwin, Sir Stanley: 
Macmillan {F. O.). 

fUTHWATT, Augustus 

Baron : 
Tomlin. 



Andrewes Uthwatt, 



Vaugeian Williams, Ralph : 
Hoist. 



Walker, Edward George: 

JJnvdn {W. C). 
f Walker, Ernest: 

Maitland. 
Wallace, William Stewart: 

Grenfell, 
Walshe, Francis Martin Rouse : 

Trotter. 
Wand, John William Charles, Bishop of 
London (W. Londin.) : 

Donaldson. 
Ward, Maisie (Mrs. Sheed): 

Chesterton. 



Watermeyer, Ernest Frederick, Chief 
Justice : 

Kotze. 
Waters, Sir George Alexander: 

Macpherson (Strathcarron). 
Watson, James Anderson Scott: 

Somerville. 
Watson, Sir Malcolm : 

Simpson (J. W. R.). 
f Watts, William Whitehead : 

Sollas. 
Weaver, John Reginald Homer: 

Hunt (W.). 
Wellington, Hubert Lindsay: 

Orpen. 
Whayman, William Matthias : 

Oram. 
Wheare, Kenneth Clinton : 

Morris; Ward, W. H. (Dudley). 
Wheeler, Sir Henry: 

Carlyle. 
Whittaker, Sir Edmund Taylor : 

Macdonald (H. M.); Sampson (R. A.). 
Whitworth, Geoffrey Arundel : 

Fagan; Playfair. 
Williams, Alwyn Terrell Petre, Bishop of 
Durham (Alwyn Dunehn.) : 

Gore. 
Wilson, Sir Horace John : 

Shackleton; Whitley. 
Wilson, James Bromley: 

Wilson (H. W.). 
Wilson, Sir James Steuart: 

Greene; Henschel. 
WiNFiELD, Percy Henry: 

Amos. 
Wood, Hon. Marion Evelyn : 

Ashton of Hyde. 
Wood, WilUam John : 

Bourne (F. A.). 
Woodruff, John Douglas : 

Guthrie (F. Anstey). 
Wright, Robert Alderson Wright, Baron: 

Pollock (F.). 
•fWROTTESLEY, Sir Fredcric John: 

Pollock, E. M. (Hanworth). 
Wyndham, Hon. Everard Humphrey: 

Bridges; Bulfin. 
Wyndham, Hon. Hugh Archibald: 

Bailey (A.); FitzPatrick. 

Young, Gerard Mackworth : 

Kipling. 
Young, Robert Arthur : 

Fowler (J. K.). 

Zimmern, Sir Alfred Eckhard : 
Wallas. 



CORRIGENDUM 

p. 195 Cox, Harold: /or 'is reputed . . . 1859' 

read 'was bom at Wimbledon, 16 August 1859' 



DICTIONAKY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



(TWENTIETH CENTURY) 
PERSONS WHO DIED 1931-1940 



Aberconway 



Abercrombie 



ABERCONWAY, first Baron (1850- 
1934), barrister and business man. [See 
McLaren, Charles Benjamin Bright.] 

ABERCROMBIE, LASCELLES (1881- 
1938), poet and critic, the fifth son, and 
the eighth of nine children, of Wilham 
Abercrombie, stockbroker, of Ashton- 
upon-Mersey, by his wife, Sarah Ann 
Heron, was born at Ashton 9 January 
1881. Even in boyhood he was devoted 
to music and letters ; his taste was fostered 
at a preparatory school, and also at Mal- 
vern College, where he read Greek and 
Latin eagerly. From 1900 to 1902 he read 
science at the Owens College, Manchester, 
but then turned to journalism for a living 
and to poetry for his vocation. He re- 
viewed much in the Liverpool daily press ; 
his first poem, 'Blind', appeared in 1907 
and his first volume of verse, Interludes 
and Poems, in 1908. In 1909 he married 
Catherine, daughter of Owen Gwatkin, 
surgeon, of Grange-over- Sands ; they had 
three sons and one daughter. After a stay 
of more than a year in Birkenhead he and 
his wife migrated first to Herefordshire 
and then (1911) to Gloucestershire, where, 
inspired by happiness and by the noble 
scenery, he published some of his best 
verse. It included Mary and the Bramble 
(1910), The Sale of St. Thomas, Act I 
(1911), and also some poetic plays in New 
Numbers, i-iv (1914), a periodical privately 
issued in partnership with Rupert Brooke, 
John Drinkwater [qq.v.], and Mr. Wilfrid 
Gibson. 

Abercrombie now came to be recognized 
as a leading poet of the new generation, 
distinguished for his lyrical power and 
speculative daring. He was praised by 
Robert Bridges for his lucid exposition of 
difficult themes. He responded profoundly 
to natural beauty; his love-poetry was 
ardent and exalted ; and the mystical and 
'metaphysical' strain was never far away. 



It is heard again in the prose of Speculative 
Dialogues (1913), with its musmgs on life 
and love and on the Last Things ; and also 
in several dramatic poems, such as Deborah 
(1912), which were not designed for the 
stage. But several were acted; of these 
the most notable is The End of the World 
(published in New Numbers), in which 
some homely folk are terrified by a false 
alarm that doomsday has arrived. 

Abercrombie was still to write his best 
verse, but his richest period of poetic pro- 
duction was over. The war of 1914-1918 
came as a grievous interruption. Although 
a keen patriot he was not strong enough 
for miUtary service and laboured in Liver- 
pool as an examiner of munitions. When 
peace came he was at a loss for employ- 
ment, but after a while funds were found 
for a lecturership in poetry at Liverpool 
University; this appointment, which he 
held from 1919 to 1922, was an event that 
was to affect his whole career. He spoke 
upon liis own craft; he held public 
audiences, not least by his rare gift for 
reading aloud ; and he taught small classes 
the outlines of literary criticism and of its 
history. Abercrombie now devoted him- 
self chiefly to prose, and pubUshed many 
critical studies, often based on the public 
lectures which he gave at Cambridge, at 
Baltimore, to the British Academy, and 
elsewhere. They include An Essay towards 
a Theory of Art (1922), Principles of 
English Prosody (1924), and Romanticism 
(1926). Poetry, its Music and Meaning 
(1932) is a felicitous statement of his 
artistic and critical convictions. The 
article on Thomas Hardy in this Diction- 
ary is eloquent of a lifelong admiration. 
A very active professor, Abercrombie 
rose quickly in the academic world. He 
occupied the chair of English literature 
at Leeds University from 1922 to 1929 
and was Hildred Carlile professor of Eng- 
lish literature in London University, at 



Abercrombie 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Bedford College for Women, from 1929 
to 1935. In 1935 he became Goldsmiths' 
reader in English at Oxford and a fellow 
of Merton College. He received honorary 
degrees from the universities of Cam- 
bridge, Manchester, and Belfast; held 
several special lecturerships, including the 
Clark lecturership at Trinity CoUege, Cam- 
bridge, in 1923, and was elected a fellow 
of the British Academy in 1937. But his 
health declined, and he died in London 
27 October 1938. 

In 1930 the Oxford University Press 
published (in 'The Oxford Poets') Aber- 
crombie's collected Poems, all but one, the 
richest and maturest of all, the completed 
Sale of St. Thomas (1931). Here, in a style 
which often rises to grandeur, he proclaims 
his faith in an omnipresent divine spirit 
embodying the law of ideal beauty. Aber- 
crombie deepened and ennobled English 
'metaphysical' poetry. He charged it 
anew with his passionate feeling for the 
essential beauty of nature and of human 
nature. The symbolism may be now and 
then excessive, or too difficult ; yet again 
and again, as in some of his early lyrics, 
in the stately choruses of 'Peregrinus', in 
'Marriage Song', and never better than 
in 'The Death of a Friar', he achieves 
either beauty, or strength, or magnificence, 
or aU these in harmony. 

[The Times, 28 October 1938 ; Oliver Elton, 
Lascelles Abercrombie, 1881—1938 in Proceed- 
ings of the British Academy, vol. xxv, 1939 
(portrait and bibliography) ; Wilfrid Gibson 
in English, vol. ii, No. 10, 1939 ; private in- 
formation ; personal knowledge.] 

Oliver Elton. 

ABERDEEN AND TEMAIR, first 
Marquess of (1847-1934), statesman, and 
ABERDEEN AND TEMAIR, Marchion- 
ess OF (1857-1939). [See Gordon, John 
Campbell.] 

ADAMS, Sir JOHN (1857-1934), educa- 
tionist, was born at Glasgow 2 July 1857, 
the son of Charles Adams, of that city, by 
his wife, Barbara McCallum. From St. 
David's School he entered the Jordanhill 
Training College and the university of 
Glasgow (1875), where he graduated with 
a first class in mental and moral science. 
He became headmaster of Jean Street 
school, Port-Glasgow, and afterwards 
rector of Campbeltown Grammar School. 
This experience of school practice formed 
a sound basis for his subsequent work as 
a trainer of teachers and as a luiiversity 
lecturer in education. In 1890 he was 



appointed principal of the Free Church 
Training College, Aberd^|^, and in 1898 
became rector of the Free Church Train- 
ing College, Glasgow. Here his connexion 
with university teaching began, for he 
then held the lecturership in education in 
the university of Glasgow. 

The year 1897 was noteworthy in 
Adams's career ; he not only had the local 
distinction of being president (from 1896) 
of the Educational Institute of Scotland, 
but gained much wider fame by the 
publication of a provocative httle book 
the forbidding title of which, Herbartian 
Psychology applied to Education, belied 
the sprightliness of its contents. 

The year 1902 was another important 
landmark in Adams's career. He visited 
Canada; published an account of the 
Protestant schools of the province of 
Quebec; was appointed principal of the 
London Day Training College ; and became 
the first professor of education in the uni- 
versity of London. For the next twenty 
years London was the main field of liis 
labours. He was pre-eminently the teacher 
of London teachers — not only teachers in 
training, but also teachers at work. For 
he lectured abundantly in the evenings as 
weU as in the day-time. After he had, in 
1922, retired from training college work 
and become emeritus professor, he set out 
on his journeys overseas, and by the 
delivery of series of lectures m the United 
States of America, South Africa, Australia, 
and New Zealand he became an inter- 
national figure in the world of education. 

Adams published many books, the most 
important of which, in addition to Her- 
bartian Psychology, are Exposition and 
Illustration in Teaching (1909), The Evolu- 
tion of Ediccational Theory (1912), The 
Student's Guide (1917), and Everyman's 
Psychology (1929). AU these works, like 
his lectures, are characterized by an easy 
style, a shrewd wisdom, and a 'pawky' 
humour. 

Adams was singularly happy in his 
marriage in 1893 to Agnes Anne, youngest 
daughter of John Cook, of Ashley, Aber- 
deen. There were no children. In 1925 
he was knighted for his services to educa- 
tion, and the honorary degree of LL.D. 
was conferred upon him by St. Andrews 
University. > 

As a lecturer Adams was a memorable 
figure. His impressive bald head, his 
Scottish accent, his clear, incisive style, 
and particularly his sly humour, rendered 
him attractive to audiences all over the 
British Empire. He died suddenly, as the 



2 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Alexander 



result of a stroke, at Los Angeles 30 Sep- 
tember 1934. 

[The Times, 2 October 1934 ; Titnes Edtica- 
tional Supplement, 6 October 1934; liecords 
of the Educational Institute of Scotland ; Sir 
Michael Sadler, John Adams (University of 
London Institute of Education, Studies and 
Reports, No. vi), 1985 ; personal knowledge.] 
P. B. Baixard. 

A E (pseudonym), Irish writer. [See 
Russell, George William.] 

ALEXANDER, SAMUEL (1859-1938), 
philosopher, the third son and fourth child 
of Samuel Alexander, an Australian, by 
his wife, Eliza Sloman, who came from 
Cape Town, was born at Sydney, New 
South Wales, 6 January 1859. His father, 
a saddler, died of consumption at the age 
of thirty-eight, shortly before his birth. 
His mother died in his house at Man- 
chester in 1917, having gone to live with 
him there, with the rest of her family, in 
1908. About 1868 the family left Sydney 
for St. Kilda, a suburb of Melbourne, and 
Alexander, after a varied early schooling, 
entered Wesley College, Melbourne, in 
1871. There, and in his two years at the 
university of Melbourne, where he held an 
exhibition, he gained all the distinctions 
open to him. In 1877, without completing 
his degree, he sailed for England on a 
voyage lasting 108 days, with the express 
purpose, bold in view of the family 
finances, of winning a scholarship at Ox- 
ford or Cambridge. Being advised that a 
scholarship at Balliol College, Oxford, 
might be beyond his reach, he prudently 
entered for one at Lincoln College as well, 
and did not succeed. But he won his 
scholarship at Balliol. Lincoln made 
amends by electing him to a fellowship in 
1882. Its choice was amply justified by 
the sustained distinction of Alexander's 
undergraduate career, for he obtained 
first classes in mathematical and classical 
moderations (1879) and in literae human- 
iores (1881). According to the Jewish 
Chronicle (5 May 1882) this was the first 
election of a professing Jew to a fellow- 
ship in either of the ancient English 
universities. 

Alexander retained his fellowship for 
eleven years, residing in Oxford except 
for the period between the end of 1888 and 
the June of 1891. The break, originally 
designed to be permanent, was due partly 
to his desire to mingle with a wider world, 
partly to his determination to increase his 
proficiency in experimental psychology. In 



pursuit of the latter aim he studied imder 
Hugo Miinsterberg at Freiburg-im-Breis- 
gau ; in pursuit of the former, he lectured 
at Toynbee Hall, Whitechapel, and busied 
himself in other ways with the populariza- 
tion of academic subjects. These activi- 
ties grew out of the settled policy of his 
mind, in or out of Oxford. In Oxford he 
was one of the rebels who thought that 
the course in 'Greats' needed quickening 
from modern science, especially psy- 
chology. He lectured on that subject to 
any, dons or undergraduates, who were 
sufficiently interested to attend super- 
numerary courses. The same policy 
directed Alexander's occasional writings 
and his first book. Moral Order and Pro- 
gress (1889), an expansion of his essay for 
the Green moral philosophy prize which 
he had won in 1887. It may still be what 
in its day it was widely believed to be, the 
best systematic general treatise on evolu- 
tionary ethics in the English language. 
Ir^ his preface Alexander expressed his 
'present dissent from Green's funda- 
mental principles' and added: 'I have 
come to the ideas, borrowed from biology 
and the theory of evolution, which are 
prevalent in modern ethics, with a train- 
ing derived from Aristotle and Hegel, and 
I have found, not antagonism but, on the 
whole, fulfilment.' 

In 1898 Alexander became professor of 
philosophy at the university of Man- 
chester, where he taught for thirty-one 
years. It was a happy appointment. Even 
the physical climate of 'dear old sooty 
Manchester' was tolerably congenial to 
him. In its university, while he had rather 
too many courses to give, their variety 
stimulated him, and, his classes being 
small, he could think aloud as he lectured. 
His academic influence soon extended far 
beyond his lecture-room. Indeed, he was 
of the stuff of which legends are made in 
advance of the subject's actions. His 
width of interests, his vmstudied, notor- 
ious, picturesque untidiness, his catholic 
understanding of whatever was young 
almost compelled this result. Long before 
he reached the peak of his fame he had 
become a focus for admiration and for vast 
affection in the university and in the city. 
He was prominent in the university's more 
public activities, especially in the move- 
ment for providing university residences 
for women. In an extra-academic way his 
feminist principles made him favour the 
cause, although not always the tactics, of 
the lively local advocates of women's 
suffrage. 



Alexander 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



As the years passed, many of his friends 
began to fear that Alexander's wide know- 
ledge and his highly original powers would 
never find expression in print. A very few 
articles and an admirable little book on 
Locke (1908) were inadequate counter- 
evidence. By 1907, however, according 
to his own modest statement, he had come 
to believe that he might have something 
to say. He took his cue, in a measure, 
from the 'realist' principle of Dr. G. E. 
Moore's 'Refutation of Idealism' {Mind, 
1903), but unlike many contemporary 
'realists' was never content with polemi- 
cal forays into the theory of knowledge, 
lie was always bent upon a comprehensive 
system of ontological metaphysics, and 
this attitude, at the time, raised excep- 
tional interest and expectation in the 
small world of technical British philo- 
sophy. The interest grew as Alexander in 
a series of presidential addresses to the 
Aristotelian Society (1908-1911: he was 
again president, 1936-1937) and in articles 
in Mind (1912-1913) attempted the ex- 
ploratory work which, as he always main- 
tained, should precede the composition of 
a serious philosophical treatise. When the 
university of Glasgow, shortly before the 
war of 1914-1918, invited him to become 
its Gifford lecturer, there was a general be- 
lief that he would use the opportunity to 
complete the huge task for which he had 
been preparing so sedulously for at least 
seven years. 

An elaborate essay, The Basis of Real- 
ism, published for the British Academy in 
1914, tlie year after he had been elected 
a fellow of that body, is an admirable 
summary of the results which Alexander 
had reached during this preparatory 
period. The Gifford lectures themselves, 
given in the war years 1917 and 1918, 
were called 'Space, Time, and Deity'. 
Strenuously revised, but not very much 
altered, they were published under the 
same title (although Alexander much pre- 
ferred the hyphenated form 'space-time') 
in two substantial volumes in 1920. By 
that time the issue of ' realism' had become 
subordinate in the author's philosophy, 
although, if the name matters, he remained 
a realist, holding that mind takes its place 
among the differentiated compresents in 
space-time. Primarily Alexander was a 
metaphysician who attempted to describe 
and 'identify in concrete experience' 'the 
ultimates which the sciences left over'. 
Whatever is, he maintained, is a specifica- 
tion of space-time, either a 'categorial' 
(or wholly pervasive) attribute of space- 



time, or, like the neural process which is 
'enjoyed' as personal experience, some- 
thing 'empirical' (i.e. non-pervasive) 
which nevertheless evolves or 'emerges' 
from the 'continuum of motions' which 
is the ultimate matrix space-time. Deity 
is the stage beyond mind, as yet unaccom- 
plished but descriptive of a nisus in space- 
time towards a specific accomplishment 
which, just because it expresses the march 
of things, should receive the reverent 
acquiescence of 'natural piety'. 

The value of the book has to be esti- 
mated by the vision, skill, and resolution 
with which it pursued its sweeping design. 
It is only accurate to say that, after 
Hobbes, no English philosopher, before 
Alexander, had built in accordance with 
so ambitious an architectural plan or had 
given comparable attention to the pro- 
portion and solidity of all the parts of his 
edifice. In less than a decade the general 
opinion was that the book marked the end 
of an epoch rather than a fresh beginning, 
and Alexander himself considered that the 
future was with A. N. Whitehead, rather 
than with himself, so far as such a philo- 
sophy had a future. He preferred to let 
his book stand with very few published 
afterthoughts, although his essay on 
Spinoza and Time (1921) is an important 
supplement. Probably several decades 
must elapse before a verdict can be given 
with the relative finality which such cases 
permit. Whatever that later verdict may 
be, it is undeniable, in the interim, that 
Alexander was a great philosophical archi- 
tect whose skill and resourcefulness deserve 
abiding recognition. In himself he was 
modest although not self-depreciating. He 
wrote and planned in the grand manner 
simply because no other maimer suited 
his theme. 

Alexander resigned his chair in 1924, 
but continued to reside in Manchester in 
honoured and busy tranquillity. Man- 
chester's pride in him seemed to increase 
with his years. In its university he pre- 
sented for honorary degrees until 1930, 
in a memorably delightful way. His fairly 
frequent public lectures were eagerly 
attended in Manchester and elsewhere. 
At philosophical congresses he held as of 
right the unofficial position of the fore- 
most British philosopher, distinguished in 
appearance, matter, manner, and beauty 
of voice, sensitive to the meeting's mind, 
and overcoming the lifelong handicap of 
his deafness in the most charming manner 
imaginable. His main interest in these 
closing years was in literature and aesthetic 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Allen, p. S. 



theory. This is shown in several of the 
essays published after his death in Philo- 
sophical and Literary Pieces (1939) and in 
his last book, Beauty and Other Forms of 
Value (1933). Here, despite the perils of 
a refractory and elusive subject, Alex- 
ander's delicate ear for verbal music, his 
love of the illuminating magic of appro- 
priate imagery, and his vivid psychological 
interest in the mind and methods of great 
artists in many spheres of art made his 
book, if not altogether great, something 
more than merely a great man's book. 

Alexander died at Manchester 13 Septem- 
ber 1938, and his ashes lie in the section 
reserved for the British Jewish Reform 
Congregation in Manchester Southern 
cemetery. He was unmarried. He received 
honorary degrees from the universities of 
St. Andrews, Durham, Oxford, Birming- 
ham, Liverpool, and Cambridge, and was 
appointed to the Order of Merit in 1930. 
He was elected an honorary fellow of 
Lincoln College in 1918 and of Balliol 
College in 1925. In the latter year his 
friends presented him with a bust by 
Jacob Epstein : it is now in the hall of the 
Arts Building of Manchester University. 

[The Times, 14 September 1938 ; The Times 
Literary Supplement, 23 March 1940 ; J. Laird, 
Samuel Alexander, 1859—1938 in Proceedings 
of the British Academy, vol. xxiv, 1938 ; 
Memoir prefixed to Philosophical and Literary 
Pieces (containing a bibliography) ; private 
information ; personal knowledge.] 

John Laird. 



ALLEN, PERCY STAFFORD (1869- 
1933), president of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, and Erasmian scholar, was born 
at Twickenham 7 July 1869, the younger 
son and fourth child of Joseph Allen, a 
London bill-broker, by his wife, Mary, 
youngest daughter of Hans David Chris- 
topher Satow, and sister of the diplomatist 
and historian Sir E. M. Satow [q.v.]. 
Percy Allen was educated at Clifton, and 
at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where 
he was a scholar. He obtained a first class 
in classical moderations in 1890 and a 
second class in literae humaniores in 1892. 
In 1893 he travelled with a pupil in 
Australia and New Zealand. Returning 
to Oxford at the end of that year, he won 
the chancellor's prize for a Latin essay in 
the summer of 1894. In 1896 he became 
a master at Magdalen School, Oxford, and 
in 1897 was appointed professor of history 
in the Government CoUege at Lahore. In 
the summer of 1898 he visited England, 
marrying in September his cousin, Helen 



Mary, daughter of Arthur John Allen, of 
Chislehurst. They had one child, who died 
at birth. The climate of India seriously 
affected the health both of himself and 
his wife, and in 1901 he resigned his Lahore 
professorship and returned to Oxford, 
where the rest of his life was spent. In 
1908 he was elected to a fellowship at 
Merton, which he held for sixteen years, 
and he was elected an honorary fellow in 
1925. In 1924 he was elected president of 
Corpus. He received honorary degrees 
from several British and foreign univer- 
sities, was elected a fellow of the British 
Academy in 1923, and was a foreign, 
honorary, or extraordinary member of 
several Dutch and Belgian academies and 
learned societies. He died at Oxford 
16 June 1933. 

Allen's name will always be associated 
with his masterly edition of the Letters 
of Erasmus, Opu^ Epistolarum Des. Erasmi 
Roterdami, of which the first volume ap- 
peared in 1906 and the eighth was pub- 
lished posthumously in 1934 ; he left it to 
Mrs. Allen (his collaborator since 1922) 
and Mr. Heathcote William Garrod to com- 
plete the last three volumes, for which he 
had collected the materials, but without 
furnishing commentary and introductions 
(vol. ix appeared in 1938, vol. x in 1941, 
vol. xi in 1947). Allen's interest in Erasmus 
dated from 1892, when, immediately after 
taking his first degree, he competed, un- 
successfully, for the chancellor's English 
essay prize. The subject was Erasmus. A 
year later (1893-1894) he attended for two 
successive terms Froude's lectures on ' The 
Life and Letters of Erasmus'. Froude 
influenced him profoundly. To the end, 
he maintained that the Life and Letters 
(published in 1894) was better than any 
other book on Erasmus. On the day on 
which Froude died, he began to read the 
History of England; and he was never will- 
ing to listen to disparagement of it. His 
first published book was a volume of 
Selections from the Writings of James 
Anthony Froude, which appeared in 1901. 
His errorless scholarship and his gentle, 
impartial temper make his admiration for 
Froude seem paradoxical. But he was a 
man incapable of paradox. The truth is 
that, on the main issues of the Reforma- 
tion, he thought that Froude was right. 

During his four years in India Froude 
and Erasmus were always with Allen. 
While at Lahore he was already projecting 
his edition of Erasmus's correspondence, 
for which, indeed, he had made extensive 
collections in the libraries of Holland and 



Allen, P. S. 



D.N.B. 1031-1940 



Germany between the years 1893 and 
1896. After his return to Oxford in 1901, 
he spent the summer of every year (the 
years of the war of 1914-1918 only 
excepted) in the Ubraries of the conti- 
nent, collating all the known material and 
bringing to light an immense amount of 
material hitherto unknown. Every letter 
was copied fair in the library where the 
manuscript of it (or the first printed text) 
was to be found. The copy so made 
became the ' printer's copy ', with no inter- 
vening transcript. The proof of each letter 
was always corrected in the library where 
the original copy had been made. In the 
decipherment of difficult fifteenth- and 
sixteenth-century hands Allen had no 
rival. There resulted a critical edition of 
the letters of Erasmus which is perhaps 
the most accurate book in the world. 
Text apart, it is, in its commentary and 
introduction, a treasure-house of un- 
borrowed learning. Nobody knew the 
texts of the Reformation so well as AUen. 
To nobody were the lives of the great and 
little men of the period so intimately 
famUiar. The commentary is full of bio- 
graphical notices which array in brief all 
the available material. Often the persons 
whose lives or works are sketched are 
persons obscure or insignificant. But 
Allen knew them and their writings, and 
anything that anybody else had written 
about them, at first hand. It was not for 
nothing that Ingram Bywater [q.v.] in 
1915 called him 'the most learned man 
in Oxford'. The Opus Epistolarum is, in 
truth, one of the great monuments of 
English learning. As a commentary on 
the Reformation it has the defect, per- 
haps, of leaving too much to the reader. 
Allen was unwiiling to make historical 
judgements, or moral judgements. The 
student will not discover from Allen (al- 
though he may do so from the Letters) 
what kind of a man Erasmus was, or any- 
body connected with him. The material 
for judgement is there ; but it is presented 
with a scrupulosity and bareness which 
sometimes achieves the effect of a sup- 
pressio veri. Often the reader sighs for 
something of Froude's partisanship. 

Besides the Opus Epistolarum Allen 
published, in 1914, eleven lectures on The 
Age of Erasmus. In 1929 he and his wife 
edited the Letters of Richard Fox, 1486- 
1527, the correspondence of the founder of 
Corpus. In 1934 appeared posthumously 
another volume of Erasmian studies, 
Erasmus: Lectures and Wayfaring Sketches. 
In 1939 a selection of his letters was pub- 



lished, the greater number of them ad- 
dressed to his lifelong friend Sir Aurel 
Stein. The letters exhibit happily a 
scholar of single-minded devotion and a 
man of lovable and saintly character. 

A portrait of Allen, painted by Herbert 
Olivier in 1929, hangs in the president's 
lodgings at Corpus Christi College. 

[H. W. Garrod, Percy Stafford Allen, 1S69~ 
1933 in Proceedings of the British Academy, 
vol. xix, 1933 ; Oxford Magazine, 12 October 
1933 ; Letters of P. S. Allen, edited by H. M. 
Allen, 1939 ; P. S. Allen's diaries ; personal 
knowledge.] H. W. Garbod. 

ALLEN, REGINALD CLIFFORD, 
Baron Allen of Hurt wood (1889- 
1939), labour politician, was born at New- 
port, Monmouthshire, 9 May 1889, the 
elder son of Walter Allen, a Newport 
draper, by his wife, Frances Augusta 
Baker. He was educated at Berkhamsted 
School, University College, Bristol, and 
Peterhouse, Cambridge. His political 
interests were first aroused by hearing 
J. Keir Hardie [q.v.] as a boy at Newport ; 
and at Cambridge he was chairman of the 
University Fabian Society. In 1911 he 
was appointed secretary and general 
manager of the first official labour daily 
newspaper, the Daily Citizen, xmtil it 
ceased in 1915. He was also chairman of 
the University Socialist Federation from 
1912 to 1915. 

In November 1914 he was one of the 
founders and the chairman of the 'No 
Conscription Fellowship', the members of 
which opposed the military service acts 
and refused service in the armed forces, 
some, like Allen, also refusing to perform 
'alternative service', on conscientious 
grounds. While chairman of the fellow- 
ship (1914-1918) he was three times 
imprisoned during the years 1916 and 
1917, and the hunger strikes which he 
sustained almost cost him his life and 
certainly undermined a naturally frail 
physique. 

In 1920 AUen visited Russia as a mem- 
ber of a delegation representing the inde- 
pendent labour party, of which he was 
an active officer, serving (1922-1926) as 
chairman and treasurer, and as chairman of 
the New Leader, its official weekly journal. 
He contributed by counsel, speech, and 
pen to the ' Socialism in Our Time' propa- 
ganda which the independent labour party 
conducted in the 'twenties. So long as 
the official labour movement was solely 
responsible for its publication he was a 
director of the Daily Herald (1925-1930). 



6 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



AUenby 



When the labour government dissolved 
in 1931, Allen joined Ramsay MacDonald 
in the national labour organization, and 
approved its collaboration in the ' national ' 
government formed in that year; he was 
raised to the peerage as Baron Allen of 
Hurtwood, in Surrey, in 1932. He was a 
keen and informed supporter of the League 
of Nations and severed his connexion with 
the national labour group in 1936, owing 
to disagreement on this aspect of inter- 
national policy. After meeting Hitler and 
Goring in Berlin, in 1935, Allen wrote and 
spoke extensively in favour of collective 
security. 

Intensely interested in educational 
affairs, Allen of Hurtwood was chairman 
of the executive of the Home and School 
Council and chairman of the New Schools 
Association. He married in 1921 Marjory, 
second daughter of George Joseph Gill, 
and with her conducted a co-educational 
school on modern lines near Guildford. 
He published various political works, a 
preface to Conscription and Conscience 
(1922), Putting Socialism into Practice 
(1924), Socialism and the next Labour 
Government (1925), Labour's Future at 
Stake (1932), Britain's Political Future 
(1934), and Peace in Our Time (1936), in 
addition to many articles in newspapers 
and reviews. 

Suffering from a complete breakdown 
in 1938, Allen of Hurtwood was taken to 
Switzerland, and died at Montana-Vermala 
3 March 1939. After cremation his ashes, 
at his own request, were scattered in the 
Lake of Geneva. His only child was a 
daughter and the peerage therefore became 
extinct. 

A portrait of Allen of Hurtwood, by 
Colin Gill, is at Hurtwood House, Albury, 
Guildford. 

[The Times, 4 March 1939 ; private informa- 
tion ; personal knowledge.] 

J. S. MiDDLETON. 

ALLENB Y, EDMUND HENRY HYN- 

MAN, first Viscount Allenby of Megid- 
DO (1861-1936), field-marshal, was born 
23 April 1861 on the estate of his maternal 
grandfather, Brackenhurst, near South- 
well, Nottinghamshire. He was the eldest 
son and second child of Hynman Allenby, 
a country gentleman, by his wife, Catherine 
Anne, daughter of the Rev. Thomas Coats 
Cane. From the year of their marriage 
(1859) until that of Edmund's birth his 
parents had lived at Dartmouth. Soon 
afterwards they purchased Felixstowe 
House, in Suffolk, and West Bilney Lodge, 



with a considerable estate, in Norfolk. 
The family thenceforth spent spring and 
summer at Felixstowe, autumn and winter 
at West Bilney. Young Allenby grew up 
in close contact with the life and sport of 
the countryside. He rode, shot, fished, 
and sailed, and he early acquired the 
ornithological and botanical interests 
which were to remain with him all his life. 

Allenby was educated at Haileybury, 
a new public school founded the year 
after his birth, and at the Royal Military 
College, Sandhurst. It had been his 
original intention to enter the Indian civil 
service, but he failed to pass the entrance 
examinations in 1879 and 1880, when 
there were vacancies for only about one- 
seventh of the candidates. His next choice 
was the army. He was not particularly 
distinguished at work or sport at Hailey- 
bury but he passed well into and out of 
Sandhurst, where he was an under-officer 
in his last term. In May 1882 he was 
gazetted to a commission in the Innis- 
killings (6th Dragoons). He was then a 
big, strong, good-looking young man, 
somewhat clumsy in build, although his 
weight did not increase unduly to his 
dying day. His eye had been trained for 
observation of country, and he possessed 
a strong and dominating character, physi- 
cal and moral courage, and presence of 
mind, so that he had good prospects in 
his career. 

The Inniskillings were stationed in 
South Africa, and Allenby gained invalu- 
able experience in two little expeditions, 
both bloodless, or nearly so, into Bechu- 
analand (1884-1885) and Zululand (1888), 
as well as knowledge of people and country 
which were to serve him well later on. In 
1886 he went home for two years' service 
at the cavalry depot at Canterbury. He 
was promoted captain early in 1888, the 
year of his return, and appointed adjutant 
next year. It was noted by his brother 
officers that the new responsibility not 
only made him take his profession much 
more seriously but also induced a certain 
grimness of disposition. 

The regiment returned to England in 
1890, and in 1896 Allenby passed into the 
Staff College, by competition, at a time 
when few cavalrymen entered except by 
nomination. He made no outstanding 
mark in his military studies but was 
popular with his fellow students, and was 
elected master of the drag hounds in 
preference to Douglas (afterwards Earl) 
Haig, a better horseman than himself. He 
passed out with a good report. While at 



Allenby 

Camberley he had been promoted major 
in May 1897, and qualified as an army 
interpreter in French. He had also married, 
in 1896, Adelaide Mabel, daughter of 
Horace Edward Chapman, of Donhead 
House, Salisbury. In March 1898 he 
became what would now be termed 
brigade-major but was then termed ad- 
jutant to the 3rd Cavalry brigade at the 
Curragh, in Ireland. While he was hold- 
ing this appointment his only child, a son, 
was bom. 

Allenby rejoined his regiment the follow- 
ing year on the outbreak of the South 
African war. Shrewd and cautious, with 
knowledge of the character and qualities 
of his adversary, he fell into none of the 
traps laid by the Boers, and it was due 
to his good work in the operations round 
Colesberg that his squadron was chosen 
as part of the cavalry division formed 
under General French for the relief of 
Kimberley in the early part of 1900. In 
the numerous small actions or marches 
with convoys his losses were small. 

Early in 1900 Allenby assumed tempor- 
ary command of his regiment at Bloem- 
fontein and with it took part in the main 
advance to Pretoria. His great chance 
came with the final period between Janu- 
ary 1901 and May of the following year, 
when the Boers remaining under arms had 
been reduced to a handful of picked men, 
not exceeding 50,000 even at the outset, 
yet brilliantly manoeuvred against the 
numerous columns sent out to round them 
up and to clear the country. In these 
trying operations he commanded a column, 
generally of two regiments of cavalry, 
artillery, and half a battalion of infantry. 
He suffered no reverse and never lost a 
convoy, and at the end of the war had 
established a sound if not a spectacular 
reputation. He received brevet promotion 
to colonel and was appointed C.B. 

Allenby began his home service, which 
was to last until the outbreak of war 
twelve years later, in command of the 
5th Royal Irish Lancers at Colchester. In 
October 1905, as a brigadier-general, he 
took over command of the 4th Cavalry 
brigade. In September 1909 he was pro- 
moted major-general, and after some six 
months on half-pay, during which he 
visited ^outh Africa, was appointed 
inspector-general of cavalry. So far he 
had been generally popular in the army 
and with his subordinates, but his always 
high temper was now becoming even less 
imder control and his roughness of manner 
was unwelcome to the staffs and regi- 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



mental officers. On the outbreak of wai 
in 1914 he was appointed to the command 
of the unwieldy cavalry division, of which 
the brigades had seldom trained together, 
to accompany the British Expeditionary 
Force to France. 

Allenby's conduct of his command 
the retreat from Mons is a matter which 
has aroused controversy. By some he is 
held to have displayed weakness in losing 
control of a large proportion of it, while 
others consider that circumstances would 
have been too much for any commander 
in his position. It is tmiversally acknow- 
ledged, however, that he showed coolness 
and resolution throughout and that the 
rear and flanks of the retreating British 
infantry corps were effectively protected 
from a superior force of German cavalry. 
In the advance to the Aisne the cavalry 
was handled with a prudence approaching 
timidity, but that was in part founded on 
orders from British headquarters and in 
part upon reactions from previous over- 
confidence, in which, however, Allenby 
himself had never shared. 

Five British cavalry brigades were now 
formed into two divisions of more manage- 
able size, and after the transfer of the 
Expeditionary Force from the Aisne to 
Flanders these became the Cavalry Corps, 
to the command of which Allenby was 
appointed. In the first battle of Ypres 
(19 October-22 November) the cavalry 
performed magnificent service. One of the 
decisive elements in the British defence 
proved to be the skill of the dismounted 
trooper with the rifle, for which the former 
inspector-general must be given at least 
part of the credit. In fighting of this 
nature there was little that a corps com- 
mander could effect beyond maintaining 
a reserve for the ugliest situations, and 
this Allenby contrived to do. On 6 May 
1915 he took over command of the V Corps 
in the midst of the second battle of Ypres, 
which had opened with the German gas 
attack. Later in the year he carried out 
local operations in support of offensives 
farther south, but his efforts were rendered 
abortive by superior German observation 
and equipment. 

In October 1915 Allenby was appointed 
to the command of the newly formed 
Third Army north of the Somme. He was 
not, however, destined to take part in the 
battle, as in the following March his army 
side-slipped northward to relieve the 
French in front of Arras. He was by this 
time identified with the costly and some- 
what unimaginative methods on which the 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



AUenby 



offensives and counter-attacks had been 
conducted, but it should be recognized 
that his loyalty to his superiors was so 
complete that he always fulfilled his orders 
to the letter and allowed no criticism even 
in the bosom of his own military family, 
his staff. His nickname of 'the Bull', 
dating from days of peace, had by now 
become universal. 

The outstanding episode in AUenby's 
military career in Europe was the battle 
of Arras in 1917. The plan had been to a 
certain extent compromised by the Ger- 
man retreat to the Hindenburg Line, 
which extended on its northern flank to 
the front of his right corps and necessi- 
tated an improvisation of dispositions 
prejudicial to its chances of success. In 
an effort to obtain a measure of surprise 
Ailenby had decided to cut down the 
length of the preliminary bombardment, 
at the same time intensifying it by in- 
creasing the rate of fire. This project met 
with objections from general headquarters 
resulting in a compromise by which the 
bombardment was to cover four days 
instead of the forty-eight hours proposed 
by him. As the attack was postponed by 
one day to suit the French, the bombard- 
ment was in fact increased to five days. 
The object of the Third Army's offensive 
was to break the German defences between 
Arras and Cambrai while the First Army 
on the left captured the Vimy ridge. The 
attack was launched on Easter Monday, 
9 April, a day punctuated by squalls of 
snow and sleet, which, however, blew in 
the faces of the enemy. Although the 
right-hand corps made only limited pro- 
gress, the main attack on the first day 
was remarkably successful. The maxi- 
mum advance, just north of the Scarpe, 
was three and a half miles, believed to be 
the longest carried out by any belligerent 
on the western front since trench warfare 
had set in. As so often in that war, however, 
the success was not exploited. The com- 
plete breach through which it had been 
hoped to pass the Cavalry Corps was never 
fully opened or cleared of wire. The Ger- 
mans made a partial recovery and brought 
up some reinforcements. The fighting de- 
generated into costly local actions, until 
Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, the com- 
mander-in-chief, ordered a pause on the 
14th to reorganize for a further co- 
ordinated attack. This, known officially 
as the second battle of the Scarpe, was 
launched on 23 April and achieved only 
limited success after very heavy fighting. 
A third attempt, on 3 IVIay (the third 



battle of the Scarpe), was disastrous. 
Against AUenby's will the assault was 
carried out in darkness, and the half- 
trained reinforcements with which the 
ranks of the divisions had been filled fell 
into confusion. 

Meanwhile a new commander M'as 
wanted in Palestine, where the British 
had suffered a sharp check in April in 
front of Gaza. Ailenby was known as a 
man of abounding energy and it was con- 
sidered that he would be more likely to 
give of his best outside the orbit of Haig. 
The two men were uncongenial to each 
other and Ailenby always felt himself 
tongue-tied in the presence of the com- 
mander-in-chief. He assumed command 
of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force at 
the end of June 1917, and, as soon as the 
move could be carried out, transferred 
general headquarters to the Palestine 
border, close behind the front. He came 
like a fresh breeze to the somewhat dis- 
pirited troops. As he drove from camp to 
camp for brief visits of inspection he con- 
trived to impress his personality upon 
them. The independently minded Austra- 
lians took to him at once and gave him 
their full confidence. It was a promising 
beginning to his command. He received 
most of the reinforcements which he 
demanded, bringing his army to a strength 
of seven infantry and three mounted 
divisions. 

AUenby's plan, largely based upon an 
appreciation put forward by Lieutenant- 
General Sir Philip Chetwode, and the work 
of his staff officer, Brigadier-General Guy 
Payan Dawnay, was to capture Beersheba, 
on the Turkish left, then roll up the 
enemy's centre and net the largest possible 
proportion of the forces between it and 
the coast by a sweep with his three 
mounted divisions. It was a difficult 
operation in which every move depended 
upon the capture of water supplies for 
men, horses, and camels. The attack on 
Beersheba began on 31 October. The 
opening stages of the offensive were bril- 
liantly successful, but, as so often happens 
in a campaign of this type, there were 
some delays and the cavalry became more 
dispersed than was desirable. As a con- 
sequence, although the Turks suffered 
heavily, their main body escaped envelop- 
ment. Meanwhile, however, AUenby's left 
had broken through at Gaza. He immedi- 
ately transferred all available transport to 
this flank, leaving much of the rest of the 
force temporarily inunobilized round the 
railhead, and drove the enemy northward 



9 



AUenby 



D.N.B, 1931-1940 



up the Philistine plain, beyond Jaffa, to 
the Nahr el Auja. 

Allenby then decided to wheel a strong 
force into the hills and capture Jerusalem 
— which for religious and political reasons 
it was important not to harm — by envelop- 
ment between this force and another ad- 
vancing northward from Beersheba up 
the road through Hebron. He penetrated 
without excessive difficulty almost to the 
Nablus road, but then his XXI Corps 
and Yeomanry mounted division became 
Involved in fierce and bloody fighting. 
To the east progress was blocked ; to the 
north the thinly held British flank was 
fiercely counter-attacked by the able 
and energetic hostile commander-in-chief, 
General (Marshal in the Turkish army) 
von Falkenhayn. Floods in the plain 
delayed the movement of supplies. But 
the flank held and the supply situation 
gradually improved, Allenby brought up 
the XX Corps. Another assault proved 
successful, and on 9 December Jerusalem 
was surrendered intact to Allenby, who 
made his impressive ceremonial entry on 
foot into the holy city on 11 December. 
During the following days a counter- 
offensive was defeated and the front ad- 
vanced to a distance sufficiently far north 
and east of the city to ensure its safety. 
The Turks had suffered some 28,000 
casualties, almost half as many again as 
those of the British. 

Allenby was called upon by the govern- 
ment to exploit his success to the extent 
of driving Turkey right out of the war, 
but his attitude was cautious. Storms 
prevented the unloading of supplies on 
the coast. Railway construction was re- 
quired. While it was in progress he pro- 
posed to operate against the enemy 
beyond Jordan, on the Hejaz railway. 
His plans were finally approved, but all 
hope of a major offensive early in 1918 
was removed by the success of the German 
offensives of March and April in France. 
Heavy demands fell upon the Egyptian 
Expeditionary Force for reinforcements. 
Two whole divisions, nine yeomanry regi- 
ments, twenty -three infantry battalions, 
heavy artillery, machine-gun battalions, 
etc., were withdrawn. Their place was 
taken by two Indian divisions, and by 
Indian cavalry regiments and infantry 
battalions, the latter being in many cases 
raw and without experienced officers or 
specialists. The spring and summer were 
occupied in reorganization and training, 
and it was not until mid-September that 
Allenby was ready for his next main 



stroke. His operations beyond Jordan 
were not particularly successful, but they 
caused acute anxiety to the new Turkish 
commander-in-chief, the German Liman 
von Sanders. Allenby accentuated this by 
keeping a strong force in the low-lying 
Jordan valley despite its torrid heat and 
other discomforts. 

On his arrival Allenby had taken over 
from his predecessor and strengthened the 
policy of assisting the Arabs in the Hejaz 
and Trans -Jordan in revolt against the 
Turks. He worked through a body of able 
officers, of whom the most outstanding 
was Colonel T. E. Lawrence [q.v.]. Much 
had already been effected in breaching 
the Hejaz railway and locking up garrisons 
at Medina, Ma'an, and elsewhere along the 
line. In his final offensive he called upon 
the Arabs, now partly organized as semi- 
regular forces, to keep the Turks engaged 
round the vital station of Der'a, the junc- 
tion of the Hejaz and Palestinian systems, 
to interrupt the traffic in any case, and if 
possible to block it altogether. It was the 
one key objective which he could not reach 
quickly himself. Arab activity also in- 
creased Turkish fears of a British thrust 
on this flank, and they were strengthened 
by a number of skilful ruses. 

It was actually Allenby's intention to 
attack on the left, in the coastal plain, mass- 
ing the bulk of his forces of all arms in that 
sector, carrying out with the infantry of 
the XXI Corps a huge right wheel to drive 
the enemy into the hills and open a gate- 
way for three cavalry divisions concen- 
trated immediately in the rear. These 
were to cross the Samarian ridge which 
ends with Mount Carmel above the Bay 
of Acre, sweep down into the Plain of 
Esdraelon (or Megiddo), and pass through 
the Valley of Jezreel down to the Jordan 
near Beisan, thus throwing a net round 
the Turkish armies. Allenby possessed a 
superiority of four to one in cavalry, about 
six to four — the exact figures on the Turk- 
ish side are still a matter of dispute — in 
infantry, and nearly three to two in artil- 
lery. He had complete command of the 
air, so that his concentration could be 
carried out unobserved. His troops were 
fit and well found, whereas the Turks were 
ill supplied and ragged. 

The assault was launched at 4.30 a.m. on 
19 September with complete success. The 
two leading cavalry divisions entered the 
gateway before 9 a.m. They carried out 
their great drive against only scattered 
opposition. The hostile commander-in- 
chief was surprised in his headquarters at ( 



10 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Allenby 



Nazareth and narrowly escaped capture in 
person. The 4th Cavalry division reached 
Beisan after covering over seventy miles 
in thirty-four hours. The Turkish forces 
west of Jordan were almost completely 
destroyed. Their transport was smashed 
by the Royal Air Force in defiles. Those 
down the Hejaz railway were trapped at 
Amman, and those east of Jordan harried 
and hunted by the Arabs. The remnant 
streamed north towards Damascus. Allen- 
by ordered the cavalry to push on to that 
city, the Arabs moving parallel to its right 
flank. Damascus was entered on 1 October. 
Already malaria was taking a heavy toll, 
as Allenby had known would be the case 
when he left an area in which precautions 
had been taken for country in which there 
had been none. A wave of influenza fol- 
lowed. Allenby sent on his fittest cavalry 
division, the 5th, which captured Homs 
and Tripoli and entered Aleppo on 
26 October. Almost immediately after- 
wards an armistice was signed with Turkey 
in Mudros harbour on 30 October. Allenby 
had captured 75,000 prisoners, 360 guns, 
and taken or destroyed all the enemy's 
transport. His own casualties were 5,666. 

It was the last great campaign of cavalry 
employed in strategic mass in the annals 
of war, and one of the most notable. That 
fact alone would suffice to render AUenby's 
name immortal. The distances covered 
were enormous. The 5th Cavalry division 
marched 550 miles in 38 days, fighting 
four considerable actions and losing only 
21 per cent, of its horses from all causes — 
there never have been better horse-masters 
than AUenby's Indians, British yeomanry, 
Australians, and New Zealanders. And 
throughout the offensive his inspiration, 
thrustfulness, and the confidence which 
he inspired were priceless assets. 

Many problems, chief among them the 
rivalry between French and Arab claims 
in Syria and the withdrawal of the Turks, 
were still to be solved, but Allenby was 
not left to deal with them for long. In 
March 1919 he was appointed special high 
commissioner for Egypt, where his former 
corps commander in Palestine, Lieutenant- 
General Sir E. S. Bulfin [q.v.], was engaged 
in stamping out a dangerous revolt. It 
was a difficult post because Egypt felt 
herself conscious of nationhood and had 
found a national champion in the person 
of the violent Saad Zaghlul. Allenby 
began with a disputed measure, for which 
he obtained the rather reluctant approval 
of the Foreign Office, the release of Zaghlul 
and three colleagues who had been arrested 



and deported to Malta. In September of 
that year he went on leave to England, 
which he had not seen since June 1917. 
He was feted as one of the great victors 
of the war. He had already been promoted 
field-marshal (July 1919) ; he was now 
created a viscount (October 1919), received 
the thanks of parliament, and was given 
a grant of £50,000, while during the war 
he had been appointed K.C.B. (1915), 
G.C.M.G. (1917), and G.C.B. (1918). The 
allied countries had bestowed upon him 
their principal decorations. Among the 
universities which conferred honorary 
degrees upon him were Oxford, Cam- 
bridge, Edinburgh, and Aberdeen. In 
1920 he was made colonel of the 1st Life 
Guards, which included the court appoint- 
ment of Gold Stick in Waiting. 

Back in Egypt, Allenby carried through 
his task grimly and in face of difficulties 
in the country and dijfferences of opinion 
with the Foreign Office. He produced, 
and persuaded the British government to 
accept, a declaration abolishing the pro- 
tectorate and recognizing Egypt as a 
sovereign state in February 1922. The 
end of his tenure of office was clouded by 
the murder of Sir Lee Stack [q.v.], the 
sirdar, and his indifferent relations with 
the then foreign secretary, Mr. (after- 
wards Sir) Austen Chamberlain [q.v.], 
which brought about his resignation. He 
left Egypt in June 1925. There may still 
be discussion as to the value of his work 
there and by some he is considered to 
have committed grave mistakes, but on 
balance the view must be favourable. His 
moral courage and integrity and his grip 
of the essence of the Egyptian problem 
cannot be questioned. 

As a field-marshal Allenby remained 
theoretically on the active list, but the 
remainder of his hfe was spent in retire- 
ment. His chief public work was done as 
president (1930) of the British National 
Cadet Association, which owes him a deep 
debt. He was able to indulge to the full 
his hobby of bird-watching, and estab- 
lished an aviary in the small garden of his 
London home. He fished enthusiastically 
and travelled extensively. He died very 
suddenly in London, through the bursting 
of a blood-vessel in his brain, 14 May 
1936. His ashes are buried in Westminster 
Abbey. His son Michael, a young man of 
the greatest promise, had been killed in 
action in France in 1917. His viscountcy 
passed by special reniainder to his nephew, 
Dudley Jaffray Hynman Allenby (bom 
1903). 



11 



Allenby 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Allenby' s worst foe was his violent 
temper, but he rarely punished except 
with his tongue, and, like Napoleon, con- 
stantly continued to employ men whom 
he had forcibly abused. It is also true to 
say that, although he never apologized 
for fits of unjustified anger, he often made 
amends for them. He was grateful for 
good service and generous in rewarding it, 
and in many respects kindly and thought- 
ful. Like some other famous soldiers he 
was devoted to children. The men who 
knew him best and were brought most 
closely in touch with him either in the 
army or during his six years in Egypt were 
his warmest admirers, and on them he left 
the impression of a great man. The worst 
error that can be made about him is to 
look upon him as an unimaginative, heavy- 
handed soldier on the western front and a 
brilliant and inspired soldier in Palestine. 
Doubtless he expanded and gained con- 
fidence in independent command, but 
essentially he remained the same. The 
difference was in the conditions. This is 
not to say that his plan and performance 
in Palestine, especially in the final offen- 
sive, were not masterly. As a man he was 
eVer animated by the highest sense of 
duty, simple and sincere, thorough in 
everything. The strength of his character 
may be exemplified by the fact that he 
imposed upon himself restraint in indul- 
gence in the pleasures of the table, to 
which he was at one time addicted, because 
he feared they were injuring his health, 
just as he gave up smoking because he 
thought the habit might affect his remark- 
able eyesight, which he considered a pro- 
fessional asset. Although he had never 
been a scholar he was a man of consider- 
able cultivation, widely read, and a pass- 
able Grecian and Latinist. But the most 
significant thing to be said of him is that 
he stands in the tradition of the great 
cavalrymen and, if the term be confined 
to horsemen, that he is the last of the 
line. 

A portrait of Allenby is included in J. S. 
Sargent's picture, 'Some General Officers 
of the Great War', painted in 1922. There 
is also a chaUc drawing (likewise in the 
National Portrait Gallery) by Eric Ken- 
nington. 

[The Times, 15 May 1936 ; Viscount Wavell, 
Allenby: a Study in Greatness, 2 vols., 1940- 
1943; Cyril Falls, (Official) History of the 
Great War. Military Operations. France and 
Belgium, 1917, 1940, and Egypt and Palestine, 
vol. ii, 1 930 ; private information.] 

Cyril Falls. 



AMOS, Sir (PERCY) MAURICE (MAC- 
LARDIE) SHELDON (1872-1940), jurist 
and judge in Egypt, was born in London 
15 June 1872, the only son of Sheldon 
Amos [q.v.], a judge of appeal in Egypt, 
and grandson of Andrew Amos [q.v.]. His 
mother was Sarah Maclardie, daughter of 
Thomas Perceval Bunting, of Manchester. 
After private education in Egypt and a 
brilliant career as a scholar of Trinity 
College, Cambridge — he was awarded a 
first class in both parts of the moral' 
sciences tripos (1893 and 1895) and the 
Cobden prize (1895) — he was called to the 
bar by the Inner Temple in 1897. The 
chief part of his life was spent in Egypt 
where, in 1903, he was appointed a judge 
of the Cairo Native Court, and in 1906 
was promoted to the Native Court of 
Appeal. In these offices, but quite apart 
from his ordinary judicial functions, he 
established close contact with the leaders 
of the French Law School and the foreign 
judges of the Egyptian mixed courts, and 
he took a prominent part in attacking the 
administrative and social problems with 
which the country was beset. He retired 
from the bench in 1912 in consequence of 
a decision of his relating to an assault on 
an English child which, although credit- 
able to his views as to equality of admin- 
istration of the law, excited the disappro- 
bation of the local English community. 

For the next two years (1913-1915) 
Amos was director of the Khedivial School 
of Law. In 1915 he returned to England 
and accepted the post of adviser on foreign 
contracts to the Ministry of Munitions. 
His familiarity with the law and language 
of France and other countries made his 
work of great value to the government. In 

1917 A. J. Balfour enlisted his services in 
a mission to the United States of America 
in connexion with the prosecution of the 
war, and his visit there sharpened his 
interest in the American constitution, 
which often formed the subject of lectures 
that he gave in later years. From 1917 to 
1919 he was acting judicial adviser to the 
government of Egypt, and thereafter he 
returned to Cairo as judicial adviser and 
held this office until 1925. Here again he 
gave proof of his abilities by taking a 
prominent part in the discussions which 
led to the treaty of 1922 between Great 
Britain and Egjrpt which terminated the 
British protectorate and, subject to certain 
conditions, made Egypt an independent 
state. Another successful achievement 
was his work at the end of the war of 1914r- 

1918 as counsel for Great Britain before a 



12 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Anderson 



mixed arbitration tribunal at Constanti- 
nople ; he was also the chief British dele- 
gate to the International Committee of 
Experts on Private Aerial Law from 1 933 
imtil his death. 

Amos's later years were spent in Eng- 
land where he had a house in Cambridge 
and another at Ulplia, near Broughton-in- 
Furness. From 1932 to 1937 he held the 
Quain professorship of comparative law at 
University College, London. He was ap- 
pointed K.B.E. in 1922, took silk in 1932, 
and in 1928 was awarded the grand cordon 
of the Order of the Nile. He received the 
honorary degree of LL.D. from Lausanne 
University in 1936. His chief publication 
is The English Constitution (1930). He 
married in 1906 Lucy, elder daughter of 
Colonel Sir Colin Campbell Scott-Moncrieff , 
R.E., and had two sons and three 
daughters. He died at Ulverston 10 June 
1940. 

The most impressive characteristics of 
Amos were his intense intellectual curiosity 
and the wide range of interest that was its 
natural consequence. His friends might 
occasionally differ from his point of view, 
but they could never ignore the arguments 
by which he supported it. Conversation 
with him, whether on professional or social 
topics, always provided a mental stimulus. 

[Journal of Comparative Law, vol. xxii, 
1940 ; personal knowledge.] 

P. H. WiNFIELD. 

AMPTHILL, second Baron (1869- 
193.5). [See Russell, Arthur Oliver 

ViLLIERS.] 

ANDERSON, STELLA (1892-1933), 
better known as Steli^ Benson, novelist, 
was born at Lutwyche Hall, Shropshire, 
6 January 1892, the younger daughter 
and third child of Ralph Beaumont Ben- 
son, of Lutwyche Hall, by his wife, Caro- 
line Essex, second daughter of Richard 
Hugh Cholmondeley, rector of Hodnet, 
later of Condover Hall, Shropshire, and 
younger sister of the novelist Mary Chol- 
mondeley. 

Being a delicate child Stella Benson was 
educated at home. After eighteen months 
spent in Switzerland she sailed in 1912 on 
a voyage to the West Indies, an experience 
which supplied the material for her first 
book, / Pose (1915). On her return (1913) 
she took up social work in Hoxton, where 
for a time she carried on a small business 
for the sale of paper bags in partnership 
with a local woman, finding time mean- 
while to continue her writing and to take 



a part in the women's suffrage movement 
early in 1914. 

During the war of 1914-1918 Stella 
Benson worked for eighteen months in 
east London and afterwards for a time on 
the land ; but her health was never good 
and in 1918 she left England under doctor's 
orders for California. Here she stayed for 
two years, making many friends and sup- 
porting herself by a strange variety of 
occupations until in January 1920 she 
sailed for England by way of the East. 
On this adventurous journey she found 
herself teaching in a mission school in 
Hong-Kong, working in the X-ray depart- 
ment of the Rockefeller Institute in 
Peking, and escaping from the dangers 
of civil war in Chungking. 

In September 1921 Stella Benson was 
married in London to James Carew 
O' Gorman Anderson, of the Chinese 
customs service, only surviving son of 
Brigadier-General Sir Francis Anderson, 
R.E., of Ballydavid, co. Waterford. There 
were no children of the marriage. With 
the exception of visits to England, the 
United States of America, and the Baha- 
mas, the rest of her life was spent in 
China. Whilst living in Hong-Kong she 
helped to organize a successful campaign 
against the system of licensed prostitution 
then existent in that colony. 

Between 1915 and 1931 Stella Benson 
published several novels, short stories, 
travel sketches, and poems, but her great 
popular success came with the appearance 
of Tobit Transplanted (1931), a novel 
which won for her in 1932 the Femina 
Vie Heureuse prize and the A. C. Benson 
silver medal of the Royal Society of 
Literature. She was now at the height 
of her powers, but in that same year she 
had a severe illness and she died of pneu- 
monia at Hongay, Tongking, in northern 
Indo-China, 6 December 1933. 

Stella Benson's genius is paradoxical; 
she combines fantasy with realism and 
satire with a profound pity. Her un- 
finished novel Mundos (published post- 
humously 1935) shows that had she lived 
she would have surpassed her already 
notable achievement. English literature 
is the poorer for her early death. 

A portrait of Stella Benson by Cuthbert 
Orde is in the possession of her brother, 
Major George Reginald Benson, and Mr. 
J. C. O'G. Anderson owns two drawings 
by the same artist and a drawing by 
Wyndham Lewis. 

[The Times, 8 December 1933; R. Ellis 
Roberts, Portrait of Stella Benson, 1939; 



13 



Anderson 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



S. J. Kunitz and H. Haycraft, Twentieth 
Century Authors; a Biographical Dictionary 
(New York), 1942.] 

Georgina Battiscombe. 



ANDREWES, Sir FREDERICK WIL- 
LIAM (1859-1932), pathologist and bac- 
teriologist, was born at Reading 31 March 
1859, the eldest of the four sons of Charles 
James Andrewes, J.P., by his second wife, 
Charlotte Parsons. The father was en- 
gaged in business connected with iron- 
works and was a substantial and respected 
citizen of Reading, of which he was some- 
time mayor, but Andrewes held the opin- 
ion that his inheritance of special ability 
came chiefly from his mother's side. 

Andrewes began his education at Oakley 
House School, Reading, and among his 
schoolfellows there were (Sir) Edward 
Bagnall Poulton, W. F. R. Weldon [q.v.], 
and (Sir) Owen Seaman [q.v.]. Andrewes 
formed then, and kept throughout his life, 
a special friendship with Poulton; they 
had like interests, as boys and young men, 
in field entomology and geology , and shared 
many expeditions in school holidays and, 
later, in vacations. Andrewes always 
retained these interests of a field natural- 
ist, and Poulton records with pride that 
he was able later to include in the Univer- 
sity Museum at Oxford entomological 
varieties of great interest which Andrewes 
had taken in school holidays when he was 
between thirteen and fourteen years old, 
showing thus precociously a skill and alert- 
ness of observation which were later to 
serve him well in other fields. 

Andrewes entered Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, in 1879 as a junior student ; his essay 
is said to have made an especially favour- 
able impression upon his examiners. In 
1881, with biology as his subject, he was 
placed alone in the first class of the final 
honours school of natural science. In 1883 
he was awarded the Burdett-Coutts imi- 
versity scholarship in geology. In 1886 he 
was elected to the Sheppard fellowship at 
Pembroke College, the holder of which was 
imder obligation to study either law or 
medicine. Owing to his biological back- 
ground he had already chosen medicine 
as his career, having won an open entrance 
scholarship at St. Bartholomew's Hospital 
and entered upon his studies there in 1885. 

After Andrewes had qualified in medi- 
cine he spent a short time in Vienna as 
a preliminary to entering upon a career as 
a consulting physician, graduating M.B. 
and becoming F.R.C.P. in 1895. Mean- 
while he had become increasingly inter- 



ested in pathology and bacteriology. The 
latter, undergoing vigorous development 
on the continent through the schools of 
Pasteur and Robert Koch, had reached 
Great Britain rather late, one of its 
pioneers in this country being Edward 
Emanuel Klein, who was lecturer on 
physiology at St. Bartholomew's Medical 
School. When Andrewes first made con- 
tact with the pathological laboratory 
there, in 1885, Klein was already examin- 
ing material from the wards for the 
tubercle bacillus, discovered by Koch 
some three years earlier. In 1893 Alfredo 
Auturus Kanthack was appointed lecturer 
in pathology and pathologist to the 
hospital, and Andrewes worked in in- 
creasingly close association with him until, 
on Kanthack' s departure to Cambridge in 
1897, Andrewes was appointed to succeed 
him. 

During the thirty years (1897-1927) in 
which he held the post of lecturer in 
pathology (which was raised to that of 
professor by the university of London 
in 1912) at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
Andrewes saw the department change 
from a single laboratory to a separate 
building with three floors of laboratories 
and an additional one for post-mortem 
examinations. His tenure of office had 
begun at a time when pathology, and 
especially the new science of bacteriology, 
were developing an essential relation to 
public health and to clinical medicine, and 
he was an important agent of that develop- 
ment. His reputation, which grew steadily 
with the years, depended more on his 
influence as a teacher, on his wide know- 
ledge and experience, and on his care and 
wisdom as an expert and consultant on 
special problems, than on such new de- 
velopments of knowledge as arose from 
the researches which he had always in 
hand. On the side of pathology he added 
something of permanent value to the 
differential histology of lymphadenoma 
and to a more exact knowledge of arterio- 
sclerosis. In bacteriology he took particu- 
lar interest in variations within a bacterial 
species, as recognized by reactions with 
specific, immune sera. During the war of 
1914-1918 he made a valuable classifica- 
tion on these lines of the variant strains 
of dysentery bacilli, and at the time of his 
death in London, 24 February 1932, was 
engaged upon a similar but more complex 
problem, presented by the haemolytic 
streptococci. At an earlier stage he had 
been one of the first to recognize the 
importance of healthy or mildly affected 



14 



D.N.B. 1081-1940 



Anstey 



persons as carriers of such infections as 
that of diphtheria. 

Andrewes was a man of quiet, friendly 
personaUty, readily accessible, generous 
with his help, and prone to flavour his 
wisdom with a sly humour. Throughout 
life, in work and recreation, his instinct 
and habit were those of a born naturahst ; 
in his later years especially, these tastes 
found expression in the creation and tend- 
ing of a rock-garden, well known to all his 
friends. He had a great gift for the effec- 
tive, though apparently free and informal, 
exposition of intricate problems, and was 
known as a forceful lecturer outside his 
own department. To the Royal College of 
Physicians he delivered the Dobell (1906) 
and the Croonian (1910) lectures, as well 
as the Harveian oration (1920). His deep 
knowledge and wide experience made him 
a valuable member of various public com- 
mittees and of the Medical Research 
Council. In 1919 he was appointed O.B.E. 
in recognition of his services during the 
war of 1914-1918, and was knighted in 
1920. He was elected F.R.S. in 1915. He 
married in 1895 Phyllis Mary, daughter 
of John Hamer, J.P., publisher, and had 
a son and a daughter ; the son is head of 
the department of bacteriology and ex- 
perimental pathology at the National 
Institute for Medical Research, Hamp- 
stead. 

[The Times, 25 February 1932; Obituary 
Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society, No. 1, 
December 1932 (portrait) ; Journal of Patho- 
logy and Bacteriology, vol. xxxv, 1932; 
personal knowledge.] H. H. Dale. 

ANSTEY, F. (pseudonym), humorous 
writer. [See Guthrie, Thomas Anstey.] 

ANSTEY, FRANK (1865-1940), 
Australian journalist and poUtician, was 
born of English parents in Blackfriars, 
London, 18 August 1865, the posthumous 
and only child of Samuel Anstey, a dock- 
worker from Devon, by his wife, Caroline 
Gamble. Frank Anstey helped to support 
his mother through a great part of her life. 

The poverty of Anstey's early life left 
a deep impression. At twelve he obtained 
employment in the Blackwall clipper, 
Melbourne, running to Australia. He saw 
something of ' black-birding ' in the Pacific, 
and became a staunch supporter of the 
'White Australia' policy. He worked as 
a labourer, and as a caretaker, but his 
gift of oratory soon won him a place in 
the Melbourne Trades Hall Council, and 
later in parliament. He represented East 



Bourke borouglis (1902-1904) and Bruns- 
wick (1904-1910) in the Victorian 
assembly. He wrote much for the Tocsin 
(later Labor Call), and frequently acted as 
editor. In 1907 he worked his passage to 
England to see his mother. As the out- 
standing member of the Victorian labour 
party, he seemed destined to become its 
leader, but in 1910 he won the Bourke 
(Victoria) seat in the Commonwealth 
parliament and held it for twenty-four 
years. 

In Commonwealth politics Anstey be- 
came a close friend of Mr. William Morris 
Hughes. But when the labour party split 
in 1916, Mr. Hughes made the strongest 
personal attacks on Anstey as one of the 
chief opponents of conscription. Anstey 
objected to conscription of men without 
conscription of wealth. He attacked the 
'money power' in the Kingdom of Shylock 
(1917), the distribution of which was in- 
effectively prohibited by the Common- 
wealth. This was revised, expanded, and 
reprinted in 1921 as Money Power. In 
1918 Anstey worked his passage to the 
United States of America and London, 
and joined an Australian press mission to 
the western front. After visits to France, 
Switzerland, and Scandinavia he returned 
to Australia in June 1919 ; his book Red 
Europe appeared in September. From 
1922 to 1927 he held the position of 
deputy leader of the parliamentary labour 
party, and when labour came into ofiice 
in 1929 he became minister for health and 
repatriation. In the depression (1930) he 
fought for compulsory reduction of inter- 
est and compulsory conversion of loans. 
When this policy was rejected by his party 
in March 1931 he had to leave the min- 
istry ; he retired from politics in 1934. 

Anstey married in 1888 Catherine, 
daughter of John McColl, police officer, 
of Sale, Victoria, and had two sons. He 
died at Melbourne 31 October 1940. 

Anstey's gift of oratory was unusual; 
during his term in parliament no one 
equalled his power of holding the House. 
He spoke with a passionate sincerity, 
lightened by wit and irony. His forceful 
writings also had a wide public. Although 
generally regarded as too unstable for the 
highest offices, he proved a most able 
minister of health. His attachment to his 
principles earned him the respect even of 
political opponents, but brought him Uttle 
material advancement. 

[Melbourne newspapers, Argus, Age, Labor 
Call, passim; E. O. G. Shann and D. B. 
Copland, The Crisis in Australian Finance, 



15 



Anstey 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



1929-1931, 1931 ; Commonwealth Parliament- 
ary Handbook, 1901-1930, 1930 ; private infor- 
mation.] Hekbert Burton. 

ARMSTRONG, HENRY EDWARD 

(1848-1937), chemist and educationist, 
was born 6 May 1848 at Lewisham, where 
he resided during the whole of his Ufe. 
He was the eldest son of Richard Arm- 
strong, a conamission agent and importer, 
by his wife, Mary Ann Biddle. 

Armstrong went to Colfe Grammar 
School, Dartmouth Hill, and began to 
study chemistry in 1865 at the Royal 
College of Chemistry in Oxford Street 
under (Sir) Edward Frankland [q.v.], and 
within a very short time was assisting his 
teacher in devising methods for water 
analysis, particularly for detecting and 
estimating sewage contamination. The 
methods which they devised were subse- 
quently used by Frankland in a survey of 
the whole British drinking water supply, 
which put this country ahead of all others 
in the provision of safe drinking water. 
In 1867 Armstrong went to Leipzig to 
study chemistry under Adolphe Wilhelm 
Hermann Kolbe, returning in 1870 with 
the degree of Ph.D. and a passion for 
research which never left him. After hold- 
ing teaching appointments at St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital (1870-1882) and at the 
London Institution as professor of chem- 
istry (1871-1884) he became associated in 
1879 with the City and Guilds of London 
Institute, first at their Finsbury School in 
Cowper Street where he organized classes 
in technical chemistry, and in 1884 as pro- 
fessor of chemistry at the new Central 
Institution at South Kensington which 
became in 1893 the Central Technical 
CoUege. Here he and his colleagues W. E. 
Ajrrton and W. C. Unwin [qq.v.] were 
pioneers in designing courses for higher 
technical education for engineers and 
chemists. The chemistry school was a 
small one, but it was the first in this 
country to give such a training to chemists 
as would equip them for work in a factory, 
and the first to produce what are now 
called chemical engineers. 

Armstrong's interests as a scientist 
ranged over a wide field of chemistry. 
His researches in the chemistry of naphtha- 
lene were of fundamental importance when 
this substance was becoming increasingly 
used as a starting material for the manu- 
facture of intermediates for dyestuffs. The 
value of this work was especially appre- 
ciated in Germany. Concurrently he 
carried out research into the laws of 



substitution in benzine derivatives, sug- 
gesting the well-known 'centric' formula 
to explain its chemical behaviour. His 
'quinone' theory of the colour of organic 
compounds was a guiding principle for 
students of dyestuffs until it became 
superseded in recent times by more com- 
prehensive ideas. The theory of aqueous 
solution was another subject to which 
Armstrong devoted much attention, and 
upon which he carried out a great deal of 
experimental work. He contested hotly 
the dissociation theory of Svante August 
Arrhenius and Wilhelm Ostwald on the 
justifiable ground that that theory took 
insufficient account of the part played by 
the solvent and of the complex character 
of water. Armstrong's mathematical 
equipment was inadequate to give his 
alternative ideas a quantitative basis, but 
in its modern form the dissociation theory 
has been modified so far as to justify his 
criticism. Other subjects of research in 
Armstrong's laboratory were the constitu- 
tion of camphor and its derivatives, the 
study of plant enzymes, and the crystal- 
lography of organic compounds, of wliich 
he realized the fundamental importance, 
for as early as 1886 he invited (Sir) H. A. 
Miers to give instruction in the subject. 
In all this research work Armstrong was 
assisted by a succession of students, many 
of whom subsequently made their mark 
in academic and industrial spheres, carry- 
ing his influence with them. He was also 
an accomplished geologist, and his long 
association with the Rothamsted Research 
Station, where he was a member of the 
Lawes Agricultural Trust Committee from 
1889 and eventually chairman in 1937, 
testified to his keen interest in the develop- 
ment of agriculture. 

Armstrong was elected F.R.S. in 1876 
and received the Davy medal in 1911. He 
was a fellow of the Chemical Society for 
nearly seventy years, and served as secre- 
tary for eighteen years, as president from 
1893 to 1895, and as councillor for over 
sixty years. He received the honorary 
degree of LL.D. from the university of 
St. Andrews and that of D.Sc. from the 
universities of Melbourne and Madrid. He 
was awarded the Messel medal of the 
Society of Chemical Industry (1922), the 
Albert medal of the Royal Society of Arts 
(1930), and the Horace Brown medal of 
the Institute of Brewing (1926). He spoke 
and wrote much upon matters of public 
interest in which the application of science 
was involved, and was a frequent con- 
tributor to The Times. After his retire- 



16 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Arthur 



ment on the closing of the chemistry 
school in 1913 he maintained his activity 
as a critic, writer, and lecturer and came 
to be regarded as the doyen of British 
chemistry. 

Armstrong was a man of forceful persona- 
lity who, once having formed an opinion 
on a subject, held to it strongly and advo- 
cated it vigorously. He undoubtedly 
rendered great service by the reforms 
which he caused to be brought about in 
the teaching of science, at both the ele- 
mentary and the advanced stages. The 
elementary teaching of science was studied 
closely by committees of the British 
Association under Armstrong's inspira- 
tion, between 1884 and 1891. He believed 
that children could at an early age be 
made to tliink for themselves if properly 
guided, and he was one of the strongest 
advocates of the heuristic method. He 
rendered most valuable service to Christ's 
Hospital as the Royal Society representa- 
tive on the covmcil of almoners. It was 
largely through his influence that the 
school was moved from Newgate Street to 
West Horsham in 1902, and under his 
guidance it became one of the best- 
equipped schools in the country for the 
teaching of science. His many reports and 
essays on the teaching of science are 
collected in his book The Teaching of 
Scientific Method (1903, 2nd ed. reprinted 
1925). Other essays are published in The 
Art and Principles of Chemistry (1927). 

Armstrong married in 1877 Frances 
Louisa (died 1935), daughter of Thomas 
Howard La vers, and had four sons and 
three daughters. He died at Lewisham 
13 July 1937. His eldest son, Edward 
Frankland, achieved a prominent posi- 
tion as an industrial chemist and died in 
1945. 

A portrait of Armstrong, by T. C. 
Dugdale (1927), is in the possession of 
the Royal Institution, Albemarle Street. 

[The Times, 14 July 1937 ; Obituary Notices 
of Fellows of the Royal Society, No. 9, January 
1941 (portrait); Journal of the Chemical 
Society, July 1940 (portrait); The Central, 
Armstrong memorial number, 1938; Chem- 
istry and Industry, vol. Ix, 1941 ; Nature, 
24 July 1937; personal knowledge.] 

E. H. RoDD. 

ARTHUR FREDERICK PATRICK 
ALBERT (1883-1938), prince of Great 
Britain and Ireland , the only son and second 
child of Prince Arthur William Patrick 
Albert, first Duke of Connaught (1850- 
1942), the third son of Queen Victoria, by 



his wife, Princess Louise Margaret Alex- 
andra Victoria Agnes, daughter of Prince 
Charles Frederick of Prussia, was born at 
Windsor Castle 13 January' 1883. During 
the absence of their parents in India he 
and his two sisters were much with Queen 
Victoria, who showed them great affection 
and afterwards continued to invite them 
to Osborne and Balmoral. From 1893 
their home was with their parents at 
Bagshot Park. 

Prince Arthur was educated at Farn- 
borough School, Hampshire, at Eton, and 
at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. 
In 1899 he joined in his father's renuncia- 
tion of the succession to the Duchy ol 
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, then held by his 
uncle, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh 
[q.v.]. 

Prince Arthur received his conunission 
in the 7th Hussars in 1901 and joined the 
regiment in South Africa, where he saw 
active service. In 1907 he was promoted 
captain in the Royal Scots Greys, of which 
regiment he became colonel-in-chief in 
1921. He also held that rank in the Royal 
Army Pay Corps. In the war of 1914- 
1918 he was aide-de-camp successively to 
Sir John French, Sir Douglas Haig, and 
Sir Charles Monro, commanding the First 
Army, was twice mentioned in dispatches, 
was promoted major and was appointed 
C.B. (1915), and retired in 1919 as brevet 
lieutenant-colonel after serving with the 
army of occupation on the Rhine. In 1920 
he became an honorary major-general. 

Prince Arthur undertook state missions 
on behalf of King Edward VII and King 
George V to two successive Emperors of 
Japan in 1906, 1912, and 1918, and repre- 
sented the King on state occasions in 
Portugal (1908) and in Russia, Bavaria, 
and Italy (1911). During King George's 
absence in India (1911-1912) he was one 
of the four counsellors of state. 

In 1920 Prince Arthur was appointed 
governor-general of the Union of South 
Africa in succession to S. C. Buxton, first 
Earl Buxton [q.v.], and arrived in Cape 
Town in November. While no outstand- 
ing constitutional issues arose during his 
thiee years in the Dominion, several 
notable events occurred which find their 
place in Union history. In 1919 parUa- 
ment had authorized the government to 
accept the League of Nations' mandate 
for German South- West Africa and this 
involved legislation to provide for its ad- 
ministration as an integral part of the 
Union. There were negotiations in 1921 
between Southern Rhodesia, then under 



17 



Arthur 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



a chartered company, and the Union 
government on the possibility of the in- 
corporation of the country in the Union, 
but as a result of a referendum in Southern 
Rhodesia in which the majority voted 
against the Union's offer, Southern Rho- 
desia in 1923 received responsible govern- 
ment. During all these years General 
Smuts was premier and it was during his 
term of office that the industrial unrest 
and discontent, which had been manifest 
immediately before the war of 1914-1918, 
now made themselves felt on a larger scale 
than ever before, leading to an outbreak 
on the Rand which was only suppressed 
by the government after the declaration 
of martial law. General Smuts himself 
leaving Cape Town to take charge of the 
situation. In the matter of the Indian 
problem in South Africa the governor- 
general, on the advice of the Union min- 
isters, withheld his assent to a Natal 
ordinance of 1921 depriving Indians of 
the municipal franchise; but after the 
Imperial Conference of 1923 was over 
Indians were deprived of this franchise 
by ordinances passed subsequent to the 
termination of his governorship in that 
year. It was during Prince Arthur's term 
of office that the Union imdertook the 
entire responsibility for its own defence, 
except that, by an agreement of 1921, 
under which the United Kingdom trans- 
ferred to the Union government the free- 
hold of the lands and buildings of the 
naval base of Simonstown, a servitude 
was registered against the freehold in 
favour of the Admiralty as perpetual user 
for naval purposes. Accordingly the his- 
toric castle at Cape Town was handed over 
to the defence officers of the Union and 
the United Kingdom command was with- 
drawn. 

In 1923 Prince Arthur became chair- 
man of the Middlesex Hospital and pre- 
sided regularly over its building com- 
mittee and over the 'appeal committee' 
formed to provide for a great expansion 
of its work. For this he personally worked 
so hard and successfully that nearly two 
million poimds were raised by and under 
him, and the Middlesex became one of the 
greatest of the teaching hospitals with 
first-rate laboratories, a new out-patients' 
building, and a new nurses' home. 

Prince Arthur was appointed G.C.V.O. 
(1899), K.G. (1902), K.T. (1913), and 
G.C.M.G. (1918). He was sworn of the 
Privy Council in 1910. He was an Elder 
Brother of the Trinity House (1910) and 
high steward of Reading (1935). He 



married in 1913 his first cousin once 
removed, Princess Alexandra Victoria 
Alberta Edwina Louise, by special re- 
mainder Duchess of Fife, elder daughter 
of Alexander WiUiam George Duff, first 
Duke of Fife (died 1912), by his wife, 
Louise Victoria Alexandra Dagmar, prin- 
cess royal [q.v.], eldest daughter of King 
Edward VII. Their only child, Alastair 
Arthur, Earl of Macduff (born 1914), suc- 
ceeded his grandfather as second Duke of 
Connaught in 1942, and died 26 April 
1943. Prince Arthur died in London 
12 September 1938. 

[Dominions Office papers : private informa- 
tion ; personal knowledge.] E. B. Phipps. 

ASCHE, (THOMAS STANGE HEISS) 
OSCAR (1871-1936), actor, manager, 
author, and producer, was born at Gee- 
long, Victoria, Australia, 24 January 1871, 
the third son of Thomas Asche, by his 
second wife, Harriet Emma, daughter 
of William Trear, licensed victualler, of 
Sunderland, co. Durham. Thomas Asche, 
a Norwegian from Christiania, was pro- 
prietor of Mack's Hotel, and was himself a 
man of remarkable character and physical 
strength, able to squeeze a pewter pot in 
one hand. Oscar Asche was educated at 
Melbourne Grammar School, which he left 
at the age of sixteen. Shortly afterwards 
he went with a school friend on a sailing 
trip to China. The voyage lasted six 
months and had an undoubted influence 
in giving the boy a taste for adventure. 
On his retiu-n he tried his hand as a store- 
keeper and at other occupations without 
much satisfaction, and then went on a 
trip with another friend to Fiji. While 
still in his 'teens he decided to make his 
way to Norway with a view to adopting 
the stage as a profession. In Christiania 
he studied under Bjorn Bjornson, the 
famous author's son. He met Ibsen, who 
gave him an introduction to William 
Archer [q.v.], and told him that, as an 
English-speaking actor, he should go to 
England. 

Asche made his first appearance on the 
stage in London at the Opera Comique in 
1893, when he played a small part in Man 
and Woman imder the management of 
Arthur Dacre. He himself has left a 
candid record of his early struggles — of 
sleeping on the Embankment and calling 
cabs outside theatres in which he after- 
wards appeared. He had the good fortune 
in the same year to join the Benson 
Repertory Coriipany on the strength of 
having played cricket and been a wicket- 



18 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Ashby 



keeper. He was with (Sir) Frank Benson 
[q.v.J for eight years, acting every kind 
of part, from Biondello in The Taming of 
the Shrew and Pistol in Henry V to the 
King in Hamlet. While he was with 
Benson he married, in 1898, Lily, daughter 
of John Grindall Brayton, physician and 
surgeon, of Hindley, Lancashire, who 
joined the company three years after. 
Both were engaged after Benson's Lyceum 
season in 1900, Oscar Asche to appear as 
Maldonado in (Sir) A. W. Pinero's Iris at 
the Garrick Theatre in 1901, and Lily 
Brayton as Viola in Twelfth Night, but she 
played Mariamne during Maud Jeffries's 
illness in Stephen Phillips's Herod with 
(Sir) Herbert Beerbohm Tree [q.v.] at 
Her Majesty's Theatre (October 1900); 
here Asche was himself to arrive to play 
Antinous in Phillips's Ulysses in 1902. 

In 1904 both Asche and Lily Brayton 
joined their old Bensonian comrade, Otho 
Stuart, in the management of the Adelphi 
Theatre, where memorable productions 
were given of J. B. Fagan's The Prayer 
of the Sword, of A Midsummer NighVs 
Dream, The Taming of the Shrew, and 
Measure for Measure, with Asche as Bot- 
tom, Christopher Sly, Petruchio, and 
Angelo, and of Mr. Rudolf Besier's first 
play. The Virgin Goddess. In 1907 Asche 
went into management at His Majesty's 
Theatre, producing Laurence Binyon's 
Attila, with himself in the title-part, and 
several Shakespearian revivals, notably 
Othello, Asche proving one of the best 
Othellos of his generation. It was at the 
Garrick Theatre in 1911 that he created 
Hajj, the philosophic beggar in Edward 
Knoblock's Kismet, an oriental study 
which paved the way for his own Chu 
Chin Chow at His Majesty's five years 
later. The libretto of this was written 
in order to fill up time during a rainy 
week in Manchester. With the help of 
Mr. George Frederic Norton's tuneful 
score it achieved what was long the 
record run of 2,238 performances (August 
1916 to July 1921). In 1917 Asche was 
concerned as producer with Mr. Frederick 
Lonsdale's The Maid of the Mountains, 
which ran for 1 ,352 performances at Daly's 
Theatre. 

Asche was not destined to enjoy another 
popular triumph. The £200,000 to which 
his share of the Chu Chin Chow profits 
amounted dwindled in his always lavish 
hands, and losses on a Gloucestershire 
farm were an added trouble in his later 
years. Some experiments, such as his 
presentation of The Merry Wives of Wind- 



sor in modern dress in 1920, were hardly 
the result of sincere artistic conviction. 
Between 1909 and 1922 he made three 
extended tours of his native Australia, 
meeting with an enthusiastic welcome, 
and in 1913 he visited South Africa. At 
the Shakespeare tercentenary celebration 
at Drury Lane in 1916 he appeared as 
Casca in Julius Caesar. He died at Marlow 
23 March 1936. He had no children. LUy 
Brayton survived him, afterwards marry- 
ing (1938) Douglas Chalmers Watson, a 
Scottish physician. 

Although his huge stature naturally 
limited the parts which he could take, 
Asche had a distinct creative imagination 
of his own and sympathetic understand- 
ing, both as actor and as author. He made 
no literary pretensions ; but he did much 
to break down the artificiality of Victorian 
and Edwardian 'romance'. In Chu Chin 
Chow he touched the old pantomime-story 
of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves with 
personal memories of the East. His 
adaptation, Mameena, of Sir Henry Rider 
Haggard's Child of Storm (Globe Theatre, 
1913), strove to do the like for native life 
in Africa. His appreciation of Shakespeare 
was genuine and fruitful. His character, 
with its curious blend of masterful shrewd- 
ness on the one hand and love of sport and 
readiness for any sort of gamble on the 
other, found full expression both in his life 
and in his art. His publications include 
an autobiography which tells his story 
with characteristic frankness, and two 
works of fiction. The Joss-sticks of Chung 
and The Saga of Hans Hansen (1930). 

[The Times, 24 March 1936; Oscar Asche. 
His Life by Himself, 1929 ; Lady Benson, 
Mainly Players: Bensonian Memories, 1926; 
personal knowledge.] S. R. Littlewood. 

ASHBY, THOMAS (1874r-1931), ar- 
chaeologist, was born at Staines 14 Octo- 
ber 1874, the only child of Thomas Ashby, 
a member of the well-known Quaker famUy 
which owned Ashby's brewery at Staines, 
by his wife. Rose Emma, daughter of 
Apsley Smith. Young Ashby was an ex- 
hibitioner at Winchester, where, possibly 
by some stroke of schoolboy genius, he 
was almost immediately dubbed by the 
lasting nickname of ' Titus '. When he was 
sixteen his father settled in Rome, there 
to become an enthusiastic explorer of the 
Campagna and an associate of Rodolfo 
Lanciani. Learning and enthusiasm won 
him a scholarship at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, where he was a pupil of F. J. Haver- 
field [q.v.] and (Sir) John Linton Myres, 



19 



Ashby 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



and was awarded a first class in classical 
moderations (1895) and in liter aehumaniores 
(1897). In the latter year he was awarded 
a Craven fellowship, thereafter devoting 
himself to studies of Roman antiquities, on 
which he obtained the Oxford degree of 
D.Litt. (1905) and the Conington prize for 
classical learning (1906). 

Ashby was the first student of the Brit- 
ish School at Rome in 1901, contributing 
to its Papers detailed topographical studies 
of the Roman roads of Italy. He became 
a master of Rome's urban topography, 
and derived from early literature and 
prints a unique knowledge of the vicissi- 
tudes of the city's monuments and artistic 
treasures. While the former mastery was 
evinced by articles eventually running 
into hundreds, the latter was demon- 
strated by his treatment of such varied 
themes as Eufrosino della Volpaia's map 
of the Campagna (1547), the sixteenth- 
century architectural drawings of Antonio 
Labacco, the topographical studies of 
l^tienne du Perac (1581), Giovanni Bat- 
tista de' Cavalieri's Antiquae Statuae Urbis 
Romae, and the Windsor Castle, Soane 
Library, and Eton College collections of 
drawings and paintings. To topographical 
and bibliographical lore was added ex- 
cavation, in the Romano-British town of 
Caerwent (1899-1910) and the megalithic 
monuments of Malta and Gozo (1908- 
1911). It is not surprising that he became 
assistant director (1903) and director 
(1906-1925) of the British School at 
Rome, which he made a centre of topo- 
graphical studies and of international 
comity, and which, assisted by Mrs. 
Arthur Strong, he saw embrace after 1915 
not only archaeology but art and archi- 
tecture in a new building in the Valle 
Giulia. After 1925 he set himself to com- 
plete three standard works: a valuable 
revision of the second part of W. J. Ander- 
son and R. P. Spiers, The Architecture of 
Greece and Rome (1927) ; a thoroughly re- 
vised edition of S. B. Platner's Topo- 
graphical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 
(1929); and his own Aqueducts of Ancient 
Rome, published posthumously in 1935. 
He also published a slighter but valuable 
work on The Roman Campagna in Classical 
Times (1927). In 1915 he offered his ser- 
vices to the War Office, but later in that 
year joined the Red Cross where for his 
most remarkable intrepidity on the Asiago 
plateau he was mentioned in dispatches. 

Ashby was a member of the Accademia 
Pontificia (1914) and of the Reale Societa 
Romana di Storia Patria (1928), a foreign 



member of the Accademia dei Lincei 
(1918), an honorary member of the Reale 
Accademia di San Luca (1925), an honor- 
ary A.R.I.B.A. (1922), and a fellow of the 
British Academy (1927). His figure was 
stocky, his head tall and forceful, with a 
neat beard first red and later white. He 
spoke equally brusque English and ItaUan, 
the latter with an undisguised British 
accent. He was shy with strangers, blunt 
with acquaintances, and devoted to his 
friends. He married in 1921 Caroline May, 
eldest daughter of Richard Price-Williams, 
civil engineer. There were no children of 
the marriage. He died 15 May 1931, acci- 
dentally falling from a train between Mai- 
den and Raynes Park, Surrey. 

A painting of Ashby, by (Sir) George 
Clausen (1925), and a bronze bust, by 
David Evans, are in the possession of the 
British School at Rome. A drawing by 
Clausen (the first study for the painting) 
is in the National Portrait Gallery. 

[A. H. Smith, Thomas Ashby, 1874-1931 in 
Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. xvii, 
1931 ; Archivio della R. Societa Romana di 
Storia Patria, vol. 1, 1927 (bibliography to 
1 926) ; personal knowledge.] Ian A. Richmond . 

ASHLEY, WILFRID WILLIAM, 

Baron Mount Temple (1867-1938), poh- 
tician, was born in London 13 September 
1867, the only son of (Anthony) Evelyn 
Melbourne Ashley [q.v.], by his first wife, 
Sybella Charlotte, second daughter of Sir 
Walter Rockcliffe Farquhar, third baronet. 
He was a grandson of Anthony Ashley 
Cooper, seventh Earl of Shaftesbury [q.v.]. 
He was educated at Harrow and Magdalen 
College, Oxford, and sers^ed in the Ayr- 
shire Militia (1886-1889), the Grenadier 
Guards (1889-1898), and the Hampshire 
Militia (1899-1903). 

By family tradition, environment, and 
temperament it was inevitable that Ashley 
should enter upon a political career. In 
addition to military training and ex- 
perience he was an extensive traveller, 
and had made a particular study of the 
social, economic, and political life of the 
United States of America and the British 
Dominions and Colonial Empire. Through 
his great-grandmother, Lady Palmerston, 
he inherited Broadlands, and as high 
steward of Romsey he could claim the 
town as part of his estate. He was par 
excellence the county squire and the 
country gentleman ; with a lofty sense of 
public duty he became justice of the peace, 
deputy lieutenant, and alderman of the 
county of Hampshire. He became early 



20 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Ashton 



attached to the conservative party, but 
always entertained broad and discriminat- 
ing views on imperial and foreign affairs 
during his whole political life. He was 
elected member of parliament for Black- 
pool at the general election in 1906, and 
sat for that constituency until the general 
election of 1918, when he became member 
for the Fylde division of Lancashire until 
1922. In that year he transferred to the 
New Forest division of Hampshire , which he 
represented until 1932, when he was raised 
to the peerage as Baron Mount Temple, 
of Lee, in the county of Southampton. 

Ashley served as a conservative whip in 
the years preceding the war of 1914-1918, 
and from 1914 to 1915 commanded the 
20th battalion of the King's Liverpool 
Regiment. In 1915 he became parliamen- 
tary private secretary to the financial secre- 
tary to the War Office. He first reached 
office in 1922 when he became parliamen- 
tary secretary to the Ministry of Transport, 
and in the following year was appointed 
under-secretary of state for war. From 
1924 to 1929 he was minister of transport, 
and was responsible for the reorganization 
and practical operative structure of that 
ministry. He planned the introduction of 
the 'round-about' scheme of one-way 
traffic in London and the larger provincial 
cities. He was for several years chairman 
of the Anti-Socialist Union and president 
of the Navy League, and was one of the 
founders of the Comrades of the Great 
War, from which arose the national move- 
ment of the British Legion. In 1924 he 
was sworn of the Privy Council. 

The Irish estate, Classiebawn, on the 
west coast of Ireland, also inherited from 
Palmerston, received Ashley's constant 
attention. He was twice married: first, in 
1901 to Amalia Mary Maud (died 1911), 
only child of Sir Ernest Joseph Cassel 
[q.v.], and had two daughters, the elder 
of whom, Edwina, married Lord Louis 
Moimtbatten (later Admiral Earl Mount- 
batten of Burma) ; secondly, in 1914 to 
Muriel Emily, elder daughter of the Rev. 
Walter Spencer, of Fownhope Court, Here- 
ford, and formerly wife of Arthur Lionel 
Ochoncar Forbes-Sempill, fifth son of the 
seventeenth Baron Sempill. He died at 
Broadlands, Romsey, 3 July 1939 and the 
peerage became extinct. 

WTiat has been said of the previous 
owner of Broadlands may be applied with 
more justice to Ashley, that he possessed 
'pluck combined with remarkable tact, 
unfailing good temper associated with 
firmness almost amounting to obstinacy'. 



In addition to a picture and a crayon 
drawing of Moxmt Temple in childhood 
by Edward Clifford there are also at 
Broadlands a crayon drawing by Eva 
Sawyer, a picture by Mrs. Blakeney Ward, 
and another by Emil Fuchs. 

[The Titms, 4 July 19.39; personal know- 
ledge] P. J. Hannon. 



ASHTON, THOMAS GAIR, first Baron 
Ashton of Hyde (1855-1933), industria- 
list, philanthropist, and politician, was 
born at Fallowfield, Manchester, 5 Febru- 
ary 1855, the eldest son of Thomas Ashton, 
of Hyde, Cheshire, by his wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Samuel Stillman Gair, who 
belonged to Rhode Island, U.S.A., and 
whose English residence was Penketh 
Hall, Liverpool. Thomas Ashton's second 
daughter became the wife of James (after- 
wards Viscount) Bryce [q.v.]. The Ash- 
tons were well known, during generations, 
for singularly humane treatment of the 
work-people in their cotton mills, and, 
after his education at Rugby and Univer- 
sity College, Oxford (of which he was 
elected an honorary fellow in 1923), 
Thomas Gair Ashton was connected with 
the family business in Manchester and 
Hyde for forty years, carrying on this 
tradition, which coloured his whole life. 
He was liberal member of parliament for 
the Hyde division from 1885 to 1886 
(losing the seat in the latter year and fail- 
ing to regain it in 1892) and for the Luton 
division from 1895 to 1911. During that 
period he sat on various royal com- 
missions, was chairman of the House of 
Commons Railway and Canal Traffic Com- 
mittee in 1909 and of the Standing Orders 
Committee in 1910, and became notable 
in the House for his wide knowledge of 
finance. 

Ashton's care for education was also 
displayed by his guarantee to make good 
any losses sustained in its first three years 
by the county secondary school at Hyde, 
and by his support of the Hyde Technical 
School and the free library, so that for a 
time both chiefly depended upon him. He 
was a governor of Manchester University, 
the first honorary secretary of the Man- 
chester Technical School, and a member 
of the governing body of the Whitworth 
Institute. He also took a keen interest in 
the history and antiquities of Sussex, 
where he lived after 1902. 

Ashton was raised to the peerage in 1911 
as Baron Ashton of Hyde, and, during the 
war of 1914-1918, was chairman of the 



•21 



Ashton 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Cotton Exports Committee, which con- 
trolled the amoimt of cotton allowed to pass 
through the blockade to neutral nations 
bordering Germany. The work derived 
importance from the fact that cotton was 
then a raw material for munitions. 

Ashton was sagacious, far-sighted, 
widely read, and widely travelled, with 
excellent judgement of men and affairs, 
and an immense capacity for work, but 
his extreme reserve and modesty hid his 
real capabilities from those not closely 
acquainted with him. He had a most 
exacting sense of duty in all public affairs, 
and was entirely incapable of self-adver- 
tisement, never pushing his own claims 
and interests. Nor for one moment did 
he support any views merely because of 
their popularity. For instance, he advo- 
cated home rule for Ireland before Glad- 
stone pronounced in its favour. But, 
owing to his profovmd shyness, he struck 
even those knowing him well as curiously 
impersonal, a fact which militated per- 
haps against due recognition of his deep 
feeling for the causes which he served so 
faithfully. 

Ashton married in 1886 Eva Margaret 
(died 1938), second daughter of John 
Henry James, of Watford, who belonged 
to a Cumberland family. They had two 
sons, the elder of whom died as a child, 
and two daughters. He died at his home 
at Robertsbridge 1 May 1933 and was 
succeeded as second baron by his younger 
son, Thomas Henry Raymond (born 1901). 

[Manchester Guardian, 2 May 1933; per- 
sonal knowledge.] Marion Wood. 

ASTBURY, Sir JOHN MEIR (1860- 
1939), judge, was born at Broughton, 
nciar Manchester, 14 June 1860, the eldest 
son of Frederick James Astbury, J. P., 
chartered accountant, of Hilton Park, 
Prestwich, Lancashire, by his wife, Mar- 
garet, daughter of John Munn, of Man- 
chester. He was educated at Manchester 
Grammar School and at Trinity College, 
Oxford, where he graduated with a second 
class in jurisprudence in 1882: in the 
following year he was the only candidate 
placed in the first class in the B.C.L. 
examination, and in 1884 he won the 
Vinerian law scholarship. In the last- 
named year he was called to the bar by 
the Middle Temple (of which Inn he 
became a bencher in 1903 and treasurer 
in 1926), and entered practice on the 
Chancery side at the local bar at Man- 
chester. He took silk in 1 895 and migrated 
to London, attaching himself first to the 



court of Sir E. W. Byrne [q.v.] and later 
to that of Sir H. B. Buckley (later Lord 
Wrenbury, q.v.) 'going special' in 1905, 
with a large business in patent litigation, 
which increased greatly after John Fletcher 
Moulton [q.v.] became a lord justice of 
appeal in 1906. In that year he stood as 
liberal candidate for the Southport divi- 
sion and defeated (Sir) E. Marshall Hall 
[q.v.], but he was not greatly interested 
in politics and retired from parliament in 
January 1910. In 1913 Lord Chancellor 
Haldane offered him, and he accepted, the 
judgeship in the Chancery division recently 
vacated by the promotion of Sir Charles 
Swinfen Eady [q.v.]. For the next six- 
teen years he discharged the duties of this 
position with efficiency and firmness, 
though without any great distinction. 

Astbury was best known to the general 
public and will be remembered by future 
historians for the part which, as judge, he 
played during the General Strike of 1926. 
The litigation in question is reported as 
National Sailors'' and Firemen's Union of 
Great Britain and Ireland v. Reed and 
others. This union, composed of loyal 
merchant seamen, under the wise direction 
of its secretary J. Havelock Wilson [q.v.], 
had little sympathy with the attempt of 
the strikers to subvert democratic govern- 
ment, and when certain local branches 
called upon members to cease work the 
union immediately applied to the High 
Court of Justice for an injunction pro- 
hibiting its subordinate officials from 
usurping the functions of the union as a 
whole. The case was in Astbury 's list on 
11 May, and he gave his decision at once, 
not confining himself to the technical 
point as to the relations between the union 
and its branches, but declaring in forcible 
language that the whole General Strike 
was illegal and that the court would use 
its powers, by injunction, to prevent any 
action which might further its objective. 
On the previous night Sir Henry Slesser, 
at that time a leading lawyer amongst the 
labour members of parUament, had de- 
clared in the House of Commons that the 
question of the legality of the strike was 
one to be decided by the courts of justice, 
and that 'whatever the decision of this 
tribimal, we shall all, as law-abiding citi- 
zens, obey it'. When the House met on 
the following evening. Sir John Simon, 
with a copy of Astbury's judgement, given 
earUer in the day, in his hand, in a trench- 
ant speech charged the leaders of the strike 
as law-breakers. On the following morn- 
ing Mr. Baldwin made the announcement 



22 



D.N.E. 1931-1940 



Aston 



that the strike had been called off. There 
can be little doubt, in view of this 
sequence of events, that Astbury's judge- 
ment played an important part in bringing 
about the collapse of the whole movement. 
This is not the place to estimate the vali- 
dity of the judgement as an exposition of 
the law: at the time it had the general 
approval of lawyers, although it was subse- 
quently attacked by Professor A. L. 
Goodhart. 

In 1929 Astbury's eyesight began to 
fail and in October he resigned his judge- 
ship: in December he was sworn of the 
Privy Council. His last years were sad- 
dened by his blindness and by the death 
in a motor accident of his only child, a 
daughter by his first marriage. He died 
at Sandwich 21 August 1939. He was 
twice married: first, in 1888 to Evelyn 
(died January 1923), daughter of Paul Sus- 
man, merchant, of Manchester ; secondly, 
in August 1923 to Harriet, daughter of 
George William Holmes, of Philadelphia, 
U.S.A., and widow of Captain Morrell 
Andrew Girdlestone. By his will, he 
directed that the ultimate residue of 
his estate should be devoted to legal 
education. 

Astbury was elected in 1923 an honor- 
ary fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, 
which possesses a portrait of him by the 
Austrian artist Kopek. 

[Law Reports. National Sailors' and Fire- 
men's Union of Great Britain v. Reed and 
others, 1926, eh. 536 ; Law Quarterly Review, 
vol. xliii, 1926; A. L. Goodhart, Essays in 
Jurisprudence and the Common Law, 1931 ; 
Hansard, Parliamentary Debates; private 
information ; personal knowledge.] 

Philip A. Landon. 

ASTON, Sir GEORGE GREY (1861- 
1938), major-general, was born in Cape 
Colony 2 December 1861, the youngest 
son of Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Aston, 
Indian Army (retired), by his wife, 
Katherine, daughter of the Rev. Abraham 
Faure, of the Cape of Good Hope. Edu- 
cated at Westminster and at the Royal 
Naval College, Greenwich, he joined the 
Royal Marine Artillery in 1879. 

In 1884, while serving in the Mediter- 
ranean flagship, Aston landed at Suakin 
with the Royal Marine battalion and was 
present at the battles of El Teb and Tamai. 
In 1886, in recognition of his marked 
ability, he was appointed to the Foreign 
Intelligence Committee, Admiralty, the 
forerunner of the Naval Intelligence De- 
partment, and after completing the course 



at the Staff College, Camberley, in 1891, 
he held a succession of staff appointments 
with conspicuous success and growing 
reputation. The more important of these 
were professor of fortification at the Royal 
Naval College, Greenwich (1896-1899); 
deputy-assistant-adjutant-general (Intelli- 
gence) 8th division in South Africa (1900) ; 
instructor at the Staff College (1904-1907) ; 
brigadier-general on the staff of P. S., Lord 
Methuen [q.v.], commander-in-chief in 
South Africa (1908-1913). For his services 
in the South African war he was promoted 
brevet lieutenant-colonel. On relinquish- 
ing his appointment in 1913 he received 
from the government of the Union of 
South Africa an expression of thanks for 
the zeal and ability displayed in carrying 
out his duties. Lord Methuen, reporting 
on him, said: 'I have seldom served with 
an officer of such rare ability combined 
with such great zeal.' He was specially 
promoted to colonel 2nd commandant for 
meritorious services, particularly those in 
South Africa. 

On the outbreak of war in 1914 Aston 
was appointed to command a Royal 
Marine brigade, landing with it at Ostend 
and subsequently at Dunkirk. A break- 
down in health led to his relief by 
Brigadier-General (Sir) Archibald Paris 
[q.v.] in September, and from then on- 
wards he served as colonel commandant 
Royal Marine Artillery until the termina- 
tion of the appointment in 1917, when he 
was retired at his own request and pro- 
moted major-general. 

Aston now devoted himself to writing, 
contributing articles to The Times and 
pubUshing several books, including Memo- 
ries of a Marine (1919), The Navy of 
To-day (1927), and Biography of Marshal 
Foch (1929). He was appointed C.B. in 
1902 and K.C.B. in 1913. He was ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to the king in 1911, 
and in 1925 he was awarded a good service 
pension. 

Aston was dark, of medium height and 
slender build. He had a very quick brain 
and great store of nervous energy which, 
in conjunction with a ready pen, assured 
his success as a staff officer. He married 
in 1909 Dorothy Ellen, daughter of Vice- 
Admiral William Wilson, of Clyffe Pypard, 
near Swindon, and had three sons and two 
daughters. He died at Woodford, Salis- 
bury, 2 December 1938. 

[The Times, 3 December 1938; Sir George 
Aston, Memories of a Marine, 1919 ; Official 
records at the Royal Marine office, Admiralty ; 
personal knowledge.] R. C. Temple. 



28 



Atholstan 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



ATHOLSTAN, Baron (1848-1938), 
newspaper proprietor. [See Graham, 
Hugh.] 



ATKINSON, JOHN, Baron Atkinson, 
of Glenwilliam (1844-1932), judge, was 
bom at Drogheda, co. Louth, 13 December 
1844, the elder son of Edward Atkinson, 
physician, of Glenwilliam Castle, co. 
Limerick, and Skea House, Enniskillen, 
by his first wife, Rosetta, daughter of 
John Shaw McCuUoch. From the Royal 
Belfast Academical Institution he entered 
Queen's College, Galway (a constituent 
college of the old Royal University of Ire- 
land), where he gained scholarships in his 
first three years, in his fourth a senior 
scholarship in mathematics, and in his 
fifth a senior scholarship in natural philo- 
sophy. He graduated with first class 
honours in 1861 and in 1862 he entered 
as a student both in King's Inns, Dublin, 
and at the Inner Temple. In 1865 he was 
called to the Irish bar, and in the same 
year took the LL.B. degree with honours, 
becoming a bencher of King's Inns in 
1885. He joined the Munster circuit, of 
which he remained a member until his 
appointment as a law officer. He was 
called to the English bar by the Inner 
Temple in 1890, and was elected a bencher 
in 1906. Meanwhile his practice in Ireland 
was increasing and became large. In 1880, 
at an exceptionally early age, he took 
silk, and after appointment in 1889 as 
solicitor-general for Ireland and in 1892 
as attorney-general, he was sworn of the 
Irish Privy Council that same year, but 
the fall of I^ord Salisbury's administration 
put a speedy period to his tenure of office. 
It was not imtil 1895 that he entered the 
House of Commons as conservative mem- 
ber for North Londonderry, having earlier 
in the year been once more chosen to be 
attorney-general for Ireland. He con- 
tinued in that office until, in 1905, he was 
appointed a lord of appeal in ordinary 
with the title of Lord Atkinson, of Glen- 
william, CO. Limerick, and was sworn of 
the English Privy Council. In office his 
knowledge of land and social problems in 
Ireland rendered him a highly valued 
adviser to the chief secretary for Ireland, 
Gerald Balfour (later second Earl of Bal- 
four) in the framing and passing of the 
Irish Land Act of 1896 and the Local 
Government Act of 1898. 

Atkinson was the first Irish barrister to 
go direct from his practice at the bar to 
the House of Lords. His appointment 
called forth criticism on the ground that 

24 



the room of a great lawyer like Lindley 
should not have been fiUed by one better 
known as a politician than as a legist, but 
the sequel did not justify the doubts about 
his competence as a judge. Not that he 
was a profound lawyer — he was the last 
man to have made such a claim ; but he 
was a ready speaker, an energetic worker 
possessing an instinctive and sincere 
passion for justice, and, above all, en- 
dowed with the gifts of courage both 
physical and moral, and an inflexible 
sense of duty, which enabled him to steer 
luidaimted a straight course through the 
stormy seas of Irish political life during a 
period when navigation was by no means 
easy, and to resist the strong pressure put 
upon him to resign by the first coalition 
government in order to satisfy the require- 
ments of the political party leaders. He re- 
signed his seat as a lord of appeal in 1928. 

Atkinson married in 1873 Rowena Jane 
(died 1911), daughter of Richard Chute, 
M.D., of Tralee, co. Kerry, and had four 
sons, the three elder of whom predeceased 
their father. He died in London 13 March 
1932. An excellent portrait, by John St. 
HeUer Lander, hangs in the dining-hall of 
King's Inns, Dublin. 

[The Times, 14 and 15 March 1932 ; private 
information.] Theodoke C. Tobias. 



AVORY, Sir HORACE EDMUND 
(1851-1935), judge, was born in London 
31 August 1851, the second son of Henry 
Avory, clerk of the court at the Central 
Criminal Court (a post to which Henry 
Kemp Avory, Horace's elder brother, 
succeeded in due course), by his wife, 
Margaret Kemp. Horace was educated at 
Gothic House College, Clapham, King's 
College, London, and Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he was a scholar 
and was awarded a third class in the law 
tripos of 1873: he was captain of the 
college boat club in 1872. He was called 
to the bar by the Inner Temple in 1875 
and read for a time in the chambers of 
E. T. E. Besley, one of the leaders of the 
criminal bar. He joined the South-Eastern 
circuit and regularly attended the Surrey 
sessions held at Newington in addition 
to the monthly sessions of the Central 
Criminal Court where he had the oppor- 
tunity of 'devilling' for such men as (Sir) 
Harry Poland, Montagu Williams, and 
(Sir) Edward Clarke [qq.v.] as well as 
Beslej'. He soon came to be known as a 
sound lawyer as well as an astute and 
courageous if not eloquent advocate. His 
practice grew rapidly and in 1889 his 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Avory 



name was included with those of (Sir) 
Forrest Fulton, (Sir) C. W. Matthews 
[q.v.], and (Sir) C. F. Gill, as one of the 
official prosecuting counsel at the Central 
Criminal Court. For the next twelve years 
he was engaged in most of the important 
criminal trials in London, and in 1809 he 
became senior prosecuting counsel to the 
Crown at the Central Criminal Court. 
When he was not required to act for the 
Crown he was frequently briefed for the 
defence as junior to some fashionable 
Queen's Counsel, his role being to deal 
with any legal point which might arise. 
He was counsel for the prosecution in the 
trials in 1893 of Jabez Balfour and his co- 
directors of the Liberator group of com- 
panies, the failure of which in 1892 with 
liabilities of eight millions caused wide- 
spread ruin. 

By 1901 Avory considered that his 
practice in the civil courts, particularly 
in rating and licensing cases, justified him 
in applying for silk, and he was included 
in the first batch of King's Counsel to be 
appointed by King Edward VII. His suc- 
cess as a leader was immediate. His argu- 
ments were always listened to with close 
attention by the judges, for he never 
indulged in irrelevance or repetition, while 
his direct and lucid method of stating his 
case appealed to a jury. He quickly 
acquired a leading practice in 'Crown 
paper' matters and had a fair share of 
briefs at nisi prius. The Law Reports are 
the best evidence of his activities at this 
period, but it may be mentioned that he 
advised the prosecution of Whitaker 
Wright [q.v.] after the law officers had 
stated in the House of Commons that in 
their opinion Wright had committed no 
criminal offence. The subsequent con- 
viction of Wright (1904) showed Avory's 
view to be correct. In 1902 Avory was 
appointed recorder of Kingston, an office 
involving no work and carrying no salary, 
but, as a compliment, much appreciated 
by the holder. 

In the summer of 1909 Avory was ap- 
pointed commissioner of assize for the 
South-Eastern circuit and when, in Janu- 
ary 1910, he was again appointed com- 
missioner, this time for the Northern 
circuit, it was realized that his elevation 
to the bench was only a matter of time. 
The opportunity occurred in the same 
year, and in October he was sworn in as 
a judge of the King's Bench division. It 
is as a judge that Avory will be best 
remembered. Always dignified and cour- 
teous, his control of a case was perfect. 



Prolixity, irrelevance, and levity were alike 
discouraged in his court. For the most 
part a silent judge, what he did say was 
always to the point and expressed in the 
simplest language. His judgement on any 
question of law is invariably treated as 
deserving the utmost respect. His sum- 
ming up to a jury in a criminal trial was 
usually a model of lucidity and accuracy. 
He made mistakes, as all judges must, but 
the accused who relied upon facts always 
had his defence fully and fairly put, while 
he or she who relied upon sentiment found 
Avory unsympathetic. His manner was 
cold and at times stern, but if the accused 
was convicted it was by the logic of facts 
not as the result of any undue pressure 
from the bench, and many convicted per- 
sons, including the two murderers of 
Police-Constable Gutteridge, in 1927, Guy 
Frederick Browne and William Henry 
Kennedy, went out of their way to 
acknowledge the fairness of their trials 
before him. As a member of a divisional 
court Avory's knowledge of magisterial 
law was invaluable, while in the Court of 
Criminal Appeal his opinion usually pre- 
vailed with the other members of the 
court. 

On the retirement of Sir Charles (later 
Lord) Darling [q.v.] in 1923 Avory became 
senior judge of the King's Bench division. 
During the absence through ill health of 
Lord Hewart, the lord chief justice, he 
discharged the official duties of that office 
and in 1932 he was sworn of the Privy 
Council. He continued to sit in court regu- 
larly until the end of the Easter sittings 
of 1935 when he left London for the 
Dormy House Club at Rye. There he died 
suddenly 13 June. In the previous Janu- 
ary he had celebrated the diamond jubilee 
of his call to the bar. 

Avory was chairman of the committee 
which was responsible for the codification 
of the law to be found in the Perjury Act 
(1911), the Forgery Act (1913), and the 
Larceny Act (1916). The Indictments Act 
(1915) and its rules were largely his work 
and his hand is clearly traceable in the 
Criminal Justice Act (1925) and in other 
statutes dealing with criminal law. 

Avory received the honorary degree of 
LL.D. from the university of Cambridge 
in 1911 and was elected an honorary fellow 
of Corpus in 1912. He also became a 
fellow of King's College, London, in 1912. 
He was elected a bencher of the Inner 
Temple in 1908 and treasurer in 1929. He 
was fond of riding and in his youth hunted 
with the Surrey Union hounds. Later he 



2."> 



Avory 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



took up golf, which he played accurately 
and very seriously. He regularly attended 
the meetings and dinners of the Pegasus 
Club, of which he was an original member, 
becoming president in 1911. His fellow 
members of the Garrick and United Uni- 
versity clubs found him a pleasant and, 
when he chose, an amusing companion. 
His life, however, was devoted to the law, 
which was his hobby as well as his pro- 
fession. He did not court publicity and 
preferred the society of a limited circle of 
friends. He married in 1877 Maria Louisa 
(died 1937), daughter of Henry Castle, 
of Wandsworth, and had a son and a 
daughter. 

A cartoon of Avory, by 'Spy', appeared 
in Vanity Fair 2 June 1904. 

[The Times, 14 June 1935 ; F. W. Ashley, 
My First Sixty Years in the Law, 1936; 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 
Travers Humphrkys. 

BACKHOUSE, Sir ROGER ROLAND 
CHARLES (1878-1939), admiral of the 
fleet, the fourth son (twin with his brother 
Miles) of (Sir) Jonathan Edmund Back- 
house, first baronet, a descendant of well- 
known Quaker forebears, by his wife, 
Florence, youngest daughter of Sir John 
Salusbury Salusbury-Trelawny , ninth baro- 
net, the head of a famous and ancient Corn- 
ish family, was born at The Rookery, Mid- 
dleton Tyas, Yorkshire, 24 November 1878. 
He entered the training-ship Britannia at 
Dartmouth as a naval cadet in 1892, and 
passing out after two years was appointed 
to the Repulse battleship in the Channel 
squadron, being promoted midshipman in 
1894. A year later he was transferred to 
H.M.S. Comus, a small third-class cruiser 
which was commissioned to join the Pacific 
squadron, an opportunity for seeing the 
New World in the days of 'showing the 
flag' all down the American coast from 
Alaska to Patagonia. In her he remained 
until she returned to England in 1898, 
being promoted sub-lieutenant in March 
of that year. Exactly one year later he 
was promoted lieutenant with a prize of 
£10 for gaining five first class certificates. 
After a year in the battleship Revenge in 
the Mediterranean he rapidly became 
recognized as a gunnery expert, winning 
the Egerton prize in 1902. He divided his 
last remaining nine years as lieutenant 
equally between the staff of the gunnery- 
school ship Excellent at Portsmouth and 
appointments as gunnery officer of battle- 
ships afloat, including the new Dread- 
nought with its great advance in gun 



power. On promotion to commander at 
the end of 1909 he left the Dreadnought 
to return to the Excellent as experimental 
officer for a year, and then began a long 
period of staff work at sea. From March 
1911 until August 1914 Backhouse was 
flag-commander to three successive Home 
Fleet commanders-in-chief, Sir F. C. B. 
Bridgeman, Sir G. A. Callaghan, and Sir 
John (afterwards Earl) Jellicoe [qq.v.], in 
their flagships Neptune and Iron Duke. 
After the outbreak of the war of 1914- 
1918 he was specially promoted captain 
(1 September), and at once reappointed to 
JeUicoe's staff for special service. Jellicoe, 
when first sea lord, placed on record the 
assistance of the greatest value rendered 
by Backhouse as flag-commander and 
captain on the staff from August 1914 to 
October 1915, both as gunnery expert and 
in the compilation of battle orders, and 
directed that this notice was to be treated 
as a 'mention in dispatches'. 

In November 1915 Backhouse was for 
the first time in command of a ship, the 
Conquest, light cruiser, in the Harwich 
force under Commodore (Sir) Reginald 
Yorke Tyrwhitt. He had an exciting year 
and incidents were numerous. When 
German battle cruisers bombarded Lowes- 
toft on 25 April 1916 the commodore, 
flying his broad pennant in the Conquest, 
intervened with three light cruisers and 
sixteen destroyers and drew off the 
enemy's fire. In turning to retire the 
Conquest was hit by four or five 12-inch 
shells; twenty-three of her crew were 
killed and sixteen wounded, and a serious 
fire broke out. Backhouse's conduct in 
leaving the bridge directly the shellfire 
had ceased and taking personal charge of 
the operation was given official approba- 
tion by the Board of Admiralty ; ' by his 
personal efforts he saved his ship from 
destruction'. 

In November 1916 Jellicoe left the 
Grand Fleet to become first sea lord. Sir 
David (afterwards Earl) Beatty [q.v.] 
succeeded to the chief command and took 
his staff and many of the officers from the 
battle -cruiser Lion to the battleship Iron 
Duke which had been Grand Fleet flag- 
ship since March 1914. Sir W. C. Paken- 
ham [q.v.] succeeded Beatty in command 
of the battle-cruisers, and Backhouse went 
to the Lion as his flag-captain and for gun- 
nery duties in the battle-cruiser force. In 
the summer of 1918 ill health compelled 
him to come ashore, but he recovered 
before the armistice (11 November) 
and was able to take up special duties 



26 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Bailey, A. 



at the Admiralty. These included mem- 
bership of several committees, including 
the post-war problems committee. While 
still on duty in Whitehall Backhouse was 
appointed director of naval ordnance in 
September 1920, a post for which his 
record clearly marked him out. He went 
to sea again in January 1923 for twenty 
months' command of the battleship 
Malaya, in the Atlantic Fleet, and then 
underwent senior officers' courses at Ports- 
mouth during which he reached flag rank 
in April 1925. In May 1926 he hoisted his 
flag in the veteran Iron Duke as rear- 
admiral commanding the third battle 
squadron Atlantic Fleet for the usual one 
year of command, and then had a well- 
earned rest at home on half-pay. 

In November 1928 Backhouse succeeded 
Vice-Admiral Sir Alaric Ernie Montacute 
(afterwards Lord) Chatfleld as third sea 
lord and controller of the navy in William 
Clive (afterwards Viscount) Bridgeman's 
Board and remained vmder Mr. Albert 
Victor Alexander through the foUow- 
ing labour administration (1929-1931), 
through the financial and political crisis 
of 1931, and under Sir Bolton Meredith 
Eyres-Monsell (afterwards Viscount Mon- 
sell) until March 1932. He had been pro- 
moted vice-admiral in October 1929. His 
tenure of office as controller was a difficult 
time of stringent economy. Naval ex- 
penditure fell by eight millions between 
1917 and 1932, and of this drop over four 
and a quarter miUions came from the 
armament votes under the controller's 
supervision. It was a time when 'dis- 
armament' was the international atmo- 
sphere and aggression had scarcely begun 
to show its head. Provision for the navy 
was not welcome to the labour govern- 
ment, and the coaUtion of 1931 was 
pledged to a general reduction of public 
expenditure. The Board of Admiralty 
had a prolonged struggle to maintain what 
they considered to be the minimum stan- 
dard of efficiency, and in this Backhouse's 
sane judgement and unrivalled knowledge 
of the material needs of the navy were a 
tower of strength in preventing economy 
from going too far. 

From his place on the Board Backhouse 
went to take command of the first battle 
squadron, with his flag in the Revenge, and 
to be second-in-command of the Mediter- 
ranean Fleet, first under Admiral Chat- 
field and then under Admiral Sir W. W. 
Fisher [q.v.]. He was promoted admiral 
in February 1934, was relieved of his 
command three months later, and in 



August 1935 became commander-in-chief, 
Home Fleet, with his flag in the Nelson, 
one of the two newest and most powerful 
ships. At the coronation review in May 
1937 the whole assembled fleet was under 
his command. He was relieved in April 

1938, having been selected to succeed 
Lord Chatfleld as first sea lord and chief 
of the naval staff. This office he took up 
in September, having in the meantime 
been appointed first and principal aide-de- 
camp to the king. It was a critical moment 
in world affairs, and the first sea lord was 
immediately plunged into business of the 
most exacting kind and had to be prepared 
to give professional advice on issues of 
major importance. But early next year 
his health began to fail; he relinquished 
his duties in May, was placed on the retired 
fist in June, and a serious illness developed 
from which he died in London 15 July 

1939. With the King's approval he had 
been speciaUy promoted to admiral of the 
fleet a week previously. 

Backhouse was a man of striking ap- 
pearance, six feet four inches tall, with 
charming manners and a winning perso- 
nality, of great strength of character and 
unswerving devotion to duty. His tireless 
love of his work and justifiable confidence 
in his own judgement led him somewhat 
to overlook the advantage of devolution 
to trusted assistants, both in high com- 
mand afloat and in office administration, 
while keeping the control of policy and the 
ultimate decision in his own hands. He 
was recognized throughout the service as 
one of the ablest and most eminent 
sea officers of his time, and his premature 
death on the eve of the outbreak of the 
war of 1939-1945 was regarded as a 
national calamity. He was beloved by 
all who knew him well. 

Backhouse was appointed C.B. (civil) in 
1914, C.B. (military) in 1928, C.M.G. for 
war service in 1917, K.C.B. in 1933, 
G.C.V.O. at the coronation review in 1937, 
and G.C.B. in 1938. He married in 1907 
Dora Louisa, sixth daughter of John 
Ritchie Findlay, of Aberlour, Banffshire, 
and had two sons and four daughters. The 
elder son, John Edward (bom 1909), suc- 
ceeded his uncle as third baronet in 
January 1944 and was killed in action in 
Normandy the following August. 

[Admiralty records ; personal knowledge.] 
Vincent W. Baddeley. 

BAILEY, Sm ABE, first baronet (1864- 
1940), South African financier and states- 
man, was born at Cradock, Cape Colony, 



27 



Bailey, A. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



6 November 1864, the only son of Thomas 
Bailey, of Keighley, Yorkshire, who 
became a general storekeeper at Queen's 
Town, Cape Colony, and represented it in 
the legislative assembly. His mother was 
Ann Drummond, daughter of Peter 
McEwan, of Muthill, Crieff, Perthshire. 
Bailey was sent to England to be educated 
at the Keighley Trade and Grammar 
School and at Clewer House, Windsor. 
Returning to the Cape in 1881 he worked 
at his father's business until he left for the 
Barberton gold-fields in the Transvaal, 
arriving there in July 1886. He began 
dealing in shares with a capital of £100. 
Losing it he borrowed £10 from a friend, 
took out a licence, and setting up as a 
broker on the Stock Exchange, began to 
make his way. Leaving Barberton in 
March 1887, he went to the Rand in order 
to continue his sharebroking and to become 
secretary of the Gipsey and Kleinfontein 
mines. As soon as his fortune warranted it 
he abandoned broking and the secretary- 
ship and began acquiring and developing 
properties. In the end his business inter- 
ests comprised the chairmanship of the 
fourteen subsidiary companies in the 
Abe Bailey and London and Rhodesian 
mining group, a directorship of the Central 
Mining and Investment Corporation con- 
trolling twenty-four subsidiary companies, 
and several other company directorships. 
He became one of the largest breeders and 
owners of race-horses both in England and 
in South Africa. His most famous horse, 
Son-in-Law, won the Cesarewitch and the 
Goodwood Cup, was founder of a line of 
stayers including Foxlaw, Trimdon, Fox- 
hunter, and Tiberius, and was sire of 
Straitlace, winner of the Oaks in 1924. 
Bailey himself won the Oaks in 1936 with 
Lovely Rosa and was second in the Derby 
of 1935 with Robin Goodfellow. He also 
carried on large farming operations in the 
Colesberg district of the Cape. 

Bailey began his public service in the 
Johannesburg Staatsraad before the Jame- 
son Raid of 1895. He was a member 
of the 'reform committee' and was sen- 
tenced, for the raid, to two j^ears' im- 
prisonment, afterwards commuted to a 
fine of £2,000. In the South African war 
he served in the Intelligence Division and 
helped to raise and equip Gorringe's Horse 
and the City Imperial Volunteers. In 
1902, after the war, he entered the Cape 
House of Assembly as 'progressive' repre- 
sentative of Barkly West, Cecil Rhodes's 
old constituency. This seat he resigned in 
1905 and, after the grant of responsible 



government to the Transvaal in 1906, he 
was elected in 1907 to the legislative 
assembly at Pretoria as member for 
Krugersdorp, holding the seat until 1910 
and becoming whip of the opposition to 
the administration of General Louis Botha 
[q.v.]. He was an active worker for South 
African union, helping to finance the State, 
the organ of the Closer Union Society 
which was founded to popularize the cause. 

In 1915 Bailey re-entered politics as 
member for his old constituency, Krugers- 
dorp, taking his seat in the Union House 
of Assembly as an independent, but sitting 
with General Botha's South African party. 
He retained the seat until his defeat at the 
general election of 1924. Party politics 
and debate were not the sources of his 
influence. That lay rather in the bound- 
less hospitality which he dispensed at 
Rust-en- Vrede at Muizenberg, near Cape 
Town, and at his London residence, 38 
Bryanston Square. His dispassionate per- 
sonality, his skill and tact as host, made 
his houses centres where men of all shades 
of opinion and experience intermixed and 
exchanged views. At times they acted as 
neutral territories for the settlement of 
political difficulties. The critical meeting 
of 3 December 1916 which led to the super- 
session in the premiership of Asquith by 
Lloyd George was held at 38 Bryanston 
Square. In March 1933 General Smuts 
and General James Barry Munnik Hertzog 
met at Rust-en-Vrede to form a national 
government for the Union of South Africa, 
although Bailey personally took no part 
in these deliberations. 

Bailey was appointed K.C.M.G. in 1911 
for his sei^ces in promoting South African 
union, and created a baronet in 1919. He 
died at Rust-en-Vrede 10 August 1940, 
after having suffered the amputation of 
both legs, the first in July 1937 and the 
second in April 1938. In his will he left a 
quarter of his estate to an Abe Bailey 
Trust to be applied by the trustees for the 
advancement and strengthening of the 
South African people, and his pictures at 
Bryanston Square in trust for them also. 
He bequeathed £100,000 or £5,000 a year 
to the Royal Institute of International 
Affairs, for research. 

Bailey was twice married: first, in 1894 
to Caroline Mary (died 1902), elder 
daughter of John Paddon, a Kimberley 
merchant ; secondly, in 1911 to Mary, only 
daughter of Derrick Warner William 
Westenra, fifth Lord Rossmore. By his 
first wife he had a son, John MUner 
(bom 1900), who succeeded him as second 



28 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Baillie, J. B. 



baronet, and one daughter ; by his second 
wife he had two sons and three daughters. 
There is a portrait of Bailey, by Oswald 
Birley, at the Royal Institute of Inter- 
national Affairs. A cartoon of him, by 
'Spy', appeared in Vanity Fair 9 Sep- 
ember 1908. 

[The Times, 12 August 1940 ; African World 
%nual, 1941 ; personal knowledge.] 

H. A. Wyndham. 

BAILEY, JOHN CANN (1864 1931), 
itic and essayist, the third son of 
Elijah Crosier Bailey, solicitor, clerk of 
the peace for Norwich, by his wife, Jane 
Sarah, daughter of William Robert Cann, 
of Cavick House, Wj'^mondham, Norfolk, 
was born at Norwich 10 January 1864. He 
was educated at Haileybury and at New 
College, Oxford, where he obtained second 
classes in classical moderations (1884) and 
literae humaniores (1886), and was called 
to the bar by the Inner Temple in 1892. 
He came to London with private means 
sufficient to enable to him stand for parlia- 
ment (he unsuccessfully contested the 
Sowerby division of Yorkshire in the con- 
servative interest in 1895 and 1900), but 
with little in the way of social acquain- 
tance, other than that which he had formed 
at. the university. Bailey's easy, agree- 
able, and intelligent conversation, how- 
ever, gave him a ready entrance into the 
metropolitan society of the 'nineties ; and 
his marriage in 1900 to Sarah Kathleen 
(died 1941), the eldest daughter by his 
second marriage of G. W. Lyttelton, fourth 
Lord Lyttelton [q.v.], herself a spirited 
conversationalist, gave him not only a 
very happy home life but the association 
of several brothers-in-law of exceptional 
distinction . These included Arthur Temple 
Lyttelton, suffragan bishop of South- 
ampton, and Alfred Lyttelton [qq.v.], the 
lawyer and statesman. He made many 
friends, was a constant and valued mem- 
ber of the Literary (dining) Society, of 
which he eventually became president, 
and, as might be expected of so ardent a 
Johnsonian, was immensely gratified by 
his election to 'the Club'. 

Bailey's intense pleasure in good talk 
may possibly have restricted his literary 
output, but his literary ambition was 
always circumscribed. He related that 
when people asked him to write a magnum 
opus he used to counter by inquiring: 'If 
I write it, will you buy it and will you 
read it ? ' It is arguable that his best work 
was, in fact, slight in compass. He himself 
may have rated his little book on Milton 



(1915) highest, but there are many good 
judges who would hold that Dr. Johnson 
and his Circle (1913) gave his particular 
powers their fullest scope. Bailey's other 
publications include Studies in Some 
Famous Letters (1899), An Anthology of 
English Elegies (1899), The Poems of 
William Cowper (edited with an intro- 
duction and notes, 1905), The Claims of 
French Poetry (1907), Some Political Ideas 
and Persons (1921), The Continuity of 
Letters (1923), The Diary of Lady Frederick 
Cavendish (2 vols., 1927), and Shakespeare 
('English Heritage' series, 1929). For the 
rest, he was a constant contributor to 
The Times Literary Supplement, for Avhich 
he did much important though anony- 
mous work; to the Quarterly Review, of 
which he was deputy-editor in 1907-1908 
and again in 1909-1910 ; to the Edinbugh 
Review and the Fortnightly Review; and 
to the London Mercury. Tributes in dis- 
tinguished quarters attested his critical 
powers. Among these an observation 
attributed to A. J. Balfour (first Earl of Bal- 
four, q.v.) to the effect that Bailey, Avhilst 
tending to take traditional views in htera- 
ture which were generally the true views, 
would invest them with freshness and in- 
terest, is perhaps worth preserving as an 
estimate of his place in literary criticism. 

As chairman (1912-1915) and president 
(1925-1926) of the English Association, 
Bailey made a further contribution to the 
study of English letters, and as chairman 
(1923-1931) of the executive committee of 
the National Trust for places of historic 
interest or natural beauty and also of the 
Fulham branch of the Charity Organisa- 
tion Society, he disclosed a practical inter- 
est in things of beauty and in matters 
of social welfare. Never a strong man 
physically, Bailey died in London 29 June 
1931 in the plenitude of his intellectual 
powers. He lies buried in the churchyard 
of Wramplingham near Wymondham, as 
befits one who valued both his connexion 
with the county of Norfolk and his mem- 
bership of the Church of England. His 
outlook was that of a broad churchman. 
He had three daughters, the youngest of 
whom predeceased him. 

[The Times, 30 June 1931 ; John Bailey, 
1864r-1931, Letters and Diaries, edited by his 
wife (containing a bibliography of Bailey's 
writings), 1935 ; personal knowledge.] 

A. Cecil. 

BAILLIE, Sir JAMES BLACK (1872- 
1940), vice-chancellor of the university of 
Leeds, was born at Haddington 24 October 



29 



Baillie, J. B. 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



1872, the second of the fouy sons of William 
BaiUie, of Haddington, by his wife, Agnes 
Black. Educated at Haddington School, 
the university of Edinburgh, where he 
obtained the Baxter scholarship and 
Hamilton fellowship, and the Ferguson 
scholarship and Shaw fellowship in philo- 
sophy, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
he subsequently studied at Halle, Stras- 
burg, and Paris. For a time he was lecturer 
in philosophy at University College, Dun- 
dee, until, in 1902, he was appointed pro- 
fessor of moral philosophy at the vmiversity 
of Aberdeen. During the war of 1914-1918 
he served for two years in the Intelligence 
di\'ision of the Admiralty, developing ad- 
ministrative talent which, from 1917 to 
1919, was exercised in the work of arbitra- 
tion and conciliation in industrial disputes 
at the Ministry of Labour. In 1919 he 
was appointed to the panel of chairmen 
of arbitration courts, and in 1920 became 
chairman of the board appointed for the 
jute, flax, hemp, and kindred industries. 
He resigned this post and his professorship 
in 1924, when he was chosen to succeed 
Sir Michael Sadler as vice-chancellor of 
the university of Leeds. 

During the fotui;een years in which he 
filled this office Baillie was busily occu- 
pied with increasing the number of pro- 
fessorships and lecturerships and with the 
promotion of a building scheme, including 
the library given by Lord Brotherton in 

1930, and laboratories for the chemical 
and other scientific departments which 
were completed by the time of his retire- 
ment under the age-limit in 1938. In 1929 
he became a member of the royal com- 
mission on the civil sei^ice. He continued 
his work on arbitration committees, and 
after his retirement went for a time to 
Trinidad as chairman of the arbitration 
tribunal set up to inquire into disputes 
in the oil-fields. He died at Wey bridge 
9 Jime 1940. 

BaiUie married in 1906 Helena May, 
youngest daughter of John Gwynne Jones, 
of Aylstone Hill, Hereford ; there were no 
children of the marriage. He was knighted 
in 1931, appointed O.B.E. in 1918, and in 
1933 was made a knight commander of 
the Order of the Crown of Italy. He 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
firom the university of Aberdeen, and was 
an honorary freeman of the Company of 
Clothworkers and a freeman of the City 
of London. He was Hibbert lecturer in 

1931. His chief published works are The 
Origin and Significance of HegeVs Logic 
(1901) and a translation of Hegel's Phdno- 

80 



menologie des Geistes (2 vols., 1910, 2nd ed. 
1931), An Outline of the Idealistic Con- 
struction of Experience (1906), and Studies 
in Human Nature (1921). 

A portrait of Baillie, by G. Fiddes Watt, 
is in the possession of his widow, and will 
eventually become the property of Leeds 
University. 

[2'he Times, 11 June 1940 ; private infortna- 
tion ; personal knowledge.] 

A. Hamilton Thompson. 

BAILLIE, CHARLES WALLACE 
ALEXANDER NAPIER ROSS COCH- 
RANE-, second Bakon Lamington (1860 - 
1940), was born in London 29 July 1860, 
the only son of the politician and author 
Alexander Dundas Ross Wishart Cochrane- 
Baillie, first Baron Lamington [q.v.], by 
his wife, Annabella Mary Elizabeth, elder 
daughter of Andrew Robert Drummond, 
of Cadland, Hampshire. He was educated 
at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. In 
1885 he became assistant private secretary 
to Lord Salisbury, and after an unsuccess- 
ful candidature at North St. Pancras in 
the same year, he entered parliament as 
conservative member for that constitu- 
ency in 1886. He was only four years in 
the House of Commons, for he succeeded 
his father in 1890. 

An enthusiastic sportsman, Lamington 
was fond of travel, and made a notable 
journey from Siam to Tongking in 1890- 
1891. In 1895 he was appointed governor 
of Queensland. There he made substantial 
contributions to the cause of Imperial 
unity, which bore fruit later in the federa- 
tion of Australia. When the South African 
war broke out, he raised volunteers, and 
on their sailing, bade them farewell with 
stirring speeches. His state was at the time 
affhcted by a long drought which lasted 
seven years and caused much hardship. 
In order to understand the disaster, and 
to promote means of alleviation, Laming- 
ton, as no other governor had done, 
traversed the length and breadth of 
Queensland. 

Lamington returned to his Lanarkshire 
estates in 1901, and two years later his 
interest was directed to the East by his 
selection as governor of Bombay in suc- 
cession to H. S. Northcote, Lord North- 
cote [q.v.]. He sought in western India 
to imderstand the needs of all classes and 
to provide for them. The viceroy of India 
at the time was his old Oxford friend. 
Lord Curzon, whose love of dominance 
might have created difficulties but for 
Lamington's fairness, moderation, and 



D.N.B. 1981 1940 



Bain 



good sense. The latter, however, was 
obliged in 1907, after three and a half 
years' service, to resign his governorship 
on account of the serious illness of his wife. 
Lady Lamington gave her husband stead- 
fast support in all his public activities, 
which were numerous. One of them was 
his constant interest in the Territorial 
movement. He was lieutenant-colonel of 
the Lanarkshire Yeomanry, and an honor- 
ary colonel of the 6th battalion of the 
Scottish Rifles (Cameronians). He was 
also captain of the Royal Company of 
Archers, the king's bodyguard for Scot- 
land. During the war of 1914-1918 he 
vigorously encouraged recruiting, and in 
1919 he went to Syria as commissioner of 
the British relief unit. 

In the House of Lords Lamington spoke 
on many subjects. He was always ready 
to support the claims of minorities and 
smaller nations struggling to be free. But 
the main interest of his life was the wel- 
fare of the British Empire, and the advo- 
cacy of a good understanding between the 
British government and eastern peoples. 
He was a member of many organizations 
concerned with oriental well-being, and 
diligent in his attention to them, as indeed 
he was to all his public work. 

On 13 March 1940 Lord Lamington was 
present at a meeting of the Royal Central 
Asian Society at the Caxton Hall. It was 
at this meeting that a man in the audience 
rose and fired several shots at the occu- 
pants of the platform, killing Sir Michael 
O'Dwyer [q.v.] and wounding others, of 
whom Lord Lamington was one. In spite 
of the shock, his injury, which was in the 
forearm, seemed to make him more than 
ever zealous on behalf of Indian reform. 

Lamington was appointed G.C.M.G. in 
1900 and G.C.I.E. in 1903. He married in 
1895 Mary Haughton, yoimgest daughter 
of William Wallace Hozier, first Baron 
Newlands, and had a son and a daughter. 
He died at Lamington House, Lanark- 
shire, 16 September 1940, and was suc- 
ceeded as third baron by his son, Victor 
Alexander Brisbane William (born 1896), 
who was awarded the M.C. in the war of 
1914r-1918. 

A portrait of Lamington as a boy, 
by Henry Richard Graves (1868), and 
another, as a young man (1895), are in the 
possession of the family. 

(The Times, 18 September 1940; private 
information.] Alfred Cochrane. 

BAIN, FRANCIS WILLIAM (1863- 
1940), scholar and writer, the third son 



of Joseph Bain, archivist and antiquary, 
of Sweethope, Bothwell, Lanarkshire, by 
his wife, Charlotte, daughter of Edward 
Piper, of Alston, Cumberland, was born 
at Bothwell 2 April 1863. He was elected 
an exhibitioner (1877) and a scholar (1878) 
on the foundation of Westminster, and 
went up as a Westminster scholar to 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1882. He ob- 
tained a second class in classical modera- 
tions (1884) and a first class in liter ae 
humaniores (1886), and was also a 'blue' 
for association football for four years from 
1883 to 1886, captaining the team in liis 
fourth year. In 1889 he obtained a fellow- 
ship (which he held until 1896) at All 
Souls College; in 1890 he married Helen 
Margarita, daughter of Henry Blandford, 
of Blandford, Dorset ; and, in 1892, to the 
surprise of many of his friends, he took a 
post in the Indian educational services as 
professor of history and political economy 
at the Deccan College at Poona, where he 
remained until his retirement in 1919, 
after serving, in addition, as junior prin- 
cipal in 1908, and as senior principal in 
1911. He was appointed CLE. in 1918, 
and when he left Poona he received an 
address in a silver casket expressing the 
enthusiastic appreciation of many hun- 
dreds of former students not only for his 
teaching but for his deep sympathy with, 
and insight into, the higher elements in 
Indian life and thought ; he was regarded 
'not only as a professor but also as a 
prophet and a philosopher'. 

After 1919 Bain lived quietly in Lon- 
don, paying frequent visits to All Souls, 
where, as in the years before 1914, he was 
always an eagerly awaited guest; but 
deeply affected by the death of his wife 
(1931) and of his only child, a daughter 
(1934), he retired into a self-imposed 
isolation, broken with difficulty even by 
his most intimate friends, which con- 
tinued until his death. This took place in 
London 24 February 1940. 

Bain, as an undergraduate, developed 
the views on life, philosophy, politics, and 
literature which he maintained with in- 
creasing tenacity to the end. Aristotle 
was for him 'the master of the wise' ; in 
politics he was a tory with a creed based 
on his interpretation of Bolingbroke and 
Disraeli; for whigs, liberals, and modern 
conservatives he had a profound con- 
tempt; in modern physical and natural 
science he saw only a perversion of judge- 
ment and the facts; the classical econo- 
mists and most historians he regarded as 
ability corrupted by original sin j but into 



31 



Bain 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



imaginative literature of all types he had 
a wonderful insight. As a teacher he could 
expound with fascinating lucidity views 
which he was convinced were fundamen- 
tally wrong, and instruct his Indian 
students that 'this is what they must say' 
and then demonstrate its perversity and 
errors. Deep in Bain's mind was an inspir- 
ing mystical element which at Poona was 
richly nourished by his study of Indian 
life, religion, and the Sanskrit classics. 

In his early years Bain published two 
or three volumes of fiction, philosophical 
pamphlets, and a remarkable essay on 
The English Monarchy and its Revolutions 
(1894), full of penetrating observations, 
all of which attracted no attention; but 
in 1899 he found the right scope for his 
genius when he published A Digit of The 
Moon, a Hindu love-story, professing to 
be a translation from a Sanskrit manu- 
script. Even experts were at first taken 
in, but its quality both in imagination and 
style captured a large and critical public, 
which rightly hailed it as unique in English 
literature. It was followed by twelve other 
similar Hindu love-stories, the last of 
which. The Substance of a Dream (1919), 
was as successful as its predecessors. He 
then ceased to write. 

Bain's personality was even more im- 
pressive than his best writing. Strikingly 
handsome, when stirred by his company 
he exercised almost a witchery over his 
friends ; and in the common room at All 
Souls his conversation in that congenial 
atmosphere, discussing any and every 
topic, and soaring at times into flights of 
imaginative eloquence, was an experience 
impossible to describe, but thrilling to 
have shared. His loyalty to the college 
and to a limited circle of friends earned 
from all an affection as strong as was the 
admiration of his genius. Copies of most 
of Bain's WTitings, long out of print and 
never reprinted, are in the Codrington 
library at All Souls. Besides those men- 
tioned above there may be noted his 
biographical study of Queen Christina of 
Sweden (1890), On the Realisation of the 
Possible and the Spirit of Aristotle (1899), 
and the essay De vi physica et imbecillitate 
Darwiniana (1903) which summarizes his 
homage to Aristotle and his views on 
'modern science'. 

[The Times, 26 February 1940; personal 
knowledge,] Charles Grant Robertson. 



BAKER, HERBERT BRERETON 

(1862-1935), chemist, was born at Livesey, 



near Blackburn, 25 June 1862, the second! 
son of John Baker, curate in charge of I 
Livesey, afterwards vicar of St. John'sf 
church, Blackburn, by his wife, Caroline] 
Slater. Ill health developed in him the! 
habits of a student: he could read before] 
he was four years old and by the time that | 
he was ten he had read through most of] 
his father's library. He was educated first ! 
at Blackbiu-n Grammar School and then; 
at Manchester Grammar School, and, ; 
changing from the classical to the science 
side, he came under the influence of] 
Francis Jones, often referred to by himi 
as 'the best of all teachers'. A Bracken- 
bury scholarship at Balliol College and a! 
school Brackenbury award enabled him to : 
go to Oxford where, with Harold Bailyj 
Dixon as his tutor, he in 1883 obtained I 
a first class in natural science. From 1883 ■ 
to 1885 he was demonstrator in chemistry 
at BaUiol and private assistant to Dixon, ' 
who communicated to him his ownj 
enthusiasm for investigation and led himj 
into that field of research to which later | 
he contributed so notably — the influence j 
of moisture on chemical change. In 1886 j 
he went as chemistry master and head of I 
the science side to Dulwich College. Here i 
he built up a most successful science side 
and many of his pupils have testified to 
the excellence of his teaching and to the 
interest in research which the knowledge! 
that he himself was engaged in important] 
investigations inspired in them. Baker is] 
indeed to be regarded as one of the few 
schoolmasters who have become eminent] 
both in scholastic and in scientific workJ 
Some of his most remarkable results were] 
obtained while he was at Dulwich and he] 
was elected F.R.S. in 1902 while there. Ini 
the same year he was appointed head-l 
master of Alleyn's School, Dulwich, a| 
secondary school on the same foundation,] 
but shortly afterwards (1904) he returned] 
to Oxford as Lee's reader in chemistry at] 
Christ Church, of which he was elected] 
a student and tutor. Here he was re- 
sponsible for the teaching of inorganic] 
chemistry in the university and his experi- 
mentally illustrated lectures were highly! 
popular. In 1912 he accepted the chief] 
professorship of chemistry at the ImperialJ 
College of Science and Technology, South] 
Kensington, in succession to Sir T. E.j 
Thorpe [q.v.], and held this post until his] 
retirement in 1932. 

In April 1915 Baker was called uponl 
by the rector of the Imperial College,] 
Sir Alfred Keogh [q.v.], who in thef 
previous year had become director o! 



32 



D.N.B. 1981-1040 



Balfour, A 



medical services at the War Office, to 
advise on the steps to be taken to meet 
the serious menace of the German gas 
attacks. For his valuable services in this 
and other scientific duties undertaken for 
the war departments he was appointed 
C.B.E. in 1917. 

Baker's claim to fame rests on his 
achievements as an experimentalist rather 
than as a theoretical chemist. His excep- 
tional skill in the preparation and manipu- 
lation of intensively dried substances 
enabled him to achieve results which 
others, with less mastery of the tech- 
nique, were sometimes at first unable to 
repeat. Perhaps his most outstanding 
achievements in this field were the demon- 
stration that dried ammonium chloride 
does not dissociate when volatilized by 
heat : that hydrogen and oxygen prepared 
by the electrolysis of pure barium hydrox- 
ide do not combine on heating when care- 
fully dried ; and that while very dry nitrogen 
trioxide does not break up on vaporiza- 
tion, the slightest trace of moisture causes 
the gas to dissociate completely into nitric 
oxide and nitrogen peroxide. He demon- 
strated the slowing down or complete 
stoppage of chemical action in numerous 
other instances and his remarkable success 
in demonstrating this effect led chemists 
to refer to the relative dryness of things 
as dry, very dry, or 'Baker dry'. 

In 1923 Baker was awarded the Davy 
medal of the Royal Society, and in 1912 
the Longstaff medal of the Chemical 
Society, of which he was elected president 
in 1926. In 1926 the university of Aber- 
deen conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of LL.D. In 1905 he married 
Muriel, only child of Harry James Powell, 
partner in the Whitefriars glass-works. 
She too was a trained chemist and collabo- 
rated Avith her husband in a number of his 
researches. They had one son, who pre- 
deceased his father, and one daughter. 
Baker died at his home at Gerrards Cross 
27 AprU 1935. 

[Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal 
Society, No. 4, December 1935 (portrait) ; 
Journal of the Chemical Society, 1935, part ii 
(portrait) ; personal knowledge.] 

B. MouAT Jones. 

BALDWIN BROWN, GERARD (1849- 
1932), historian of art. [See Brown.] 

BALFOUR, Sir ANDREW (1873- 
1931), expert in tropical medicine and 
public health, and novelist, was born in 
Edinburgh 21 March 1873, the eldest 
son of Thomas Alexander Goldie Balfour, 



M.D., of Edinburgh, by his wife, Margaret, 
daughter of Peter Christall, of Elgin. He 
was educated at George Watson's College 
and at the university of Edinburgh, 
graduating M.B., CM. in 1894 and M.D. 
in 1898 with a thesis on the 'toxicity of 
dye-stuffs and river pollution' for which 
he received a gold medal. After a short 
period of private practice he entered Gon- 
ville and Caius College, Cambridge, as an 
advanced student in 1895. He took the 
D.P.H. there in 1897 and the B.Sc. (Edin.), 
in public health, in 1900. During the 
South African war he served (1900-1901) 
as a civil surgeon and gained the Queen's 
medal with three clasps. In 1901 the 
counsel and friendship of (Sir) Patrick 
Manson [q.v.] interested him in tropical 
medicine, in which he made his reputa- 
tion. In 1902 he became director of the 
Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories 
at Ivhartoum and local medical officer of 
health. His knowledge of Arabic, his 
popularity with the Sudanese, and his 
untiring energy resulted in the banishment 
of malaria from Khartoum and made it a 
modern and sanitary city. His work there 
earned the support and approbation of the 
British administrative triiunvirate. Lord 
Cromer [q.v.], I^ord lOtchener [q.v.], and 
Sir Reginald Wingate, and he strongly 
advocated that the care and health of 
native conmiunities were essential features 
of modern rule. 

In addition to the duties of organiza- 
tion Balfour made several important dis- 
coveries in protozoology. These included 
work on spirochaetosis of birds and of 
man, the study of the life-history of these 
organisms in the tick, and the identffica- 
tion of a leishmanoid disease of the skin. 
In order to study protozoa he explored 
the upper reaches of the White Nile in 
a floating laboratory. All this scientffic 
work was pubUshed in the four reports 
of the WeUcome Research Laboratories 
(1904r-1911). In 1913 he returned to 
England and became the founder of the 
Wellcome Bureau of Scientffic Research. 

Durmg the war of 1914-1918 Balfour, 
with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Army 
Medical Service, rendered conspicuous 
service. First, as president of the medical 
advisory committee of the Mediterranean 
Expeditionary Force in Mudros, Salonika, 
Egypt, and Mesopotamia, and then as 
scientific adviser in East Africa, he organ- 
ized sanitary reforms throughout these 
theatres of war. Subsequently he was 
asked to reorganize the health service of 
Egypt, and later in 1918, at the request 



33 



Balfour, A. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



of General Sir Edmund (later Viscount) 
Allenby [q.v.], he examined and reported 
on anti-malarial measures in Palestine. 

At the conclusion of the war Balfour 
resumed scientific research at the Well- 
come Bureau, but he was soon called away 
from his laboratory. In 1921 and again in 
1923 he visited Mauritius and Bermuda 
to advise the Colonial Office on health 
reform in these islands. In 1923 he was 
appointed director of the London School 
of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and for 
seven years worked with boundless energy 
towards the perfecting of the school and 
on government committees. The pre- 
dominant place which this school has 
taken in the teachiug of and research into 
preventive medicine owes much to Bal- 
four's initial administration. 

Balfour contributed extensively to 
medical literature. The following are of 
permanent value: Public Health and 
Preventive Medicine (with C. J. Lewis, 
1902); Memoranda on Medical Diseases 
in Tropical and Sub-Tropical Areas (1916) ; 
War Against Tropical Disease (1920); 
Reports to the Health Committee of the 
League of Nations on Tuberculosis and 
Sleeping Sickness in Equatorial Africa 
(1923); Health Problems of the Empire 
(with H. H. Scott, 1924). 

Early in his career Balfour achieved 
fame as a novelist. His novels of his- 
torical adventure, ' wild tales ' as he called 
them, show the influence of R. L. Steven- 
son, but he had a distinctive and vigorous 
style of his own. He wrote By Stroke of 
Sword (1897), To Arms (1898), Vengeance 
is Mine (1899), Cashiered and Other War 
Stories (1902), and The Golden Kingdom 
(1903). 

Balfour was appointed C.M.G. in 1912, 
C.B. in 1918, and K.C.M.G. in 1930. 
Honorary degrees were conferred upon 
him by the university of Edinburgh and 
by the universities of Johns Hopkms and 
Rochester, U.S.A. He was elected F.R.C.P. 
(London and Edinburgh). In 1920 he was 
awarded the Mary Kingsley medal and 
from 1925 to 1927 was president of the 
Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and 
Hygiene. He was endowed with qualities 
which brought him distinction in various 
paths of Ufe. He was a fine athlete, and 
played Rugby football for both Edin- 
burgh and Cambridge, obtaining his 'blue' 
at the latter university. He won his inter- 
national cap for Scotland (1896, 1897). 
He was a noted boxer, a keen fisherman, 
and a big-game shot. He was of a kindly 
and modest disposition. An old friend 



describes hun as ' a rock of a man, hand- 
some of mien and fine of figure'. His con- 
versation and speeches were adorned with 
wit and humour: his work in tropical 
medicine and public health was of out- 
standing merit. 

Balfour married in 1902 Grace, third 
daughter of George Nutter, of Sidcup, 
Kent, and had two sons. His health broke 
down in 1929 under the strain of overwork 
and he died near Tonbridge 30 January 
1931. 

[The Times, 2 February 1931; British 
Medical Journal, 1931, vol. i, p. 245 (portrait) ; 
Lancet, 1931, vol. i, p, 325 ; Nature, 21 Febru- 
ary 1931 ; private information ; personal 
knowledge.] Arthur S. MacNalty. 

BALFOUR, Lady FRANCES (1858- 
1931), churchwoman, suffragist, and 
author, was born at Argyll Lodge, Ken- 
sington, 22 February 1858, the fifth 
daughter of George Douglas Campbell, 
eighth Duke of Argyll [q.v.], by his first 
wife. Lady Elizabeth Georgiana, eldest 
daughter of George GranviUe Leveson- 
Gower, second Duke of Sutherland. Her 
early days were passed at Roseneath 
Castle, Dunbartonshire, and Inveraray 
Castle, Argyll. In 1879 she married 
(Colonel) Eustace James Anthony Balfour 
(died 1911), youngest brother of A. J. 
Balfour (afterwards first Earl of Balfour, 
q.v.), of Gerald WiUiam Balfour (after- 
wards second earl), of F. M. Balfour 
[q.v.], and of E. M. Sidgwick [q.v.]. They 
had two sons and three daughters. She 
received honorary degrees from the uni- 
versities of Durham (1919) and Edinburgh 
(1921). She died in London 25 February 
1931, and was buried at Whittingehame, 
East Lothian. 

Lady Frances Campbell was cradled in 
the religious disputes which shook the 
heart of the men of those days. In her 
veins flowed the blood of Archibald Camp- 
bell, first and only Marquess of Argyll 
[q.v.], and in her home she felt the 
strength of these controversial currents. 
For while her father had strenuously 
worked to prevent the disruption of the 
Scottish Church in 1843, her nurse, Eliza- 
beth King, a remarkable woman, was 
a stern Calvinist who harrowed her charges 
with the tales of the martyrs on the moors 
and had 'come out' at the disruption. 
But R. H. Story [q.v.], who was minister 
of Roseneath from 1860 to 1886, over- 
came the antagonism thus created, and 
inspired Lady Frances with a love for the 
Church of Scotland which was the ruling 



34 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Balfour, H. 



passion of her life ; but to the end, when 
Lady Frances denounced innovations (as 
she often did) and upheld the old order, 
it was Elizabeth King and not Dr. Story 
who spoke. The achievement of which 
she may well have been most justly proud 
was the rebuilding of Crown Court church 
(the church of the Scottish ambassador 
in London prior to 1603), for which she 
collected the money and for which her 
husband was the architect. It was her 
happiness to see the Church reunited in 
1929, and in spite of infirmity she came 
to Edinburgh, to 'keep tryst', as it were, 
with her father, with the Marquess, and 
with all those of her race who had died 
for conscience' sake. In this one Ufe was 
focused the liistory of centuries. 

Lady Frances Balfour was an unwearied 
leader in the cause of women's enfranchise- 
ment and was a most effective speaker. 
She worked with Dame Millicent Fawcett 
[q.v.] in the cause of votes for women. 
A mistress of invective, she wielded the 
dagger of sarcastic wit with the same zest 
as her ancestors had wielded the broad- 
sword. She wrote much for the periodical 
press and published several memoirs, of 
which the best are Lady Victoria Camp- 
hell (an account of her third sister, 1911), 
The Life and Letters of the Reverend James 
MdcGregor (1912), and Dr. Elsie In^lis 
(1918). The Life of George, fourth Earl of 
Aberdeen (2 vols., 1923), A Memoir of 
Lord Balfour of Burleigh (1925), and two 
volumes of reminiscences, bearing as their 
title the Argyll motto, Ne Ohliviscaris 
(1930), also came from her pen. The books 
will be of value for historians, especially 
her autobiographical sketches of life at 
Inveraray and Whittingehame ; but her 
personality was far greater than her books. 

By her marriage Lady Frances Balfour 
was brought into close touch with both 
the great political parties. The daughter 
of one who for more than twenty years 
was a member of Gladstone's cabinets, 
she married the nephew of Lord Salis- 
bury, and her eager mind took full advan- 
tage of her opportunities. She became the 
intimate friend of Gladstone, the Cecils, 
the Asquiths, of Randall Davidson, and 
Cosmo Gordon Lang. She was equally at 
home at Lambeth and at the General 
Assembly in Edinburgh, and she exhorted, 
corrected, and reproved aU, when the 
necessity occurred. Stories were often 
told against her, but she had a personal 
magnetism and a gift of making friends 
no less remarkable than her courage and 
her crusading spirit. 



A portrait of Lady Frances Balfour, 
by (Sir) Edward Burne- Jones (1880), is 
in the possession of Lieutenant- Colonel 
Francis C. C. Balfour, of The Cleeve, 
Ross-on-Wye. 

[The Times, 26 February 1931 ; Lady 
Frances Balfour, iVe Ohliviscaris, 2 vols., 
1930; private information; personal know- 
ledge.] Norman Maclean. 

BALFOUR, HENRY (1863-1939), 
anthropologist, was born at Croydon 
11 April 1863, the only son of Lewis 
Balfour, silk broker, of Croydon, by his 
wife, Sarah Walker Comber. He was 
educated at Charterhouse and at Trinity 
College, Oxford, where he earned a reputa- 
tion as an oarsman and as an accom- 
plished fencer and obtained a second class 
in natural science (biology) in 1885. His 
earlier travels were primarily dictated by 
his interest in zoology, and he remained 
all his life a devoted student of birds, but 
under the influence of H. N. Moseley and 
of (Sir) E. B. Tylor [qq.v.] he very soon 
directed his attention to anthropology and 
in particular to the study of material 
culture both comparatively and in evolu- 
tion. Even before he took his degree he 
and his fellow student (Sir) W. B. Spencer 
[q.v.] were helping Tylor and Moseley to 
arrange the ethnological and archaeologi- 
cal collections which General A. H. L. F. 
Pitt-Rivers [q.v.] had given to the univer- 
sity in 1883. Spencer went to Melbourne 
in 1887, but Balfour remained in Oxford 
and in 1891 was appointed curator of the 
Pitt-Rivers Museum, a post which he held 
vmtil his death at Headington, Oxford, 
9 February 1939. 

When the university of Oxford estab- 
lished its diploma course in anthropology 
in 1907, Balfour undertook all the teaching 
of technology and of prehistoric archaeo- 
logy, academic work which brought him 
into contact not only with undergraduates 
but with a long succession of colonial civil 
service probationers, and of officers on 
leave from service overseas. He lectured 
in the museum, handling and comparing 
specimens with characteristic skill and 
establishing a personal relationship with 
his pupils which led to a stream of acces- 
sions, documented as he desired. But his 
position as curator of the Pitt-Rivers 
galleries did not prevent him from travel- 
ling widely. In Norway (which he visited 
five times between 1905 and 1929) he 
studied the habits of whales, and of 
whalers ; in South Africa he was probably 
the first to detect palaeolithic implements 



85 



Balfour, H. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



in the gravels of the Zambezi River and 
to correlate them to prehistoric European 
types; in Assam he travelled on foot 
through the Naga Hills; he visited Lap- 
land early in his career, returning later, 
and his other travels included a visit to 
Australia and to New Zealand with calls 
at various islands in Indonesia and the 
Pacific, and a return via Japan and the 
United States of America. In a similar 
way his visits to South Africa were used 
to help him to direct knowledge of other 
parts of that continent. 

Balfour was an active fellow of the 
Royal Geographical Society and was presi- 
dent from 1936 to 1938 ; he was president 
of the Folk-Lore Society in 1923-1924, of 
the Museums Association in 1909, and of 
the (Royal) Anthropological Institute in 
1904 ; he was elected F.R.S. in 1924. He 
was also president of the Prehistoric Society 
of East Anglia, and was an honorary 
or corresponding member of many foreign 
societies. He was elected a research fellow 
of Exeter College, Oxford, for seven years 
in 1904 and was again elected from 1919 
onwards, and in 1935 the university con- 
ferred upon him the personal title of pro- 
fessor. In 1887 he married Edith Marie 
Louise (died 1938), only daughter of 
Robert Francis Wilkins, of Kingswear, 
South Devon ; she shared his many inter- 
ests, his work, and often his travels. They 
had one son. 

Balfour was in many respects the ideal 
curator for an ethnological museum. He 
combined a useful knowledge of the 
classics with a working knowledge of 
German and with fluent French, and his 
natural inclination towards methodical 
classification was fortified by his training 
in zoology. He was a musician, had a 
lively sense of humour, and very great 
personal charm, and made many friends, 
enriching the collections in his charge by 
their contributions as well as by his own. 
For his powers of observation were acute, 
and made him an admirable collector as 
well as a naturalist. He was perhaps the 
first to demonstrate that the 'drununing' 
or 'bleating' of snipe is caused by the 
vibration of the outer tail-feathers. His 
range of knowledge of the material culture 
of primitive peoples has probably never 
been equalled, and he showed great tena- 
city in solving problems of the use and 
provenance of any unfamiliar object 
brought to him. Besides being a collector 
and an observer he was himself a crafts- 
man. He drew with great facility, and 
enjoyed drawing, as witness his illustrated 



programmes for the Oxford Fencing Club. 
He held that to understand primitive 
or prehistoric craftsmanship it is neces- 
sary to learn its methods, and examples 
of his admirable handiwork in flint may 
be seen in the Pitt-Rivers Museum, which,; 
arranged typologically instead of geo- 
graphically and with so many of its 
exhibits labelled in his firm and clear 
handwriting, is his chief contribution to^ 
human knowledge, and was his chosen 
means of imparting his own learning to 
others. 

As a writer Balfour left all too little, 
for his work as a curator engrossed his 
time, but what he did write he wrote 
extremely well. The Evolution of Decora- 
tive Art (1893) was his first important 
publication, and perhaps the only one in 
book form, but among his many other 
pubUcations the following are possibly the 
most significant: his presidential address 
to section H (anthropology) of the British 
Association at Cambridge in 1904, re- 
modelled later as an introduction to Pitt- 
Rivers's The Evolution of Culture (1906) ; 
'The Goura'' {Journal of the (Royal) 
Anthropological Institute, vol. xxxii, 
1902); 'The Relationship of Museums to 
the Study of Anthropology' (presidential 
address to the (Royal) Anthropological 
Institute, 1904); 'Musical Instruments 
from the Malay Peninsula' (Fasciculi, 
Malayenses, 1904); 'The Friction-Drum' 
(Journal of the Royal Anthropological 
Institute, vol. xxxvii, 1907); 'The Fire- 
piston' (Anthropological Essays presented 
to Edward Burnett Tylor, 1907, reprinted 
in the Report of the . . . Smithsonian 
Institution for 1907, Washington, 1910); 
'The Origin of West African Cross- 
bows' (Journal of the (Royal) Africaii 
Society, 1909, similarly reprinted, 1911); 
'Kite-Fishing' (Essays and Studies pre- 
sented to William Ridgeway, 1913); 
'Frictional Fire-making with a Flexible 
Sawing-thong' (Journal of the Royal 
Anthropological Institute, vol. xliv, 1914) ; 
' Some Ethnological Suggestions in regard 
to Easter Island' (Folk-Lore, December 
1917); The Archer's Bow in the Homeric 
Poems (Huxley memorial lecture foi 
1921); 'Earth Smoking-pipes from South 
Africa and Central Asia' (Man, May 
1922); 'The Origin of StenciUing in the 
Fiji Islands' (Journal of the Royal 
Anthropological Institute, vol. liv, 1924) ; 
' The Status of the Tasmanians among the 
Stone-Age Peoples' (presidential address 
to the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia, 
1924, in which Balfour called attention to 
86 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Ballance 



the similarity of Tasmanian to Aurigna- 
cian and Mousterian forms, which he had 
noticed at a time when others spoke of the 
Tasmanians as being in an 'eoHthic' 
stage); 'South Africa's Contribution to 
Prehistoric Archaeology ' (presidential ad- 
dress to section H of the British Associa- 
tion, 1929); 'The Tandu Industry in 
Northern Nigeria and its Affinities Else- 
where' {Essays presented to C. G. Seligman, 
1934); and Spinners and Weavers in 
Anthropological Research (Frazer lecture 
for 1937, 1938). 

[Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal 
Society, No. 8, January 1940 (portrait) ; Man, 
May 1939 ; personal knowledge.] 

J. H. HUTTON. 

BALL, JOHN (1861-1940), golfer, was 
born 24 December 1861 at Hoylake, 
Cheshire, the second son of John Ball, by 
his wife, Margaret Parry. The father was 
of yeoman-farmer stock and the owner of 
the Royal Hotel at Hoylake, which became 
the headquarters of the Royal Liverpool 
Golf Club when the course was laid out 
in 1869. The boy was therefore brought 
up with golf on his doorstep, and his early 
promise was such that at the age of six- 
teen he entered for the open champion- 
ship in 1878 and finished sixth. His career 
in big matches began in 1883, and he 
became widely known when the amateur 
championship was founded in 1885; but 
it was not until 1888 that he came into 
his own by beating J. E. Laidlay at Prest- 
wick by 5 and 4 in the final of the amateur 
championship. After winning it again at 
Hoylake in 1890, in that same year, on 
what Dr. Laidlaw Purves called 'a great 
day for golf, he won the open champion- 
ship at Prestwick with a score of 164, 
beating all the professionals, a feat hither- 
to deemed impossible for an amateur. In 
1892 he tied for second place in the open 
championship at Muirfield which was won 
by another Hoylake amateur, Harold 
Hilton; and he also won the amateur 
championship for the third time at Sand- 
wich. In 1894 he won it for the foiirth 
time at Hoylake, and again in 1899 at 
Prestwick. After the South African war, 
when he served with the Denbighshire 
Yeomanry, his play showed no perceptible 
falling off; but it was not until 1907 that 
he won the amateur championship again, 
this time at St. Andrews. In 1910 at 
Hoylake he won it for the seventh time, 
and in 1912 at Westward Ho! for the 
eighth time, a record wholly without 
parallel. Of these matches, the most 



memorable were that of 1894 at Hoylake 
with S. Mure Fergusson, in which he 
played a famous brassy shot over the 
cross bunkers to the Dun (then the 17th) 
hole and won by a hole, and that of 1899 
against his great Scottish competitor F. G. 
Tait, when he won at the 37th hole. Having 
been at one time in the morning round five 
down, he gradually retrieved himself and 
was one up with two to play. Both played 
historic shots from the bunker at the Alps 
(the 17th), Tait from water. Ball from hard 
wet sand close to the boarded edge of the 
bunker. Tait saved the match with a 
three at the home hole, but at the 37th 
Ball laid an iron shot about eight feet from 
the hole and holed the putt for three. In 
1912 he beat Abe Mitchell, later a famous 
professional, at the 38th hole, but perhaps 
the finest golf he ever played in his later 
years was in the final of 1910, when he beat 
CoUinson Charleton Aylmer by 10 and 9. 
His lesser successes were innumerable: 
he was three times Irish open amateur 
champion (1893, 1894, and 1899); he won 
the St. George's Cup at Sandwich four 
years running (1888 to 1891); and he 
regularly played for England against Scot- 
land from the first international match in 
1902 until 1911. 

Ball's style was eminently character- 
istic, with a peculiar vmderhand grip of 
the right hand, but the swing was a perfect 
model of grace and rhythm. He was a 
magnificent iron player and he set up a 
new standard of accuracy in long iron shots 
hit right up to the flag. If he had a com- 
paratively weak spot, it was on the green ; 
he was inclined to miss short putts. As a 
match player he had the most indomitable 
spirit and seemed to revel in a close finish. 
A quiet, reserved man, he had a great 
dislike of publicity, but withal a remark- 
able power for inspiring hero-worship, 
especially at Hoylake. In his later years 
he parted with his interest in the Royal 
Hotel there, and went to live at Lygan-y- 
wern in Flintshire, where he died 2 Decem- 
ber 1940. Late in life he married Nellie 
Williams. 

A portrait of Ball by R. E. Morrison 
hangs in the club-house of the Royal 
Liverpool Golf Club at Hoylake. 

[Golf (Badminton Library), 1890; G. B. 
Farrar, The Royal Liverpool Golf Club, 1869— 
1932, 1933; The Golfing Annual and The 
Golfer's Year Book (passim) ; personal know- 
ledge.] Bernakd Darwin. 



BALLANCE, Sm CHARLES AL- 
FRED (1856-1936), surgeon, was bom 



87 



Ballance 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



at Taunton 30 August 1856, the eldest 
son and second child of Charles Alfred 
Ballance, silk-throwster, later of Stanley 
House, Lower Clapton, by his wife, Caro- 
line Hendebourck, daughter of Samuel 
Hendebourck Pollard, of Taunton. Sir 
Hamilton Ballance was his youngest 
brother. He was educated at Taunton 
College, in Germany, and at St. Thomas's 
Hospital, where he graduated M.B. (Lond.) 
with first class honours in every subject. 
He became aural surgeon at St. Thomas's 
in 1885, as weU as assistant surgeon to the 
West London Hospital, and was among 
the first to succeed in radical mastoid 
operation. In 1882 he proceeded M.S. 
with a gold medal. He was elected assis- 
tant surgeon in 1891, surgeon in 1900, and 
consulting surgeon in 1919; and was 
surgeon with (Sir) Victor Horsley [q.v.] 
at the National Hospital for the Paralysed 
and Epileptic, Queen Square (1891-1908). 
During the war of 1914-1918 he was a 
consultant with rank of colonel. Army 
Medical Service, in Malta and was ap- 
pointed C.B. in 1916 and K.C.M.G. in 
1918. He was president of the Medical 
Society of London in 1906, a member of 
the council (1910) and vice-president 
(1920-1921) of the Royal CoUege of 
Surgeons, and the first president of the 
Society of British Neurological Surgeons 
in 1927. He was chief surgeon to the 
Metropolitan Police from 1912 to 1926. 

Ballance approached surgical problems 
through experiment on the living animal, 
in the tradition of John Hunter [q.v.], 
seeking physiological authority for new 
operations. All his research related to 
urgent questions. His methods were in 
some cases superseded in his lifetime, for 
instance his technique for ligation of large 
arteries, which had marked a distinct 
advance. His work with (Sir) Charles 
Sherrington, in the Journal of Physiology, 
on the formation of scar-tissue (1889), 
made a real addition to knowledge. Bal- 
lance was a general surgeon who favoured 
the 'splendid branches' of aural and 
neurological surgery. His Some Points in 
the Surgery of the Brain and its Membranes 
(1907) surveys a field where he had been 
an early worker, and his scholarly Essays 
on the Surgery of the Temporal Bone (2 
vols., 1919) records his valuable con- 
tributions over thirty years. But the 
repair of nerves was his chief interest. 
With (Sir) James Purves-Stewart he wrote 
The Healing of Nerves (1901) and applied 
their findings in successful treatment of 
facial palsy. In 1919 he gave the Brad- 



shaw lecture to the Royal College o| 
Surgeons on 'The Surgery of the Heart 'w 
When age precluded him from practice^ 
he made experimental nerve-anastomosf 
in monkeys, with results of great help tc 
surgery. In the United States of America; 
in 1932, he studied the development of 
nerve-grafts, and finally in London he 
worked at delicate and complicated cross- 
suture of divided nerves. In 1933 he gav€ 
the Lister memorial lecture and wa 
awarded the Lister memorial medal. He 
received honorary degrees from the imi- 
versities of Glasgow and Malta. 

Ballance was large and imposing, 
slow, deliberate manner hid his cultiva- 
tion and charm. He married in 188? 
Sophie Annie (died 1926), only daughtei 
of Alfred Smart, of Blackheath, and hac 
one son, a doctor, who predeceased hi 
father, and five daughters. Ballance dice 
in London 8 February 1936. 

[The Times, 10 February 1936; British 
Medical Journal, 1 936, vol. 1, p. 339 ; LancetA 
1936, vol. i, pp. 396 and 450 (portrait); StA 
Thomas''s Hospital Gazette, vol. xxxv, p. 337,j 
1936 (photograph) ; personal knowledge.] 

W. R. LE Fanu. 

BANBURY, FREDERICK GEORGE,] 
first Baron Banbury of Southab 
(1850-1936), politician, was born ii 
London 2 December 1850, the eldest 
son of Frederick Banbury, of Shirlej 
House, Surrey, by his wife, Cecilia Laura,! 
daughter of William Cox, of Woodfordj 
Hall, Essex. He was educated at Win- 
chester and afterwards abroad. In 1872| 
he was elected a member of the Stocl 
Exchange and was head of the firm of 
Frederick Banbury & Sons, stockbrokers, 
from 1879 until his retirement in 1906. 
At the general election of 1892 he entered 
the House of Commons as conservative 
member for the Peckham division of 
Camberwell and retained that seat until 
the liberal triumph of 1906: within six 
months of his defeat he was returned at 
a by-election for the City of London and 
retained his seat until he entered the 
House of Lords in January 1924 as Baron 
Banbury of Southam in Warwickshire. In 
1903 he was created a baronet and was 
sworn of the Privy Council in 1916. 

Although Banbury never held office, he 
made for himself a unique position as an 
opponent of legislation which appeared 
to him unnecessary and of change which 
he did not regard as progress. This was 
facilitated by his ability to talk at any 
length at any moment on any subject. 



88 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Barger 



He declared that in his opinion there was 
too much legislation and he generally 
opposed bills proposed by private mem- 
bers. His long experience in the City made 
hira an able critic of finance bills, on which 
he was an undoubted authority, and he 
also did much useful work for the Public 
Accounts Committee by carefully scrutiniz- 
ing estimates. He was a member of the 
Select Committee on National Expenditure. 
He earned esteem by his technical know- 
ledge, and his criticism of his own party 
was seldom resented. A master of House 
of Commons procedure, he was dexterous 
in raising points of order. 'Punctual in 
his attendance, he came to be regarded in 
his corner of a back bench as the uncom- 
promising champion of the old order. . . . 
He was always most carefully dressed, and 
with his formal frock-coat and tall hat, 
and his slow dignified carriage he would 
walk to his seat and look round at the 
increasingly slipshod attire of his col- 
leagues with sad disapproval. The advent 
of women members into the House he 
regarded as nothing short of an outrage. 
Banbury, in fact, became an institution.' 

Banbury was for many years a member, 
and sometime chairman, of the council 
of the Royal Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals; was sometime a 
director and chairman of the Great North- 
ern Railway, and a director of the London 
and Provincial Bank. He married in 1873 
Elizabeth Rosa (died 1930), daughter and 
co-heir of Thomas Barbot Beale, of Bret- 
tenham Park, Suffolk, and had one son, 
who was killed in action in 1914, and one 
daughter. He died at Wameford Place, 
Highworth, Wiltshire, 13 August 1936, 
and was succeeded as second baron by 
his grandson, Charles William (born post- 
humously 1915). 

There is a portrait of Banbury, by John 
Collier, in the board-room of the old Lon- 
don and North Eastern Railway Company, 
and a replica at Warneford Place, Wilt- 
shire, in private possession. 

[The Times, 14 August 1936.] 

E. I. CARLYT.E. 

BARGER, GEORGE (1878-1939), 
chemist, was born at Manchester 4 April 
1878, the elder son of Gerrit Barger, a 
Dutch engineer, by his wife, Eleanor 
Higginbotham. He received his school 
education at Utrecht, and at the age of 
sixteen obtained a scholarship to Univer- 
sity College, London, which he entered in 
1896. After two years' study in London 
he proceeded in 1898 to King's College, 



Cambridge, with an entrance scholarship, 
and in 1901 he was placed in the first class 
in part ii of the natural sciences tripos in 
both chemistry and botany. On leaving 
Cambridge he was appointed demonstrator 
in botany under Leo Errera, of Brussels, 
and in 1903 he returned to England to 
join the staff of the Wellcome Physio- 
logical Research Laboratories. In 1909 he 
was appointed head of the department of 
chemistry at the Goldsmiths' College, New 
Cross, and in 1913 became professor of 
chemistry at the Royal HoUoway College, 
Englefield Green. In 1914 he joined the 
staff of the Medical Research Committee 
(later Medical Research Council), and in 
1919 he was appointed the first professor 
of chemistry in relation to medicine in 
the university of Edinburgh, where he re- 
mained until, in 1937, he accepted the 
regius chair of chemistry in the university 
of Glasgow, an appointment which he held 
for the rest of his life. 

Barger's scientific work followed two 
main lines, namely, studies of alkaloids 
and investigations of simpler nitrogenous 
compounds of biological importance : both 
arose from his studies of ergot initiated 
in the Wellcome Physiological Research 
Laboratories. His main achievements in 
alkaloid chemistry were the isolation of 
ergotoxine from ergot, the elucidation of 
the constitutions of carpaine, physostig- 
mine, and of a group of aporphine alka- 
loids, and an important contribution to 
the chemistry of yohimbine. 

Barger's identification of tyramine, as 
one of the compounds responsible for the 
biological activity of ergot extracts, led to 
a series of studies of bases similarly derived 
from naturally occurring amino-acids; 
among such bases isolated both from ergot 
and from mammalian tissues was hista- 
mine, a compound which later proved to 
be of the greatest physiological signifi- 
cance. Barger's close association in this 
field with (Sir) H. H. Dale led to the joint 
development of the important conception 
of the sympathomimetic amines. 

In the early part of work by others 
leading to the synthesis of thyroxine and 
of vitamin B^, Barger's contribution was 
considerable. His lifelong interest in ergot 
found expression in Ergot and Ergotism 
(1931), a masterly monograph covering all 
aspects of the subject ; this was based on 
his Dohme lectures delivered in 1928 at 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. In 
addition to many scientific papers he pub- 
lished three other books: The Simpler 
Natural Bases (1914); Some Applications 



39 



Barger 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



of Organic Chemistry to Biology and Medi- 
cine (1930); and Organic Chemistry for 
Medical Students (1932; 2nd ed. 1936; 
Spanish translation 1935). 

An expert linguist and enthusiastic 
traveller, Barger had close scientific con- 
tacts in many countries, which he used 
with all his power to promote his ideal 
of free intercourse between scientists of 
different nations. In his own work he was 
essentially an experimentalist and his 
scientific outlook was mechanistic. He 
was uncompromisingly honest and out- 
spoken, not over-patient, but most 
generous of himself to his friends and 
pupils. 

Barger was a fellow of King's College, 
Cambridge, from 1904 to 1910 and was 
elected F.R.S. in 1919, receiving the 
society's Davy medal in 1938. He was 
vice-president of the Chemical Society in 
the year in which he died, and had been 
Longstaff medallist in 1936 ; he was Han- 
bury medallist of the Pharmaceutical 
Society (1934) and president of section B 
of the British Association (1929). He 
received honorary degrees from the uni- 
versities of Liverpool, Padua, Heidelberg, 
Utrecht, Michigan, and Lausanne. 

Barger married in 1904 Florence Emily, 
daughter of Alfred William Thomas, and 
had two sons and one daughter. He died 
at Aeschi, Switzerland, 6 January 1939. 

A portrait of Barger, by Frank Morley 
Fletcher (1923), belongs to Mrs. Barger. 

[The Times, 7 January 1939; Obituary 
Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society, No. 8, 
January 1940 (bibliography and portrait); 
Journal of the Chemical Society, April 1939; 
private information; personal knowledge.] 
C. R. Harington. 

BARLING, Sir (HARRY) GILBERT, 
baronet (1855-1940), surgeon and aca- 
demic administrator, was born at Newn- 
ham-on-Severn 30 April 1855, the fourth 
son of William Barling, farmer and veter- 
inary surgeon, of Newnham-on-Severn, by 
his wife, Eliza Sharpe. He was educated 
at a boarding-school at Weston, near 
Bath. The agricultural depression pre- 
cluded his succeeding liis father as a 
farmer, and lack of funds his adoption of 
a medical career. He was therefore ap- 
prenticed when almost sixteen years of 
age to a chemist in Manchester, where h6 
learnt little of value and was used by his 
principal as a drudge and errand-boy; 
nevertheless, he qualified as a chemist and 
passed the matriculation examination of 
London University. 



In 1874 Barling became a student at St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, where poverty 
compelled him to take part-time employ- 
ment. Finding that this occupied too 
much of his time, he decided to act as 
coach to his more junior colleagues. One 
of his pupils chanced to be the son of a 
Birmingham surgeon who so much appre- 
ciated the kindness shown to his son that 
he promised to help Barling if the oppor- 
tunity ever occurred . Shortly after graduat- 
ing M.B. (Lond.) in 1879, the opportunity 
did occur, and Barling obtained the ap- 
pointment of resident pathologist at the 
General Hospital, Birmingham. Five years 
later (1885), having in the meantime been 
elected F.R.C.S. (1881), he was appointed 
assistant surgeon and in 1891 full surgeon, 
a position which he occupied until his re- 
tirement from the active staff at the age of 
sixty, in 1915, when he was appointed con- 
sulting surgeon. Whilst he was an assistant 
surgeon he drew up a scheme for rebuilding 
the hospital which was accepted, and the 
present General Hospital was opened in 
1897. 

Barling's surgical career began in the 
early Listerian days and covered a revolu- 
tionary period in surgery ; he was the first 
surgeon on the staff of his hospital to 
remove the appendix, the kidney, the gall- 
bladder, and tumours from the brain and 
spinal cord. Although he was not a bril- 
liant surgical genius like his contemporaries 
R. L. Tait fq.v.] and Jordan Lloyd, yet 
by his knowledge and skill he probably 
contributed more than any other man to 
the reputation of Birmingham as a surgical 
centre. 

Barling's association with the university 
of Birmingham was as important as that 
with the General Hospital. In 1885 he 
was appointed demonstrator of anatomy 
at Queen's College, where [the medical 
school was housed until its transfer to 
Mason College, the precursor of the uni- 
versity. He was the first holder of the 
chair of pathology, to which he was 
appointed in 1886, and in 1893 he was- 
made professor of surgery. After seveni 
years' tenure of the deanship of the medi- 
cal faculty, he resigned it in 1912 in order 
to have more time for surgical research 
and for writing. The leisure period was, 
however, a brief one, since in 1913 he was 
elected vice-chancellor, a title changed to 
pro-chancellor in 1927, and held that office 
for twenty years, during which time under 
his stimulus the university research de- 
partments in mental diseases and cancer 
were foimded. As a result of his financial 



40 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Barnes, G. N. 



skill and ability to influence generous 
donors, the university, when he retired, 
IS free from debt, and had a greatly in- 
eased income despite the great develop- 
ents in staffing and in buildings which 
id taken place during his tenure of office. 
During the greater part of the war of 
1914-1918, except from October 1916 until 
August 1917, when he was consulting 
surgeon in France, Barling was consult- 
ing surgeon to the Southern Command of 
the British army. For these services he 
was twice mentioned in dispatches, was 
appointed C.B. in 1917 and C.B.E. in 
1919, and in the latter year was created 
a baronet. 

Barling took a leading part in the early 
negotiations for the union of the two 
voluntary teaching hospitals in Birming- 
ham (the Queen's and the General Hos- 
pitals) into one body, the United Hospital, 
and he was also chairman of the com- 
mittee which launched the Hospitals 
Centre Scheme. This scheme planned the 
building of a hospital teaching centre and 
a new medical school in close proximity 
to the main university buildings at Edg- 
baston. Unfortunately in 1926 a serious 
illness compelled his retirement from this 
committee, but he lived to see the first 
part of the scheme fulfilled and the 
opening of a large new general hospital, 
the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, and a well- 
equipped medical school. Although he 
retired from the active staff in 1915 his 
interest in the General Hospital never 
flagged, and for four years (1924-1927) he 
was its president. His last appearance at 
any public function, five days before his 
death at Edgbaston 27 April 1940, was at 
the annual meeting of the United Hospital, 
when he was presented with an address of 
congratulation on his completion of sixty 
years' active service with the hospital. 

Barling was a talented administrator, 
teacher, and speaker; he was a loyal 
friend, and a methodical and hard worker. 
He expected hard work from his assistants 
but always acknowledged their help. His 
record of hospital, university, and other 
public service was recognized in 1935 by 
the presentation of the gold medal of the 
Birmingham Civic Society ; the university 
conferred upon him the honorary degree 
of LL.D. in 1937. 

Barling married in 1884 Katharin 
Jaflray (died 1920), second daughter of 
Henry Edmunds, bank manager, of Edg- 
baston, and had two daughters. 

A portrait of Barling, by Edward F. 
Harper (1915), hangs in the board-room 



of the General Hospital, Birmingham; 
another, in oils, by G. Fiddes Watt (1924), 
was presented to him by the university 
in 1925 and hangs in the great hall of the 
university. 

[The Times, 29 April 1940 ; British Medical 
Journal, 1940, vol, 1, p. 748; Lancet, 1940, 
vol. 1, p. 947 ; private information ; personal 
knowledge.] Leonard G. Parsons. 

BARNES, GEORGE NICOLL (1859- 
1040), statesman, was born at Lochee, 
Dundee, 2 January 1859, the second of the 
five sons of James Barnes, a Yorkshire- 
man, then a journeyman machine-maker 
at Lochee, by his wife, Catherine Adam 
Langlands, a native of Kirriemuir, Angus. 
In 1866 the family moved to Tranmere on 
the Mersey and thence in the following 
year to Ponders End, Middlesex. Edu- 
cated at a Church school at Enfield High- 
way, when eleven years old George became 
a clerk in a jute mill at seven shillings a 
week. At thirteen he was apprenticed to 
engineering at a Lambeth factory for 
woodwork-machinery and completed his 
time in Dundee. As an imemployed 
journeyman he found work at the shipyard 
at Barrow-in-FiuTness and later on the 
construction of the Royal Albert Dock on 
the Thames. He studied drawing and 
machine construction and subsequently 
worked for eight years with a firm in 
Fulham. He finished his period in the 
workshops with a year or two at Wool- 
wich Arsenal. Joining the Amalgamated 
Society of Engineers, he associated with 
John Burns and Tom Mann, and in 1887 
took part in the Trafalgar Square demon- 
stration that led to the historic riot. He 
was greatly influenced by the dock strike 
of 1889, which marked the inauguration 
of the 'New Unionism', giving similar 
status to skilled and unskilled labour in 
the trade union world. He was elected to 
the executive of the Amalgamated Society 
of Engineers in 1889 and became assistant 
secretary in 1892. 

Barnes was drawn to socialism by 
William Morris [q.v.], whose meetings he 
attended at Kelmscott House and else- 
where in Hanunersmith. Joining the 
independent labour party, he was an 
active colleague of J. Keir Hardie [q.v.], 
and in 1 895 stood imsuccessfully for Roch- 
dale under the auspices of that party. In 
1896 he was elected general secretary of 
the Amalgamated Society of Engineers, 
a post which he held imtil 1908, when he 
resigned owing to differences with his 
executive. His first year of office was 



41 



Barnes, G. N. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



notable for the dispute that arose from 
the Engineering Employers' Federation 
locking out the London members of the 
union over the eight hours controversy. 
The remaining 75 per cent, of the union 
members, in the provinces, struck work 
from July 1897 to January 1898. While 
the strike failed in its immediate objective, 
it was followed by the adoption of collective 
bargaining on conditions of employment. 

Barnes visited Germany in 1898, Den- 
mark and Sweden in 1899, and as a mem- 
ber of the Mosley industrial commission 
he travelled widely in the United States 
of America in 1902. He was a delegate 
when the labour representation committee 
(afterwards the labour party) was formed 
in 1900, and throughout his career was an 
active propagandist for trade unionism, 
socialism, and co-operation. He was chair- 
man of the national committee of organ- 
ized labour for old-age pensions, which 
pioneered that social reform prior to the 
passing of the Act in 1908. In 1906 he 
won the Blackfriars division (Glasgow) 
from A. Bonar Law [q.v.], and was one 
of the original twenty-nine members of 
the parliamentary labour party, of which 
he was chairman in 1910. He held Black- 
friars at the general elections in January 
and December 1910, and in 1918 when, 
following redistribution, it became the 
Gorbals division. He served on the King's 
civil list committee (1910) and proposed 
the nationalization of the duchies of Lan- 
caster and Cornwall. He was also active 
in the promotion of labour exchanges and 
legislation for the provision of work or 
maintenance for the unemployed. 

At the outbreak of war in 1914 Barnes 
recruited many men for the services and 
afterwards visited Canada and Flanders 
in order to withdraw mechanics for the 
munition industries. He served on the 
appeal board for conscientious objectors, 
and was an effective member of the statu- 
tory conmiittee on service pensions. 
Appointed first minister of pensions in 
Lloyd George's coalition government in 
December 1916, he was largely responsible 
for the more enlightened policy that 
characterized that ministry. 

In 1917 Barnes succeeded Arthur 
Henderson [q.v.] upon the latter's resigna- 
tion from the War Cabinet, and assisted 
in promoting measures for miners' wel- 
fare, women's suffrage, and educational 
advance. When the labour party with- 
drew support from the coalition before the 
general election of December 1918, Barnes 
resigned from the party and remained in 



office with the avowed object of influenc- 
ing the peace terms. He attended the 
Peace Conference in Paris as minister 
plenipotentiary, and, while protesting 
against the reparation clauses of the 
Treaty of Versailles, was chiefly respon- 
sible for the institution of the International 
Labour Organization as an integral section 
of the League of Nations. He represented 
Great Britain at the first International 
Labour Organization conference, held at 
Washington in October 1919, when dele- 
gates attended from forty-one countries, 
including Germany and Austria, and he 
considered that the greatest achievement 
of his career was the inauguration of the 
organization's headquarters at Geneva, 
with Albert Thomas as director. After 
signing the Treaty of St. Germain with 
Austria on 10 September 1919, Barnes 
resigned from the government in January 
1920, but, in company with A. J. Balfour 
and H. A. L. Fisher [qq.v.], he attended 
the first Assembly of the League of 
Nations at Geneva later in that year, 
when he pleaded unsuccessfully for the 
admission of Germany. He retired from 
parUament in 1922. He had been sworn 
of the Privy Council upon attaining 
cabinet rank in 1916, and was appointed 
C.H. in 1920. He afterwards visited 
Egypt, Palestine, and South Africa and 
pursued literary and peace interests during 
his retirement, almost up to his death, 
which took place at his home in London 
21 April 1940. 

In addition to his autobiography. From 
Workshop to War Cabinet (1923), Barnes 
wrote, besides pamphlets, The History 
of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers 
(1901), An Eastern Tour (1921), Industrial 
Conflict: The Way Out (1924), and The 
History of the International Labour Office 
(1926). 

Barnes married in 1882 Jessie, daughter 
of Thomas Langlands, of Dundee, and had 
two sons and one daughter. The elder son 
was killed in action in 1915. 

A portrait of Barnes, by Murray Ur- 
quhart, was presented to the Internation 
al Labour Office, Geneva, by a committee 
of public men. Another portrait, by Sir 
William Orpen, is in the City Art Gallery, 
Bradford. 

[G. N. Barnes, From Workshop to War 
Cabinet, 1923; private information; personal 
knowledge.] J. S. Middleton. 



BARNES, WILLIAM EMERY (1859- 
1939), divine, was born in London 26 May 



42 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Barnes, W. E. 



1859, the younger son of Samuel Emery 
Barnes, a linen draper, of London, by his 
wife, Charlotte Ann Noss. He was edu- 
cated at Islington Proprietary School and 
from there in 1877 went up to Peterhouse, 
Cambridge. He was placed in the first 
class of the theological tripos of 1881 and 
he won the Jeremie prize (septuagint), 
the Crosse scholarship (divinity), and the 
Tyrwhitt scholarship (Hebrew). In 1883 
he was ordained to a curacy at St. John's 
church, Lambeth, returning to Cambridge 
in 1885 as lecturer in Hebrew at Clare 
College and afterwards in Hebrew and 
divinity at his own college, Peterhouse, 
of which he was elected a fellow in 1889. 
He was Hulsean professor of divinity at 
Cambridge from 1901 to 1934, when he 
resigned and retired to live at Canterbury, 
continuing, however, as warden of the 
Central Society of Sacred Study for the 
diocese of Canterbury, to promote this 
study by taking classes and giving occa- 
sional lectures. While doing this at Exeter 
he was seized with illness and died there 
17 August 1939. He had married in 1890 
Georgina de Home, daughter of Alex- 
ander Bevington, of Lloyd's. She died, 
without children, in 1917. 

Barnes was a fine scholar in Hebrew, 
Rabbinic (in which he had read exten- 
sively), and Syriac, and he had a working 
knowledge of several other languages. 
When pressed in his latter years to begin 
the study of Persian, he replied that he 
already kept seven languages going and 
could not add another. His most substan- 
tial contributions to scholarship were in 
Syriac. After the death of R. L. Bensly 
[q.v.] Barnes edited his unfinished work 
on The Fourth Book of Maccabees and 
Kindred Documents in Syriac (1895), him- 
self writing the general introduction and 
making the translation of four of the six 
documents included. He published a use- 
ful apparatus criticus to the Peshitta text 
of Chronicles (1897) and an edition of 
Samuel Lee's Syriac Pentateuch (in col- 
laboration, 1914), and in 1904 a fine 
edition of the Peshitta text of the Psalms. 
What was wanted for younger students 
he gave at its best in his editions of 
Chronicles (1899) and Kings (1908), and 
of Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi (1917) 
in the 'Cambridge Bible'. 

As joint-editor with C. H. Turner [q.v.] 
of the Journal of Theological Studies at its 
inception in 1899 Barnes helped to set the 
high standard of method and style of that 
journal and ever after contributed to it 
articles, notes, and reviews which were 



often of high value. He remained joint- 
editor (from 1902 with Henry Austin 
Wilson) until 1903. 

Always averse from controversy and 
unwilling to commit himself, Barnes 
accepted the new learning of his time and 
the new approach to the literary and his- 
torical study of the Old Testament, but 
used it very cautiously in his own work. 
Much of the new literature of the subject 
he regarded as 'wild' and he disliked 
intensely the way in which some scholars 
cut texts about; but he took full notice 
of their arguments and reasons and 
weighed them before he put them aside. 
With his strong conservative and devo- 
tional tendencies and his respect for time- 
honoured tradition he was happiest in 
drawing out the moral and spiritual values 
of the books on which he commented, as 
he did in his edition of the Psalms for 
the 'Westminster Commentaries', pub- 
lished, with an admirable introduction, 
in 1931. 

Bishop Arthur Mesac Knight, who was 
a yoiuiger contemporary of his at school, 
remembered Barnes as at that time 'a 
trim and somewhat prim little figure, 
precise, careful, but with strength of char- 
acter . . . and he had his own opinions'. 
That description was true of him all 
through his later life. Gentle and quiet, 
with entire sincerity and integrity, kindly 
disposed and mildly humorous, he was a 
good friend to different tj^es of people 
whom he liked to gather together to 
luxurious lunches in Peterhouse. As a 
teacher he was painstaking and simple, 
anxious not to be above the heads of his 
pupils. 

In rather quaint contrast with Barnes's 
small stature and slight physique was his 
eager interest in warfare. In his early days 
he joined the University Volunteers when 
they had very little support, and almost 
to the end of his time in Cambridge he 
would go up to the butts to fire off his 
rounds. Military history, strategy and 
tactics, were his hobby, and in discus- 
sions of them in combination room he 
would sometimes correct the master of 
his college, that master being Lord Bird- 
wood. Another subject which attracted 
him was the revision of English spelling, 
and he wrote letters to The Times and 
other papers to promote the common- 
sense reformation which he desired, but 
he objected to having his own name spelt 
without the e. He also liked to make 
excursions into fields of study other than 
those with which he was most familiar, 



43 



Barnes, W. E. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



with something of his own to illustrate 
the subject. 

A drawing of Barnes, by Sir William 
Rothenstein (1933), hangs in the Ward 
Library at Peterhouse. 

[The Times, 19 August 1939; private 
information ; personal knowledge.] 

J. F. Bethxjne-Bakee. 



BARNETT, Dame HENRIETTA 
OCTAVIA WESTON (1851-1936), social 
reformer, was born at Clapham 4 May 
1851, the daughter of Alexander William 
Rowland, of Clapham, by his wife, Hen- 
rietta Monica Margaretta Ditges. Fond of 
country pursuits and a keen horsewoman, 
she early showed for the poor and needy 
an eager concern which became the guid- 
ing passion of her long and active life and 
gave purpose to the organizing ability and 
tireless energy which were the outstanding 
traits of her character. In 1873, at the age 
of twenty-one, after some experience of 
work with Octavia Hill [q.v.] in the parish 
of St. Mary's church, Bryanston Square, 
she married S. A. Barnett [q.v.], at that 
time a young curate of St. Mary's. By 
their marriage his rare spiritual gifts, fine 
mind, and sensitive nature were joined 
with Mrs. Barnett's robust energy and 
assertive personality. It is impossible to 
measure what she owed to her husband's 
influence, and the story of their work 
together is best sought in the account of 
his life ; but Mrs. Barnett's personal activi- 
ties were noteworthy. She was the first 
nominated woman guardian, in 1875, and 
was manager of Forest Gate district school 
from 1875 to 1897. Her further experience 
as a member of a departmental committee 
appointed to inquire into 'the condition 
of Poor Law children' led to the forma- 
tion in 1896 of the State Children's 
Association with Mrs. Barnett as honorary 
secretary. Twelve years later Asquith 
spoke of her as 'the unofficial custodian of 
the children of the State'. From 1876 to 
1898 she was honorary secretary of the 
W^hitechapel branch of the MetropoUtan 
Association for Befriending Young Ser- 
vants. In 1877 she arranged country holi- 
days for nine ailing children, and out of 
that experience developed the Children's 
Country Holidays Fund, of which she was 
a co-founder in 1884, and through which 
hundreds of thousands of London children 
have benefited. In 1884 also she founded 
the London Pupil Teachers' Association, 
of which she was president from 1891 to 
1907. In 1901 she was closely associated 



with Barnett in the foundation of the 
Whitechapel Art Gallery, of which she 
remained a trustee until her death. 

Throughout this time, whUe she ardently 
supported her husband in the develop- 
ment of Toynbee Hall, Mrs. Barnett was 
an active advocate of the settlement ideal 
in the United States of America. There 
it took root quickly and it has borne much 
fruit. In 1920 the 480 American settle- 
ments which were already established paid 
her a remarkable tribute by electing her, 
an Englishwoman living in England, to 
be honorary president of the American 
Federation of Settlements. Toynbee Hall 
had been conceived as a bridge between 
learning and labour and between 'the 
East End' and 'the West End' at a time 
when the former term connoted toil and 
poverty and the latter leisure and riches. 
It expressed a protest against class separa- 
tion and the ugliness of ignorance. Much 
of its activity marked the Barnetts' faith 
in the uplifting nature of art and beauty, 
and the same philosophy inspired Mrs. 
Barnett's subsequent work at Hampstead. 
First she raised £43,000 to save eighty 
acres of the heath for public enjoyment. 
Then, in 1903, she formed the Hampstead 
Garden Suburb Trust which raised funds 
for the purchase of a further 240 acres on 
which to lay out the houses and grounds, 
and in 1907 work was begun. Mrs. 
Barnett had experienced in Whitechapel 
the evils of class segregation and unregu- 
lated urban development. The new garden 
suburb was designed to provide homes for 
all classes, and these ranged from cottages 
vidth small weekly rents to houses with an 
annual rent of several hundred pounds. 
Development was to be carefully con- 
trolled and facilities for worship, for educa- 
tion, and for recreation were to be open to 
all alike. It was a pioneer venture, and it 
has influenced town planning in this and 
other countries. The Dame Henrietta 
Barnett School, which she founded at 
Hampstead, and Barnett House, Oxford, 
both owed much to her, as did the National 
Association for Promoting the Welfare of 
the Feeble Minded, the National Union 
of Women Workers, and the Play and 
Pageant Union. 

In 1918 Mrs. Barnett, who had already 
written a good deal, both alone and in 
collaboration with her husband, published 
Canon Barnett, His Life, Work and Friends 
in two volumes; in 1923, at the age of 
nearly seventy -two, she began painting 
and had a picture hung in the Royal 
Academy. She was appointed C.B.E. in 



44 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Baroda 



1917 and D.B.E. in 1924. She died, child- 
less, at Hampstead 10 June 1936. 

[Dame Henrietta Barnett, Canon Barnett, 
2 vols., 1918, and Matters that Matter, 1930; 
The Times, 11 June 1936.] L. F. Ellis. 

BARODA, Sir SAYAJI RAO, MAHA- 
RAJA GAEKWAR OF (1863-1939), was 
born at Kavlana in the Nasik district of 
Bombay 17 March 1863, and originally 
named Gopalrao, the second son of a 
village headman, belonging to the Gaek- 
war family which founded a dynasty in 
Guzerat. In 1875 the ruling Maharaja was 
deposed for continued misconduct. The 
widow of his brother and predecessor, 
being allowed to adopt an heir to the 
chief ship, chose the boy, who was placed 
on the gadi in May 1875, with the name 
of Sayaji Rao III. He was at this time 
entirely iUiterate, but, with an English 
tutor, he was carefully educated so that 
it was possible to invest him with govern- 
ing powers in December 1881 when he 
was not yet nineteen years of age. The 
state had a sad record of misgovernment, 
but its soil was rich and its commercial 
situation excellent, with very favourable 
arrangements with the government of 
India for the receipt of customs duties at 
its ports. These elements only needed the 
good government which the young ruler 
supplied. As he later said of himself: 
'Work was his hobby and administration 
his passion.' His attention to detail, in- 
deed, led to a great degree of centraliza- 
tion and, on the part of his officials, a 
fear of responsibility, while his excessive 
caution was liable to approach suspicious- 
ness. In 1887 he wrote to the viceroy: 
' I hate the idea of an absentee maharaja ' : 
yet his travels and residence overseas 
became prolonged. They were originally 
due in large part to the insomnia and ner- 
vous irritability from wliich he believed 
himself unable to obtain relief in India, 
but were extended by his restlessness and 
intellectual curiosity. He was a close ob- 
server of systems and institutions in the 
countries which he visited and sought to 
introduce such as seemed desirable into 
his state. His close touch with the affairs 
of his state was maintained, but the unwil- 
lingness of his officials to make decisions 
on their own motion was thereby in- 
creased. The frequency of his journeys 
led the viceroy. Lord Curzon, to issue in 
1900 a circular on the absence of rulers 
from their states wliich was directed at the 
Gaekwar, and was deeply resented by him. 

The fact that the Baroda territory was 



interspersed with lands under the Bom- 
bay government and with small states 
over which Baroda had originally claimed 
suzerainty afforded other grounds for 
friction. The Maharaja objected in par- 
ticular to any appearance of interference 
with his administration. This accounted 
for his attitude on the question of imperial 
service troops which the other leading 
states were glad to maintain, while the 
Gaekwar rejected them because of the 
necessary technical inspection by British 
officers. His state was thus unable to play 
so conspicuous a part in the war of 1914- 
1918 as the other Indian states, although 
in every other way the Maharaja gave all 
the help in his power. Before the end of 
his reign he agreed to the maintenance of 
such troops, afterwards called the Indian 
State Forces, in his state. Another source 
of friction was the Maharaja's somewhat 
detached attitude to complaints that sedi- 
tious movements against the British 
Indian administration were hatched, and 
were insufficiently checked, in his terri- 
tory. This had the result of making him 
popular with the nationalist elements in 
British India which regarded him as 
sympathizing with their aims. This doubt- 
less lessened their criticism of his con- 
stant attacks on weaknesses in the Indian 
social system such as general illiteracy, 
infant marriages, prohibition of widow 
re-marriage, and the disabilities of out- 
castes and backward tribes. The fact that 
the penalties enacted for breaches of his 
social legislation were imperfectly enforced 
led to a belief that the reforms were not 
very real. The Maharaja, however, held 
that reforms could not far outstrip public 
opinion, and that reliance should be placed 
upon a widening of outlook rather than 
upon penalties. 

An unfortunate incident at the Delhi 
Durbar of 1911 affected for a time the 
pubhc estimation of the Gaekwar. His 
apparent disrespect to the IQng-Emperor, 
attributed by his own friends to nervous- 
ness and gaucherie, may have been also 
partly due to the irritabUity already 
noted. The surroundings of the incident 
gave it greater notoriety than it deserved. 

With increasing age the Maharaja's 
character mellowed, and he became a 
force as an elder statesman. At his 
jubilee in 1925 it could be truly claimed 
that he had raised Baroda from chaos 
to the position of a model state. He 
took a prominent part in the first and 
second Round Table Conferences, with 
an increasingly conservative outlook. His 



45 



Baroda 



D.N.B, 1931-1940 



foreign absences continued, but he became 
more willing to leave details of admini- 
stration to his dewan and coimcil. Al- 
though he returned to India in November 
1938, he was unable to reach Baroda, and 
died in Bombay 6 February 1939, after 
a reign of nearly sixty-four years. 

The Maharaja was appointed G.C.S.I. 
in 1887 and G.C.I.E. in 1919. He was 
twice married : first, in 1881 to Lakshimi- 
bai (died May 1885), of the Tanjore family, 
by whom he had one son, who predeceased 
his father, and a daughter; secondly, in 
December 1885, to Gajnabai, later styled 
Chinmabai II, of a branch of the Ghatge 
family settled in the Dewas state, and had 
three sons, the two elder of whom pre- 
deceased their father, and one daughter. 
He was succeeded by his grandson, the son 
of his eldest son, Pratapsingh. 

A cartoon of the Maharaja, by 'M. R.', 
appeared in Vanity Fair 3 January 1901. 

[The Times, 7 February 1939; P. W. 
Sergeant, Ruler of Baroda, 1928 ; P. Stanley 
Rice, Life of Sayaji Rao III, Maharaja of 
Baroda, 2 vols., 1931.] Patrick Cadell. 



BARR, ARCHIBALD (1855-1931), in- 
ventor of range-finders, was born at 
Glenfield House, Abbey, near Paisley, 
Renfrewshire, 18 November 1855, the 
third son of Archibald Barr, yarn mer- 
chant, by his wife, Jeanie Stirrat, of 
Paisley. From Paisley Grammar School 
he entered the works of Messrs. A. F. 
Craig & company, manufacturers of 
spinning and weaving machinery, of that 
town, as an engineering apprentice under 
the Scottish 'sandwich' system, which 
enabled him to attend the winter sessions 
of Glasgow University, from which he 
graduated in 1876. 

During the following eight years Barr 
remained there as assistant to James 
Thomson [q.v.] until in 1884, having 
graduated D.Sc, he was called to the 
chair of civil and mechanical engineering 
at the Yorkshire College, later Leeds 
University, where he founded the first 
engineering laboratories of Great Britain. 
Glasgow Universitj'^ recalled him in 1889, 
in succession to Thomson, as regius pro- 
fessor of civil engineering and mechanics, 
the oldest chair of engineering science in 
the world ; this gave him the privilege of 
continuing his important consultative 
business. As he found no facilities for 
research at the university, he set himself 
to build and equip the James Watt 
laboratories, which were opened in 1900 



and, at that time, were recognized as being 
the most complete in Britain. 

At Leeds Barr met the colleague of his 
lifetime, William Stroud, the young regius 
professor of physics, with whom his name 
is widely associated as the pioneer of naval 
range-finding and gunnery and as the 
founder of the firm of manufacturers of 
optical and mechanical instruments of 
precision which bears their name. Under 
his chairmanship the firm did great service 
to the country in its designs for naval 
range-finders, which were adopted by the 
Admiralty and by nearly all foreign 
powers. His great knowledge of mechanics 
also led to inventions of height-finders in 
anti-aircraft services and for fire-control 
instruments, as well as aerial survey 
apparatus. Owing to the rapid growth 
of the factory established at Anniesland, 
Glasgow, he found it necessary to resign 
from his chair in 1913, becoming emeritus 
professor. 

Barr was elected F.R.S. in 1923, and 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
(1914) from the university of Glasgow. 
He was president of several learned 
societies. He married in 1885 Isabella 
(died 1928), eldest daughter of John 
Young, wood merchant, of Priory Park, 
Castlehead, Paisley ; they had three sons, 
the second of whom was killed in action 
in France in 1915, and a daughter. He 
died at his home, Westerton of Mugdock, 
Milngavie, near Glasgow, 5 August 1931. 

In 1913 Barr was presented with two 
portraits, painted by G. Fiddes Watt, one 
of which hangs in the engineering depart- 
ment of the university of Glasgow, the 
other being in the possession of the family. 
They represent the professor in a mood of 
seriousness which was rarely evident to 
his students. 

[The Times, 7 August 1931 ; Obituary 
Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society, No. 1, 
December 1932 (portrait) ; Nature, 22 August 
1931 ; personal knowledge.] 

Jaivies Weir French. 

BARRIE, Sir JAMES MATTHEW, 
baronet (1860-1937), playwright and 
novelist, was born at Kirriemuir, Forfar- 
shire, 9 May 1860, the ninth child and 
third and youngest son of David Barrie, 
hand-loom weaver, of Kirriemuir, by his 
wife, Margaret, daughter of Alexander 
Ogilvy, stonemason. He was educated 
first at Glasgow Academy, where his 
brother Alexander was a teacher, and, 
from 1873, when Alexander was appointed 
inspector of schools of the district, at 



46 



D.N.B. 1981-1040 



Barrie 



Dumfries Academy. He matriculated at 
Edinburgh University in 1878, and gradu- 
ated M.A. in 1882. From his boyhood he 
had determined to write, and in January 
1883 he was appointed leader-writer and 
sub -editor on the Nottingham Journal. 
His ari;icles were thorough and complete 
within the required length and he had 
enough spare time for sketches and stories 
which he dispatched at a venture. Some, 
in which Kirriemuir was disguised as 
'Thrums', were published anonymously 
in the St. James's Gazette, of which 
Frederick Greenwood [q.v.] was editor. 

Against Greenwood's advice Barrie 
moved to London in March 1885 and 
again Uved without struggling. He WTote 
for many magazines and now (Sir) W. 
Robertson NicoU [q.v.] began his staunch 
support of his brother Scot by publishing 
serially (1887-1888) over the signature 
of 'Gavin Ogilvy' in the British Weekly 
Barrie's 'When A Man's Single, A Tale 
of Literary Life'. Barrie published his 
first book, Better Dead, in November 1887 
at his own expense. It was an immature 
joke, cost one shilling, but almost paid its 
expenses. The years 1888 and 1889 were 
memorable ones in the author's life. In 
1888 Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton 
published Auld Licht Idylls, sketches of 
Thrums, and When A Man 's Single under 
Barrie's own signature. 'Gavin Ogilvy' 
was expiring. He died in December after 
signing his name to An Edinburgh Eleven, 
a skit on his professors, published by 
Nicoll in paper covers as a Christmas extra 
to the British Weekly. In 1889 Hodder 
and Stoughton published A Window in 
Thrums, a companion volume of Scottish 
episodes, and Donald Macleod accepted 
'The Little Minister' for serial publica- 
tion in Good Words. In 1890 My Lady 
Nicotine was published. It aroused com- 
ment because of its pleasant humour and 
a growing curiosity to know what, if any, 
brand of smoking mixture was disguised 
as Arcadia. 

In 1891 Barrie's bent towards the stage 
began to unfold. In April a play by him- 
self and Henry Brereton Marriott Wat- 
son, Richard Savage, was produced at a 
matinee. In May Ibsen's Ghost was put 
on as a front piece by J. L. Toole [q.v.] 
at the suggestion of (Sir) Henry Irving 
[q.v.], and in July the British Weekly 
brought out a sixteen-page illustrated 
supplement, J. M. Barrie, a Literary and 
Biograi)hical Portrait. It was early, per- 
haps, for so recently fledged an author to 
achieve a recognition from the press so 



noticeable. At the year's end, Toole paid 
£200 for a three-act farce, Walker, London, 
which ran for 511 consecutive perfor- 
mances from 25 February 1892. But more 
profitable was Barrie's first novel. The 
Little Minister. Its publication in book 
form in October 1891 was secured for 
Messrs. Cassell by (Sir) T. W. Reid [q.v.], 
who, always alert to fresh talent, had 
attached Barrie to the staflf of his new 
weekly paper the Speaker with (Sir) Arthur 
Thomas Quiller-Couch, H. W. Massing- 
hara [q.v.] and Augustine Birrell [q.v.]. 
The Little Minister was an instantaneous 
success. 

But Barrie was looking to the stage as 
a means of expression. He collaborated 
with (Sir) A. Conan Doyle [q.v.] in a 
libretto for Richard D'Oyly Carte's opera 
company at the Savoy Theatre, Jane 
Annie; or. The Good Conduct Prize (May 
1893), without success ; and, commissioned 
by Irving, he completed The Professor's 
Love Story in the autiunn of 1892. Irving 
was not satisfied and the play went the 
round of West End managers. The Ameri- 
can rights were secured by Edward Smith 
Willard for £50 and he played in it in the 
United States with marked success. Under 
new arrangements, for Barrie now had 
Arthur Addison Bright as his agent, 
Willard produced The Professor's Love 
Story at the Comedy Theatre, London, in 
June 1894 and transferred it to the Garrick 
Theatre. It had a combined run of 144 
performances. 

In that year (1894) Barrie married 
Mary, daughter of George Ansell, a 
licensed victualler in Bayswater. She was 
a young actress who had played Nanny 
O'Brien in Walker, Ijondon. After a 
honeymoon in Switzerland they settled 
in 1895 in Gloucester Road, South Ken- 
sington, where they remained for seven 
years. There were no children of the 
marriage. 

Meanwhile Barrie was working upon a 
tribute to his mother, Margaret Ogilvy 
(1896), written with a frankness of affec- 
tion from which a good many authors 
would have shied and which took and 
held the favour of his more tender ad- 
mirers ; and upon two novels of Scottish 
fife. Sentimental Tommy (1896) and its 
sequel, Tommy and Grizel (1900). The 
two books make an odd story and contain 
an analysis of a tortured literary mind 
and the tragical consequences to which it 
might lead, with a glimpse, by the way, 
of the Peter Pan who was to be. A fanci- 
ful description of a Scottish boy. Tommy, 



47 



Barrie 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



in a slum of south London, his mother's 
renunciation of Aaron Latta, the coward 
to whom she had been betrothed, and 
her flight from Thrums to London with 
Sandys, her braggart husband, her struggle 
to bring up her two children. Tommy and 
Elspeth, Tommy's inventions and stories 
of a Scottish village which he had never 
seen, and the rescue of himself and Elspeth 
by Latta on their mother's death are the 
bare bones of the first book. But it is in 
the analysis of the boy dramatizing him- 
self and in his invented stories of the 
unknown but wonderful small town in 
which the interest lies. From London 
the two children are transplanted to 
Thrums, where Tommy becomes the leader 
of the village boyhood, always playing a 
part, now Elspeth's protector, now the 
champion of Griselda, the Painted Lady's 
daughter, now Charles Stuart on the run 
in the heather, now the antagonist of 
Cathro the schoolmaster, but sometimes 
with a laugh as he catches a glimpse of 
what he really is and contrasts it with the 
heroic figure which he cannot but make 
himself out to be. Tommy and Grizel 
carries on the account. These were the 
last novels which Barrie wrote. The Little 
White Bird (1902), Peter Pan in Kensing- 
ton Gardens (1906), and Peter and Wendy 
(1911) are all variations upon the theme 
of Peter Pan. 

At this time Charles Frohman, the 
American impresario, was seeking a play 
which would give an opportunity to 
Maude Adams, a young actress in whom 
he had great faith. A dramatized version 
by Barrie of The Little Minister followed 
the book too closely to appeal to Froh- 
man; but Barrie changed the character 
and. origin of the heroine, and The Little 
Minister appeared successfully at Wash- 
ington in September 1897. Mr. Cyril 
Maude and Frederick Harrison produced 
it at the Haymarket Theatre (November 
1897) with Maude as the Little Minister 
and Winifred Emery, his wife, as Lady 
Babbie. It ran for a year and Barrie 
acknowledged afterwards that between 
England and America this play brought 
him £80,000. 

A cricket -match arranged by Barrie at 
Shere in 1887 with players who mostly 
had played Uttle cricket before included 
Joseph Thomson [q.v.], the explorer of 
Morocco. He invented for the team the 
name of AUahakbarrie. For four or five 
summers the Allahakbarries played not 
too strenuous cricket at Broadway, Shere, 
and other places. Later, county cricketers 



and really fast bowlers were admitted, 
two-day matches were played, and the 
team foundered. The summer months 
were spent at Black Lake Cottage, a small 
house opposite to Moor Park by Farnham 
which Barrie, in 1900, had given to his 
wife, and, cricketing being over, Barrie 
gave himself to the writing of plays and 
the building up, among the pine-trees 
above the garden in company with the 
five little boys of Arthur Llewelyn Da vies, 
of the story of Peter Pan. But other work 
was completed first. The Wedding Guest, 
produced by Arthxir Bourchier [q.v.] at 
the Garrick Theatre in September 1900, 
was hardly a success and certainly not a 
failure. It ran for 100 performances — a 
play in the fashionable mould, a problem 
play, as the saying went. An artist 
marries the daughter of the great house 
in the great house and a witness is brought 
in from outside according to Scottish 
custom, a woman who a year ago was the 
mistress of the artist. She now carries a 
baby. The disclosure, the intolerant ignor- 
ance of the girl-wife, the gradual com- 
promise by which the crisis is smoothed 
over are all in the fashion of the day. 
The wise old spinster is the kindly Felice 
of The Little Minister and a family rela- 
tionship exists between the Earl of Rin- 
toul and Mr. Fairbairn, but there is more 
of Barrie in Sentimental Tommy than in 
either of these plays. 

Quality Street was first performed at 
Toledo, Ohio, in October 1901 and was 
transferred to the Knickerbocker Theatre, 
New York, with Maude Adams as Phoebe 
Throssel. Barrie was now established as 
a successful dramatist in both England 
and America, and Quality Street, a senti- 
mental comedy set in a small English 
town during Napoleonic days, had an 
equal success in both countries. In Lon- 
don at the Vaudeville Theatre (September 
1902) Phoebe Throssel was played by 
Miss EUaline Terriss and Valentine Brown, 
the dashing young doctor, by her husband, 
(Sir) Seymour Hicks. The comedy was 
not for everyone. There were playgoers 
who felt moments of embarrassment at 
the more cloying passages, but the play 
with its twists of plot and humour kept 
the stage for 459 performances, was re- 
vived at the Haymarket Theatre in 
August 1921, and, translated into German 
as Qualitdt Strasse, ran for months in 
Berlin during the war of 1914-1918. 

Three months before Quality Street 
was produced in London, Barrie moved 
to a small regency house, Leinster Corner, 



48 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Barrie 



lacing the Bayswater Road, with a stable 
behind which he turned into a study. 
Across the road were Kensington Gardens 
to which Barrie obtained a much-treasured 
private key from the first commissioner 
of Works. There, with Luath, his New- 
foundland, almost as big as himself, he 
might be seen on any day dreaming over 
Peter Pan. 

A more ambitious play, The Admirable 
Crichton, was presented by Frohman in 
November 1902 at the Duke of York's 
Theatre. Here was that valuable touch 
of acidity which keeps plays alive. It is 
the story of a radical peer with a tory soul, 
the Earl of Loam, who believes at 5 o'clock 
once a month in the equality of the classes, 
and a butler, Crichton, who believes that 
rank is the order of nature. The first act 
shows Lord Loam and his daughters 
having tea in the drawing-room with their 
servants. In the second act they have 
been wrecked upon a deserted Pacific 
island and nature begins to put Crichton, 
the ingenious butler, in his rightful place. 
In the third act he is king of the island. 
The house which he has built is lit with 
electricity, a chain of bonfires round the 
coast awaits only the movement of a 
switch to burst into flames, and the 
daughters, great himters and good cooks, 
with the invaluable Cockney Tweeny, all 
aspire to Crichton's hand. Crichton's 
choice is Lady Mary, the eldest daughter, 
but as he is on the point of annoimcing 
his choice a ship is seen on the horizon 
and its hooter is heard. Crichton is faced 
with a problem : do nothing, and the ship 
will go : reply, and once more he is a butler. 
With a pull of the lever he sets the bon- 
fires burning, and as the officers of the 
rescue ship enter the house he replies to 
a timid word from Lady Mary, 'Milady'. 
In the fourth act the old order has uncom- 
fortably retiu-ned. A book has been writ- 
ten about the family experiences in which 
Crichton is hardly mentioned. He gives 
notice of his intention to marry Tweeny 
and take a public-house, 'The Case Is 
Altered'. After the war of 1914-1918, 
Barrie changed the last act to the play's 
disadvantage by leaving Crichton's fate 
imcertain. A pity, for the reader may be 
quite sure that within two years ' The Case 
Is Altered' would have become a Grand 
Hotel. No doubt both Lord Loam and 
Crichton are larger than life, just as are 
so many of the characters of Dickens, but 
it does not follow, any more than in the 
case of Dickens's characters, that they 
are untrue. This play, with an admir- 

88M 



able cast — (Dame) Irene Vanbrugh, (Sir) 
Gerald du Maurier [q.v.], Henry Brodribb 
Irving, and Henry Kemble [q.v.] — ran for 
328 performances and was followed, in 
September 1903, by an odd comedy, LittU 
Mary. The creche boxes of children (to 
reappear, children and all, in A Kiss For 
Cinderella) at the back of the parlour of a 
chemist's shop, and the dialogue between 
the twelve-year-old granddaughter of the 
chemist and the Earl of Carlton open 
the play in the true Barrie fashion. It 
owed its success to some excellent scenes 
between the Earl of Carlton and his son 
Cecil and the alacrity with which the 
public took up the phrase 'Little Mary' 
as a euphemism for 'stomach'. 

Peter Pan had grown to full stature in 
the pinewoods behind Black Lake Cot- 
tage and now sought for his shadow in the 
nursery of the Darlings at the Duke of 
York's Theatre on 27 December 1904. 
Nana, the dog-nurse, Tinker Bell, Wendy, 
the Never Never Land, the kindly Red 
Indians, the furious pirates, Smee, Starkey» 
with Captain Hook at their head, and, 
above all, the crocodile with the eight-day 
clock ticking away inside of him are house- 
hold words to-day, but in 1904 no one but 
Barrie had any faith in them. (Sir) H. Beer- 
bohm Tree [q.v.] thought that Barrie had 
gone mad. Frohman wanted to defer the 
production. Barrie himself from the begin- 
ning was confident that Peter Pan would 
not only attract but would be produced 
at Christmas-time year after year. For a 
fortnight it looked as if Tree and Frohman 
were going to be justified. Then children 
of all ages flocked to the play until it 
closed on 1 April 1905, to be revived at 
nearly every Christmas season afterwards. 
The lagoon scene was added for the first 
revival. It explains why the Red Indians 
protected the children from the pirates. 
Was not Tiger Lily rescued by Peter Pan 
at the risk of his life? 'To die', he said 
with a shaking voice, 'will be an awfully 
big adventure.' The line is to be remem- 
bered if only because it was quoted by 
Barrie's great friend Frohman as he 
plunged to his death in the Lusitania. 

Four days after Peter Pan was shelved 
for the sununer Alice-Sit-by-the-Fire was 
produced at the same theatre. It was 
written for Ellen Terry [q.v.], but the 
theme had Uttle life in it and she never 
felt easy in her part. Nevertheless, it ran 
for 115 performances, a satire upon the 
social play of the times which has not 
been revived. The year 1906 was the 
cause of another satire still less successful. 



49 



Barrie 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



A friend of Barrie was standing for the 
liberal party in the heart of the tariff 
reform area and won the seat. Barrie was 
present at the final meetings and on his 
return to London wrote with considerable 
enjoyment Josephine. It is a political 
burlesque and Barrie admitted that he 
had been so careful to baffle the censor, 
who banned political plays, that he had 
made it quite unintelligible to any 
audience. Frederick Harrison of the Hay- 
market Theatre nibbled at it and re- 
frained. Gerald du Maurier, cast for 
Josephine, refused to act the part. Froh- 
man the faithful came to the rescue and 
with two one-act plays put on the first 
triple bill at the Comedy Theatre in April. 
It failed completely and all three plays 
have ceased to exist in any form. 

None the less, the idea of a play with a 
political environment clung, and two 
words spoken by his friend from a balcony 
out of an expiring throat after his election 
were an inspiration. What Every Woman 
Knows opens with a flawless first act. 
John Shand, the young ticket-collector- 
student, enters into a contract with the 
father, Alick Wylie, to marry Maggie, 
sister of David and James Wylie, the girl 
without charm, in five years if called upon 
to do so, in return for £300. In the second 
act Shand is returned to parliament. He 
has the support of two aristocratic friends, 
the Comtesse de la Briere and her niece, 
Lady Sybil Tenterden (originally Lazen- 
by). Maggie proposes to cancel their con- 
tract. This he declines to do. In the third 
act he is married but is caught by Maggie 
in an avowal of passion to Lady Sybil. 
Maggie determines to fight for her man. 
Her method is to send him for a holiday 
to the country house of the Comtesse 
de la Briere where Lady Sybil is staying. 
In the fourth act the cards have been 
stacked in favour of Maggie. Lady Sybil 
and John Shand thrown together are un- 
utterably bored. The Cabinet minister, 
responsible for a speech to be made by 
Shand at a big poUtical rally, finds the 
draft shown to him unworthy of the 
occasion: and then 'all's well' is reached 
by the emergence of Maggie with a new 
draft containing the quips which had 
made Shand famous, the delight of the 
Cabinet minister, and the reconciliation 
of husband and wife. The play was one 
of Barrie's greatest successes in London. 
It opened in September 1908 at the Duke 
of York's Theatre. 

Barrie's enthusiasm for the stage then 
dwindled for a time. In October 1909 he 



obtained a divorce from his wife and in 
November moved to a flat in Adelphi 
Terrace overlooking the river. In March 
1910 he was responsible for a triple bill 
at the Duke of York's Theatre consisting 
of his own Old Friends and The Twelve- 
Pound Look, and The Sentimentalists by 
George Meredith [q.v.]. Meredith's one- 
act play failed and was replaced by 
Barrie's A Slice of Life. Repertory seasons 
were in the air and with this triple bill 
Justice by John Galsworthy [q.v.]. The 
Madras House by Harley G. Granville- 
Barker, and Misalliance by Mr. Bernard 
Shaw were alternatively staged. The 
season was unsuccessful. Again there was 
an interval. 

In May 1912 occurred something which, 
on account of its astuteness, no survey of 
Barrie's life can disregard. There appeared 
by the water in Kensington Gardens a 
bronze statue of Peter Pan blowing his 
pipes. There was no im veiling ceremony. 
Barrie had thought of it, had commissioned 
Sir George Frampton [q.v.] to make it, 
had paid for it, and had arranged with the 
first commissioner of Works to have it 
privately erected. A question was asked 
about it in parliament when it was dis- 
covered; but the statue was so appro- 
priate and so clearly an embellishment 
that authority did not disturb it. 

In the autumn of 1912 came another 
triple bill at the Duke of York's Theatre 
of which Barrie's play Rosalind alone 
found favour. Next year (1913) the King 
created him a baronet, and in the autumn 
he finished at last a play in three acts. The 
Adored One, A Legend of the Old Bailey. 
It treated a trial for murder as a lark. 
Some, like Sir John Hare [q.v.] who 
played the judge, had doubts of its suc- 
cess, but if Barrie could get away with 
Idttle Mary, why not with The Adored 
One? Mrs. Patrick Campbell [q.v.], a 
tower of strength, was the murderess, but 
even during the first act the author felt 
the temperature of the house falling and 
knew that the play had failed. It was 
altered in vain and languished for ten 
weeks from 4 September 1913, before it 
died. All that remains of it now is a one- 
act play. Seven Women. On the outbreak 
of war in 1914, Barrie's help was called 
upon and given. For special charity per- 
formances he wrote one-act plays of which 
many have disappeared for ever. In 1915 
soldiers returning for forty-eight hours' 
leave from the squalor of the trenches 
wanted music, gaiety, bright lights, faces, 
and frocks — revues, not Ibsen. Barrie 



50 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Barrie 



wrote Rosy Rapture, The Pride of the 
Beauty Chorus. Gaby Deslys, a French 
actress, famous for her acrobatic dancing, 
played Rosy, but the revue, which in- 
cluded some cinematography, wobbled. 
Frohman in New York was sent for to 
pull it together, but he went down in the 
Lusitania and once more a Barrie play 
had a short run. 

In 1916, however, he took new life with 
Gerald du Maurier. A Kiss For Cinderella, 
produced at Wyndham's Theatre in March, 
ran to full houses for 156 performances 
and was revived that Christmas at the 
Kings way Theatre. The babies in boxes 
had crept in from Little Mary and the 
'slavey' from Alice-Sit-by-the-Fire, but 
du Maurier, as Robert the policeman one 
moment and Prince Charming of the 
pantomime the next, was new, and Cinder- 
ella's dream of a state ball at Buckingham 
Palace was as brilliantly funny a scene as 
its author ever wrote. 

For a good many years Barrie had had 
in his mind the theme that if people had 
a second chance they would in their new 
environment make the same mistakes 
which they had made before. The idea 
was taken out and dusted, as it were, and 
put back again. But in the spring of 1917 
tie set to work upon it and in October 
Dear Brutus was produced — again by 
iu Maurier — at Wyndham's Theatre. 
Barrie had added the poetry of a mid- 
summer night, the mystery of a magic 
wood, and Lob from old English folk-lore 
as a host. In the first act the drawing- 
room curtains are torn aside to reveal the 
magic wood and one by one the ill-assorted 
guests wander out through the French 
windows into their other life. In the third 
act they gradually come to themselves, 
except in the case of Dearth, the artist, to 
whom must be attributed the triumph of 
the play. In the first act his wife, Alice, 
who was his model, and Dearth, who 
drinks, are estranged. During the imagi- 
Qary other life he is shown painting with 
a daughter to keep him company and the 
long scene between these two charmed 
everyone who saw it. In the last act 
Dearth and his wife are reconciled and, in 
I subtle piece of theatre, are seen crossing 
the window arm in arm with the dream 
2hild following them. The play ran for 
J65 performances. 

Mary Rose, with a fantastic sub-title, 
rhe Island That Wants To Be Visited, 
bllowed at the Haymarket Theatre in 
Vpril 1920. It is a romantic theme with 
mbarrassing moments for those too 



fastidious for the emotional frankness 
with which Barrie could always write 
but never speak, some admirably drawn 
characters, and one or two vital scenes 
which brought people again and again to 
the theatre: that scene, for instance, 
where the elderly husband and wife 
admit to each other that, although 
they had believed themselves heart- 
broken, happiness would keep breaking 
through. 

During the past ten years Barrie had 
written a great number of one-act plays, 
many of which, like The Twelve- Pound 
Look (1910), The Old Lady Shows Her 
Medals (1917), and Shall We Join the 
Ladies?, were masterpieces of construc- 
tion. Shall We Join the Ladies? was first 
performed with a star cast at the opening 
of the new theatre of the Dramatic 
Academy (May 1921). A simpleton, as 
his twelve guests think, announces that 
his brother has been murdered and that 
the murderer is among his guests. One 
after another they fall into traps which 
the simpleton has laid for them, and at 
the end it seems that any one of them 
might be guilty. Possibly the author him- 
self was no more aware which one than 
the audience. 

There remains of his plays The Boy 
David, a dramatization of the biblical 
story. It opened in London in December 
1936 in a theatre probably too large 
(His Majesty's), was long enough delayed 
to outlive expectation, and was too thin 
in characterization. It ran for only 55 
performances, a pity, since it was the last 
work which Barrie did. 

In this tale of rare failure and much 
achievement, Barrie only thrice owed his 
inspiration to the circumstances of the 
day: Josephine, the political skit, The 
Wedding Guest, the problem play, and 
The Well-Remembered Voice (1918), the 
war hunger for lost sons. In two other 
one-act plays. The Old Lady Shows Her 
Medals and The New Word (1915), he was 
merely using the war as a background for 
his own ideas. Few authors have been 
more individual. 

Barrie died in London 19 June 1937. 
He received honorary degrees from the 
universities of St. Andrews (1898), Edin- 
burgh (1909), Oxford (1926), and Cam- 
bridge (1930); was elected lord rector of 
St. Andrews University in 1919 and chan- 
cellor of Edinburgh University in 1930; 
and was appointed to the Otder of Merit 
in 1922. 

There is a drawing of Barrie, by 



51 



Barrie 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



W. T. Monnington, which has been 
placed in the National Portrait Gallery. 

[Denis Mackail, The Story of J. M. B., 1941 ; 
The Plays of J. M. Barrie, edited by A. E. 
Wilson, 1942; personal knowledge.] 

A. E. W. Mason. 

BARTLET, JAMES VERNON (186a- 
1940), ecclesiastical historian, was born at 
Scarborough 15 August 1863, the only son 
of George Donald Bartlet, an English 
Presbyterian minister who had a private 
school at Scarborough from 1862 to 1864 
and was headmaster of Mill Hill from 1864 
to 1868, by his wife, Susan Robe McNellan, 
of Alloa, near Stirling. Vernon Bartlet was 
educated at his father's private school in 
Highgate and at Highgate School, whence 
he proceeded in 1882 with a scholarship 
to Exeter College, Oxford. He obtained a 
first class in classical moderations (1883), 
a second class in literae humaniores (1886), 
and a first class in theology (1887). He 
won the senior Hall-Houghton Greek 
Testament prize in 1889. In that year 
he became a tutor and the first librarian 
at the newly established Mansfield College, 
Oxford, which he had entered in 1887 and 
where he studied under A. M. Fairbairn 
[q.v.]; and at Mansfield College he re- 
mained until his retirement in 1928, being 
senior tutor from 1890 to 1900 and there- 
after professor of church history. He 
received the honorary degree of D.D. from 
St. Andrews University in 1904. He was 
twice married: first, in 1900 to Mary 
Elizabeth (died 1904), daughter of Robert 
Edward Gibson, surgeon, of Norwich; 
secondly, in 1906 to Sarah, daughter of 
James Burgess, Congregational minister, 
of Little Baddow, Essex. By the first 
marriage there were two sons, the younger 
of whom died in infancy. Bartlet died at 
Oxford 5 August 1940. 

In 1900 Bartlet published The Apostolic 
Age: its Life, Doctrine, Worship and Polity. 
He contributed commentaries on The Acts 
(1901) and on St. Mark (1922) to the 
'Century Bible' series. His Birkbeck 
lectures, delivered at Trinity CoUege, 
Cambridge, in 1924, were edited by 
Dr. Cecil John Cadoux and published 
posthumously (1943) as Church-Life and 
Church-Order During the First Four Cen- 
turies. He was a frequent contributor to 
symposia, encyclopaedias, and theological 
journals, his work being marked by care- 
ful learning and his own emphasis. For 
Bartlet the prophetic character of original 
Christianity, expressed in terms of the 
Holy Spirit on the divine side, and of 



moral personality on the human, was 
definitive; and he was always sensitive 
to manifestations of this character in later 
piety, whether in orthodox or in heretical 
circles. His presentation was strictly his- 
torical in its perspectives : neither to terms 
nor to the thought-forms which they repre- 
sent did he allow finality. This presenta- 
tion the Oxford Society of Historical 
Theology, of which Bartlet was secretary 
from 1894 until 1936, did much to nurture. 
Its applications are shown with penetra- 
tion in the chapters contributed by Bart- 
let to Christianity in History. A Study of 
Religious Developtnent (1917), in which he 
collaborated with Alexander James Carlyle . 
Keenly interested in Christian reunion, 
Bartlet took a prominent part in the 
World Conference on Faith and Order 
held at Lausanne in 1927. Although never 
ordained, he was regarded as a recognized 
leader in the Congregational churches. 
Tall, dignified in bearing, delicate, and of 
valetudinarian habits, he was a vehement 
teetotaller ; tobacco was abhorrent to him. 
Yet his personal influence on generations 
of students was incalculable. The length 
of his words and sentences bewildered, 
even offended, the less patient and re- 
flective ; his gentleness, sincerity, and deep 
devotion won the affection of all. 

[C. J. Cadoux, Biographical Memoir pre- 
fixed to J. V. Bartlet, Church-Life and Church- 
Order During the First Four Centuries, 1943 
(bibliography and portrait) ; Mansfield College 
Magazine, January 1941 ; personal know- 
ledge.] Geoffrey F. Nuttai^l. 

BATESON, Sir ALEXANDER DING- 
WALL (1866-1935), judge, was born at 
AUerton, near Liverpool, 30 April 1866, 
the youngest of the six sons of William 
Gandy Bateson, a partner in a well-known 
firm of shipping solicitors in Liverpool, 
by his wife, Agnes Dingwall, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Blaikie, of Aberdeen. He was 
educated at Rugby and Trinity College, 
Oxford, being in his youth both a foot- 
baller and a cricketer. Called to the bar 
by the Inner Temple in 1891, he began his 
professional career in the chambers of 
(Sir) Joseph Walton [q.v.]. With such 
backing and under such a mentor he had 
no long wait for practice: he quickly 
specialized in shipping work, mainly in 
salvage and collision cases in the Admiralty 
division, occasionally in the Commercial 
Court. His progress was steady rather 
than eventful, but before long he had 
secured the confidence of the maritime 
business conununity more by his accuracy 



52 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Baylis 



in every detail of his cases and by his 
capacity for decision than through any 
profound legal learning. With a pleasing 
voice, incisive in manner and speech, his 
advocacy was lucid and businesslike. 

In 1909 Bateson was appointed junior 
counsel to the Admiralty for Admiralty 
division work : in 1910, with his friend and 
principal rival in the Admiralty Court, 
(Sir) E. M. Hill [q.v.], he took silk, and 
thereafter there were few cases in the 
Admiralty division in which he was not 
on one side or the other. He was elected 
a bencher of his Inn in 1920. Under the 
Administration of Justice Act (1925) 
power was given to appoint an additional 
judge of the Probate, Divorce, and Ad- 
miralty division, and with the universal 
approbation of the bar, in a wide circle of 
which Bateson had great personal popu- 
larity, the lord chancellor (Viscount Cave) 
in the May of that year selected him for 
appointment to the office. Entirely con- 
versant as Bateson was with maritime law 
and practice, the probate and matrimonial 
jurisdiction in which he was thus also 
launched was an uncharted sea for him, 
but, although perhaps he never quite 
mastered all the historical principles of 
the earlier ecclesiastical law, his very 
sound common sense stood him in good 
stead, and his innate modesty enabled 
him to take full advantage of assistance 
proffered by the bar. Dignified, courteous 
to all, and probing carefiilly into the facts 
of each case, Bateson was rarely misled by 
any witness, and he continued to show that 
supreme judicial qualification, the capacity 
for decision. In the result he gave full 
satisfaction not only to the shipping com- 
munity but also to other litigants and to 
the bar. He seldom reserved a judgement, 
and he disliked anything which attracted 
public attention to himself. 

Bateson's outside interests included 
agriculture, forestry, and shooting, and 
for many years he farmed in the county 
of Kirkcudbright. He married in 1893 
Isabel Mary (died 1919), fourth daughter 
of William Latham, Q.C., and had four 
sons and two daughters. He died in Lon- 
don, while still upon the bench, 11 Janu- 
ary 1935. 

[The Times, 12 January 1935; private 
information.] Noel Middleton. 

BAYLIS, LILIAN MARY (1874-1937), 
theatrical manager, was born in London 
9 May 1874, the eldest daughter of Edward 
William Baylis, singer, by his wife, Eliza- 
beth Cons, singer and pianist. She was 



educated at home and trained at an early 
age as a violinist under J. T. Carrodus 
[q.v.], appearing in public when only seven 
years old at the entertainments organized 
by her aunt Enuna Cons in the 'Royal 
Victoria Coffee Music Hall', as it was then 
called. Miss Cons had secured a lease of 
the theatre in Lambeth originally (1818) 
called the Royal Cobourg Theatre and 
renamed (1833) the Victoria Theatre, 
familiarly known as the 'Old Vic': she 
reopened it as the Royal Victoria Coffee 
Music Hall on 27 December 1880. Miss 
Cons, a social worker closely associated 
with Charles Kingsley, John Ruskin, and 
Octavia Hill [qq.v.], seems to have been 
led to take this step by John HoUingshead 
[q.v.], the famous manager of the Gaiety 
Theatre : their idea was to open a popular 
music-hall for the working classes in which 
no alcohoUc liquor should be obtainable. 
In 1890 the Baylis family emigrated to 
South Africa, where they toured the 
country giving musical entertainments 
under great difficulties of transport. Lilian 
Baylis eventually settled in Johannesburg, 
where she taught music and trained a 
ladies' orchestra; but in 1898 Miss Cons 
persuaded her niece to return to England 
to assist her in the management of the 
Royal Victoria Hall. Hitherto the enter- 
tainments had consisted of oratorio and 
ballad concerts interspersed with variety 
and scientific lectures, as well as temper- 
ance meetings. Plays and operas could 
not be given under the lord chamberlain's 
regulations, but in the case of opera these 
were evaded by presenting selections from 
operas with tableaux vivants in costume. 
Lilian Baylis became acting manager in 
1898 and in 1899 engaged Charles Corri as 
musical director. This partnership lasted 
for over thirty years, during which time 
the musical activities of the hall were con- 
siderably developed, although symphony 
concerts were financially unsuccessful. 
Miss Baylis was one of the first to seize 
on the cinematograph as a popular enter- 
tainment, especially for children, but 
dropped it after a few years when it 
became a general commercial enterprise 
which presented films which she con- 
sidered unsuitable for the young. 

Miss Cons died in 1912 and Lilian Baylis 
became sole manager of the hall. Miss 
Cons's interests had been primarily social 
and religious ; her niece shared these inter- 
ests but was now free to raise the whole 
artistic standard of her theatre, which she 
advertised as 'The People's Opera House'. 
William Poel [q.v.], who had been manager 



53 



Baylis 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



from 1881 to 1883, had offered to bring 
his own dramatic company in 1906, but 
this offer had had to be refused owing to 
the lord chamberlain's regulations; an 
offer of Shakespeare recitals in costume 
made by Mr. George Owen and Mr. 
William Bridges-Adams in 1911 came to 
nothing. After 1912 the restrictions seem 
to have been lifted ; a few plays of a popu- 
lar type were performed, but with little 
success. In April 1914 Miss Rosina Filippi 
presented Shakespeare for the first time, 
and also The School for Scandal. She had 
wished to perform Mr. Bernard Shaw's 
Candida, but this play was abandoned, 
probably because no suitable actress was 
available for the name part. 

The development of the Old Vic as the 
'home of Shakespeare' was first made 
possible by the war of 1914-1918, which 
rendered all theatrical enterprise so pre- 
carious that actors of distinction were glad 
to join a Shakespeare company at the 
Old Vic at very modest salaries for the 
sake of a secure engagement. Between 
1914 and 1923 all the plays of Shakespeare 
were performed there under various pro- 
ducers; Miss Baylis took no part in pro- 
duction but hmited herself to general 
management. By the end of the war the 
Old Vic had become one of London's lead- 
ing theatres, drawing audiences from all 
parts of the capital, and Miss Baylis began 
to be aware that she was now doing what 
should have been the work of a national 
theatre. Sadler's Wells Theatre in Isling- 
ton was acquired and rebuilt, mainly 
through the energy of (Sir) Reginald 
Rowe, and reopened in 1931 as an 'Old 
Vic' for north London ; after a short time 
it was found more practicable to confine 
performances there to opera and ballet, 
drama being given at the Old Vic. Miss 
Baylis found herself obliged to delegate 
much of the management to others, but 
controlled the two theatres to the end of 
her life. She died at Stockwell 25 Novem- 
ber 1937. 

Lilian Baylis's achievement was the 
creation of a true people's theatre and 
opera-house out of what had begun as a 
philanthropic temperance institution. She 
had the reputation of being a hard woman, 
because she was always struggling with 
inadequate resources : she herself admitted 
that she was ill-educated, but she had a 
sure instinct for finding the right col- 
laborators. She was devoutly religious, 
full of broad-minded humanity, and she 
kept her theatres going mainly by the 
intense personal affection and idealism 



which she inspired in all who worked 
with her. 

Miss Baylis was appointed C.H. in 1929| 
and received honorary degrees from the| 
universities of Oxford (1924) and Birming- 
ham (1934). 

A chalk drawing of Miss Baylis, by| 
(Sir) William Rothenstein (1922), and an] 
oU painting, by Ethel Gabain, are at 
Sadler's Wells Theatre. A third portrait,' 
by Charles E. Butler, hangs in the Old 
Vic Theatre. 

[The Times, 26, 29, and 30 November 1937 ; 
Sybil and Russell Thorndike, Lilian Baylis, 
1938 ; Lilian Baylis and Cicely Hamilton, The 
Old Vic, 1926 ; E. G. Harcourt Williams, Four 
Years at the Old Vic, 1929-1933, 1935; Vic- 
Wells. The Work of Lilian Baylis, edited by 
E. G. Harcourt Williams, 1938 ; E. J. Dent, 
A Theatre for Everybody, 1945 ; Norman 
Marshall, Ttie Other Theatre, 1947 ; Who's Who 
in the Theatre, 1936.] Edwakd J. Dent. 



BAYLY, Sir LEWIS (1857-1938), ad- 
miral, was born at Woolwich, 28 September 
1857, the third son of Captain Neville 
Bayly, of the Royal Horse Artillery, by his 
wife, Henrietta Charlotte, fourth daughter 
of General Charles George Gordon, of 
the Royal Artillery, and great-nephew of 
Admiral Sir Richard Keats [q.v.]. He 
was educated in the Britannia, passing 
out in 1872 as a navigating cadet, but 
he was promoted to sub-lieutenant for 
navigating duties in 1876, when the navi- 
gating branch' was abolished and changed 
over to the executive branch ; he became 
lieutenant in 1881. He served in the 
Ashanti campaign (1873) and in the Congo 
expedition (1875) in the Encounter, and 
in the Egyptian war of 1882. In 1883 he 
specialized in torpedo, but his first impor- 
tant appointment was as naval attache to 
the United States of America in June 
1900; in the two years there he gained 
experience which was to stand him in good 
stead in his last appointment. 

In 1907, after having commanded the 
cruiser Talbot on the China station and 
the battleship Queen in the Mediterranean, 
Bayly was selected for the command of 
the destroyer flotillas in the Home Fleet, 
with the rank of commodore, in the Atten- 
tive. In Bayly's own words, 'destroyers 
were then a comparatively new arm, and 
their capabilities when working in flotillas 
were not very well understood'. A fine 
seaman and a hard taskmaster, he com- 
pleted an inmiense programme of exercises 
during the next two years and laid solid 
foundations for the future handling and 



54 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Beardmore 



administration of flotillas. In 1908 he was war was over, he was as well known in the 



appointed president of the War College, 
at Portsmouth, and promoted to flagrante ; 
he held the presidency until 1911 when 
he was given the command of the first 
battle-cruiser squadron (flag in the 
Indomitable and later in the Lion) ; this 
was followed by the command of the 
third battle squadron (1913-1914, flag 
in the King Edward VII), and, in 1914, 
by that of the first battle squadron (flag 
in the Marlborough). This squadron was 
part of the Grand Fleet assembled at 
Scapa P'low on the outbreak of war in 
August 1914. In September Bayly was 
promoted vice-admiral and in December 
he was appointed to command the recently 
strengthened Channel Fleet (flag in the 
Lord Nelson), but a few days later was 
relieved of his command because, during 
exercises, one of his battleships, the For- 
midable, was sunk by torpedo. He asked 
for a court martial, but this was refused, 
and he was appointed president of the 
Royal Naval CoUege, Greenwich. With 
that appointment his active career ap- 
peared to have ended, but his greatest 
work still lay ahead of him. In July 1915 
he was appointed to command the West- 
ern Approaches with base at Queenstown 
and in the beginning of 1916 was raised 
to the position of commander-in-chief. 
The German submarine campaign was at 
its height and the frequent sinkings in 
the Western Approaches could only be 
checked by extremely vigorous defence 
measures and by exploiting new methods 
of attacking the submarines. Bayly had 
all the qualities for conducting the anti- 
submarine campaign, but for the first two 
years he never had sufficient ships for the 
large area for which he was responsible, 
until, in 1917, welcome reinforcements 
from the United States began to arrive. 

Bayly, who had been promoted admiral 
in 1917, proved the ideal commander of 
a mixed Anglo-American force. He made 
the senior United States officer (Captain 
Joel Roberts Poinsett Pringle, afterwards 
vice-admiral) his chief of staff, the 
first foreign naval officer to hold such an 
appointment, and he mixed the ships of 
the two navies in his flotillas and squad- 
rons so that after a few months they were 
all one navy. Although in his own service 
his reputation was that of a hard task- 
master with a brusque, intolerant manner, 
the American navy discovered a human 
side which led him to be known to all 
American sailors as ' Uncle Lewis ' . It is no 
exaggeration to say that by the time the 



United States as in his own country. It 
was the joint practice of naval warfare 
that broadened and deepened into a sym- 
pathetic understanding between Bayly 
and Pringle and all those who served 
vmder them, and this understanding 
spread to wider reaches and helped 
materially to cement friendship between 
the two English-speaking countries. 

In 1921 Bayly, who had retired in July 
1919, visited the United States as the 
guest of the Queenstown Association, a 
club formed by officers who had served 
under him from 1915 to 1918, and of 
which he was vice-president. In 1934 he 
was again the guest of the American navy 
when, at the Naval Academy at Anna- 
polis, he unveiled a memorial, which the 
Secretary of the Navy had granted him 
permission to erect, to his American chief 
of staff. Vice- Admiral Pringle. 

Bayly was appointed C.V.O. in 1907, 
C.B. in 1912, K.C.B. in 1914, and K.C.M.G. 
in 1918. He received the Grand Cross of 
the Dannebrog in 1912 and the American 
D.S.O. He married in 1892 Yves Henrietta 
Stella, daughter of Henry Annesley Voy- 
sey ; there was no issue of the marriage. 
He died in London 16 May 1938. 

[The Times, 17 May 1938 ; Sir Lewis Bayly, 
Pull Together!, 1939 (portraits) ; personal 
knowledge.] W. M. James. 

BEARDMORE, WILLIAM, Baron 
Invernairn (1856-1936), shipbuilder, was 
bom at Greenwich 16 October 1856, the 
eldest son of William Beardmore, of Park- 
head, Glasgow, by his wife, Sophie Louisa 
Holfman. He was educated at Glasgow 
High School and Ayr Academy and com- 
pleted his studies at the Royal Technical 
College, Glasgow, and at the Royal School 
of Mines, South Kensington. He served 
his apprenticeship at Parkhead Forge, 
which, founded by David Napier [q.v.], 
had passed under the control of his father 
eleven years before. Working for long 
hours by day, he attended evening classes 
at Anderson's College, specializing in 
chemistry and mathematics. On the death 
of his father he became in 1879 a partner 
with his uncle, Isaac Beardmore, and on 
the latter's retirement foimded the firm of 
William Beardmore & company, which 
gained world-wide fame, not only for the 
building of men-of-war and merchant 
ships, but for the construction of the R. 34, 
which was the first airship to make the 
double crossing of the Atlantic. During 
the war of 1914-1918 the Beardmore 



56 



Beardmore 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



shipyard, engine shops, and foundries 
rendered great service to the nation, for 
it was recognized as the best-equipped 
and most efficient estabhshment in the 
world. Some conception of its activities 
may be formed when it is stated that in 
the years 1906 to 1919 the firm built four 
battleships, seven cruisers, twenty-one 
destroyers, thirteen submarines, twenty- 
four hospital ships, and one seaplane- 
carrier. For some years after the war the 
firm continued its activities successfully, 
being responsible for such notable ships 
as the Empress of France, Lancastria, 
Cameronia, Conte Rosso, Conte Verde, 
Largs Bay, Esperance Bay, and Duchess 
of Atholl, and in April 1925 the largest 
vessel ever to leave the Beardmore slip- 
ways was floated, the first-class passenger 
and cargo steamer Conte Biancamano, 
23,121 tons, for the Lloyd Sabaudo. The 
firm also built the 9,730-ton cruiser Shrop- 
shire and two submarines. 

Soon after the launching of this large 
man-of-war, the most serious depression 
affecting both warship and merchant ship 
construction began and the huge establish- 
ment which Beardmore had created and 
managed so successfully suffered in com- 
mion with other firms. Shipping, as well 
as ship-building, was affected by the 
depression. The Admiralty had ceased 
to place contracts for men-of-war and 
Beardmore could not secure sufficient 
mercantile work to keep the large body 
of technicians, draughtsmen, and work- 
men employed. The firm entered the field 
of locomotive construction and made 
motor-cars and commercial vehicles. But 
these experiments were not a success. It 
was one of the tragedies of the after-war 
period that the splendidly equipped ship- 
yards, engine shops, and foundries were 
without work. Eventually, in 1930, the 
shipyard was acquired by National Ship- 
builders' Security Limited, under an agree- 
ment which laid down that it might not 
be used for a period of forty years. One 
year before this development Beardmore 
had severed his connexion with the firm. 
He was an autocrat in his relations with 
his employees, but was regarded as a fair 
and just employer. 

For many years Beardmore was chair- 
man of the Industrial Welfare Society in 
the activities of which he took a keen 
interest. In 1917 he was president of the 
Iron and Steel Institute. He encouraged 
Antarctic exploration, his name being 
given by Sir Ernest Shackleton [q.v.] to 
a glacier discovered on one of his voyages 



to the Antarctic regions. He was also a 
keen sportsman. In 1914 he was created 
a baronet and in 1921 raised to the peer- 
age as Baron Invernairn, of Strathnairn, 
Inverness-shire. He married in 1902 
Elspeth Stiven, eldest daughter of David 
Tullis, of Glencairn, Rutherglen, Lanark- 
shire; there were no children of the 
marriage. He died at Flichity, Inverness- 
shire, 9 April 1936. 

[The Times, 10 April 1936; David Kirk- 
wood, My Life of Revolt, 1935.] 

Archibald Hxjrd. 

BEATTY, DAVID, first Earl Beatty 
(1871-1936), admiral of the fleet, was born 
at Howbeck Lodge, Stapeley, near Nant- 
wich, Cheshire, 17 January 1871, the 
second son in a family of four sons and 
one daughter of Captain David Longfield 
Beatty, of the 4th Hussars, by his first wife, 
Katherine Edith, daughter of Nicholas 
Sadleir, of Dunboyne Castle, co. Meath, a 
remarkable woman who more than once 
prophesied that England would ring with 
David's name. The Beattys were of old 
Irish stock ; the admiral's grandfather was 
long master of the Wexford hoimds, and 
his parents, when they settled in Cheshire, 
devoted themselves to hunting and train- 
ing the horses sent over from the family 
estates at Borodale in coimty Wexford. 
It is not therefore surprising that Beatty's 
favourite sport was hunting, or that he 
wrote to his sister about the battle of 
Jutland as if it had been a hunt. 'I 
describe the battle to you thus because 
only in this way would you understand it.' 

Sea and ships had always greatly fasci- 
nated young Beatty, and there was never 
any doubt that he was destined for the 
navy. At thirteen years of age he passed 
into the Britannia, and on passing out 
two years later he was posted to the 
Alexandra, flagship of Prince Alfred, Duke 
of Edinburgh [q.v.], conunander-in-chief 
of the Mediterranean Fleet, and he served 
practically the whole of his time as mid- 
shipman in this ship. During the period 
from 1890 to 1892 he was under training 
ashore at Portsmouth and at the Royal 
Naval College, Greenwich, as acting sub- 
lieutenant, emerging with a first-class 
certificate in torpedo, a second class in 
seamanship, gunnery, and pilotage, and 
a third class in navigation. He was pro- 
moted Ueutenant in August 1892, and 
spent his watch-keeping days in the train- 
ing corvette Ruby, and the battleships 
Camperdown and Trafalgar, for the most 
part in the Mediterranean. 



56 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Beatty 



Beatty's early enthusiasm for the navy 
was damped at this time by the monotony 
of service routine; but his opportunity 
came in 1896, when Kitchener asked for 
a small force of gunboats to operate on 
the Nile in support of his expedition for 
the recovery of the Sudan. (Sir) Stanley 
Colville [q.v.], commander of the Trafalgar, 
chose his shipmate Beatty as second-in- 
command of this little expedition in stern- 
wheel gunboats. Only three of these boats, 
one of which was Beatty's, passed the 
Third Cataract, and immediately above 
it they were hotly engaged by the Der- 
vishes, not without artillery. Colville, 
severely wounded, handed over the com- 
mand to Beatty who immediately decided 
to attempt the daring manoeuvre of lead- 
ing the flotilla upstream beyond the Arab 
position. He was assisted in this by the 
army, which, thanks to the action of the 
gunboats, had been able to establish 
artillery and infantry within close range. 
Beatty, however, pressed on at full speed 
to Dongola, and after another stiff fight 
won for the navy the honour of being the 
first to occupy the town. The enemy were 
by now in full retreat, but Beatty con- 
tinued to harass them and did not give 
up the pursuit vmtU he reached the Fourth 
Cataract. This gallant piece of leadership 
was highly praised by Kitchener, Beatty 
was appointed to the D.S.O., and his name 
was noted for early promotion. 

After a brief speU at home, Beatty, at 
Kitchener's special request, was again lent, 
in 1897, to the Egyptian government for 
operations on the Nile in a flotilla rein- 
forced by specially designed gunboats. He 
had a narrow escape when, on 4 August, 
his ship, the Hafir, capsized at the Fourth 
Cataract. During the advance on Omdur- 
man in 1898 he was constantly in action, 
and commanded a rocket battery ashore 
at the battle of the Atbara (8 April). After 
the battle of Omdurman (2 September) 
Beatty was in one of the gunboats that 
escorted the sirdar to Fashoda, on his 
return from whence he received special 
promotion to commander (November) at 
the early age of twenty-seven, over the 
heads of 395 senior officers on the lieu- 
tenants' Ust. 

After a winter spent at home in the 
hunting field, Beatty was appointed (April 
1899) to the China station as commander 
of the battleship Barfleur, commanded by 
Colville. In spite of his youth, Beatty won 
the respect of both officers and men. After 
twelve months of normal duty he found 
himself again on active service in the 



Boxer rebelUon. Sir Edward Seymour 
[q.v.], the British naval commander-in- 
chief, made a gallant attempt to reach 
Pekin with an international force but was 
compelled to return to Hsiku, where he 
was completely surrounded. The foreign 
settlement at Tientsin, six miles to the 
south, was also besieged, and Beatty 
landed from the Barfleur to reinforce the 
garrison. In this he succeeded and was 
continuously employed in sorties; in one 
across the river he was ambushed. 
Wounded and in severe pain, he neverthe- 
less brought his men back in good order, 
remaining with the rearguard until all the 
wounded had been embarked. Whfle still 
suffering from his wounds, he accepted the 
command of a naval detachment which 
eventually assisted in extricating Seymour 
from Hsiku. For his services in this cam- 
paign he was promoted captain (November 
1900). The average age of a captain being 
then forty -three, his promotion at twenty- 
nine caused considerable stir. 

As captain, Beatty commanded (1902- 
1910) the cruisers Juno, Arrogant, Diana, 
and Suffolk, and the battleship Queen, 
His marriage had made him independent 
of the service and his rapid promotion 
brought him to the head of the list of 
captains before he had completed the six 
years' service at sea required for promo- 
tion to flag rank. Nevertheless, in view 
of the time lost on account of the wounds 
which he had received in China and his 
war services, he was promoted rear- 
admiral by order in coimcil on 1 January 
1910, the yoxmgest flag-officer for over a 
himdred years, being just imder thirty- 
nine years of age, whereas Nelson on his 
promotion was a few months over thirty- 
eight. This promotion created even greater 
stir than the previous one, and with per- 
haps more justification in view of the 
length of time during which he had been 
on half -pay. 

Beatty was far more interested in the 
proper employment of the fleet in war 
than in its technicalities, and soon after 
Mr. Churchill, with his 'mind full of the 
dangers of war', became first lord of the 
Admiralty in October 1911, he chose 
Beatty, in spite of naval advice to the 
contrary, for his naval secretary (1912). 
They were admirably suited to each other ; 
and, probably in order to confound the 
critics of Beatty and to test his capacity 
as a flag-officer, the first lord gave him 
the conunand of a cruiser squadron 
in the important manoeuvres of 1912. 
Clearly Beatty fulfilled Mr. Churchill's 



57 



Beatty 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



expectations, for in the spring of 1913 he 
appointed Beatty 'over the heads of all' 
to command the battle-cruiser squadron. 
Beatty hoisted his flag in the Lion in 
March 1913, and when war broke out on 
4 August 1914 he was in northern waters 
in command of the scouting forces of the 
Grand Fleet based at Seapa Flow under 
Sir John (later Earl) Jellicoe [q.v.]. 

When, on 22 September 1914, the three 
cruisers Cressy, Hague, and Aboukir were 
torpedoed with great loss of Ufe off the 
Dutch coast, the shock to a fleet which 
had not wholly appreciated the potentiali- 
ties of the submarine was such that the 
commander-in-chief, apprehensive about 
the security of the Grand Fleet at Scapa 
Flow, decided to take the fleet to ports 
on the west coast of Scotland and Ireland 
until Scapa could be properly defended. 
Although Beatty recognized the need for 
this decision, the result of government 
improvidence was more than he could 
bear, and he lost no time in pressing his 
views in the strongest terms by private 
letter to Mr. Churchill. Believing Scapa 
to be too distant from the enemy, he 
urged that Cromarty and Rosyth should 
also be equipped and defended as opera- 
tional bases, and these defences were com- 
pleted by the end of the year. 

It has been a matter for wonder why 
the Germans did not take fuUer advan- 
tage of the awkward predicament in which 
the Grand Fleet foimd itself at this time. 
The answer is supplied by the success of 
the offensive movement into the Heligo- 
land Bight, carried out by Beatty, (Sir) 
Reginald Yorke Tyrwhitt, and Roger 
John Brownlow (later Lord) Keyes, during 
the first month of the war. The plan 
designed by the Admiralty was, briefly, 
that Tyrwhitt with his destroyers should 
penetrate deeply into the Bight under 
cover of darkness and sweep out at dawn 
from east to west with the object of 
destroying all enemy ships encountered, 
while Keyes with his submarines lay off 
the mouths of the German rivers in suit- 
able positions to attack enemy heavy 
ships if they came out. Two older battle- 
cruisers from the Humber under Rear- 
Admiral Sir Archibald Gordon Henry 
Wilson Moore were to act in support. 
Jellicoe, uneasy as to the adequacy of this 
support, directed Beatty to proceed to 
Heligoland with the battle-cruisers Lion, 
Queen Mary, Princess Royal, and Commo- 
dore (Sir) WiUiam Edmund Goodenough's 
six light cruisers. The weather was calm, 
hnt visibility was bad. Beatty's first 



move was to make contact with the 
Humber battle-cruiser force, which he did 
at daylight on 28 August, and he was thus 
able to obtain detailed information of the 
movements of the other units. The 
presence of British forces in the Bight 
having become known, the enemy sent 
out cruisers and destroyers to reinforce 
their patrols. In the thick weather, the 
British flotiUas lost touch with one 
another, the situation became confused, 
and it was difficult to distinguish friend 
from foe. In several fleeting actions, the 
German cruiser Mainz and a destroyer 
were sunk. Just before noon, Tyrwhitt's 
flagship Arethusa, which had been badly 
damaged a short time previously, was 
attacked by four enemy cruisers. Captain 
W. F. Blunt in the Fearless, with a division 
of destroyers, came to her support, but 
could do little against such a superior 
force. At this critical moment, to the 
north-westward out of the mist, Beatty 
appeared with his battle-cruisers steaming 
at high speed to the rescue. Sundry other 
British forces rallied towards the battle- 
cruisers, and in a hot pursuit of the enemy 
into the Bight, the Koln and Ariadne 
were sunk. The two remaining German 
cruisers, Strassburg and Stralsund, made 
their escape. At 1.10 p.m. Beatty made 
the general signal 'Retire'. 

There is no doubt that by his prompt 
action Beatty turned what would cer- 
tainly have been a disaster into an impor- 
tant success. It is interesting to note how 
he arrived at his decision, which was no 
easy one in view of the risks involved in 
the face of mines, submarines, and enemy 
heavy ships. At 10 a.m., realizing that the 
whole position was confused, Beatty broke 
wireless silence and informed all concerned 
where he was and what he was doing. He 
became very uneasy, and on receipt of 
various signals for assistance he decided 
to disregard the dangers and proceed at 
high speed in support of the Arethusa. 
His reasons for this are given in his own 
dispatch: 'The situation appeared to me 
to be extremely critical . . . there was the 
possibility of a grave disaster. At 11.30 
I therefore decided that the only course 
possible was to take the battle-cruiser 
squadron at full speed to the eastward . . . 
I had not lost sight of the danger to my 
squadron.' Here he enumerates the risks 
and discounts them methodically one by 
one, a good example of Beatty's power of 
tempering boldness with caution but, once 
the situation had been weighed, acting 
with vigour and determination. No Brit- 



58 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Beatty 



ish ship was lost in an action which, 
although a marked success, disclosed grave 
deficiencies in staff work and system of 
command. Nevertheless, the moral effect 
was profound: the German navy in par- 
ticular was severely shaken, and the in- 
activity of the enemy from August to 
September enabled the defences of the 
British bases to be completed and the 
position of the Grand Fleet in the North 
Sea was consolidated. 

December 1914 was an anxious month 
for the British command. Owing to the 
commitments in other seas, only three 
battle-cruisers were available. There were 
signs of German naval activity and on 
14 December the Admiralty reported that 
the enemy battle-cruisers were about to 
carry out a 'tip and run' raid on the east 
coast of England. As it was impossible to 
ascertain where the enemy would choose 
to attack, a strong British force, including 
the second battle squadron under Admiral 
Sir George Warrender [q.v.] and the first 
battle-cruiser squadron under Beatty, 
were dispatched to a point between Heli- 
goland and Flamborough Head, where 
they would be in a good position to inter- 
cept the enemy on his return. 

At dawn on 16 December, when the 
British forces were in process of concen- 
trating, news was received that Scar- 
borough, Whitby, and Hartlepool were 
being bombarded. The weather was thick 
and the situation was complicated by the 
fact that a German mine-field lay between 
the British fleet and the five bombarding 
battle-cruisers. Aided by mist and the 
mine-field, the enemy slipped through the 
British forces and escaped. It was an 
exasperating day for the British admirals 
who were frustrated because there was no 
scientific means of locating the enemy or 
of synchronizing the movements of the 
four British squadrons groping blindly 
for their prey. The success of the raid 
emphasized the need for basing strong 
British forces farther south. Accordingly 
Beatty's battle-cruisers were stationed at 
Rosyth, and they had not long been there 
before Beatty found himself speeding 
across the North Sea to intercept Admiral 
Hipper, who, according to Admiralty 
intelligence, was expected to be near the 
Dogger Bank with four battle-cruisers, 
accompanied by cruisers and destroyers, 
on the morning of 24 January. So accu- 
rate was this intelligence that the British 
scouting forces sighted the enemy, as if 
at a pre-arranged rendezvous, at 7.30 a.m. 
on that day. 



Beatty pressed forward at full speed to 
attack with the Lion, Tiger, and Princess 
Royal. Rear-Admiral Moore with the 
older and slower Indomitable and the New 
Zealand began to fall astern. Hipper 
turned to run for home but Beatty was 
overhauling him and had a good chance 
to destroy the enemy ships before they 
could reach their base. But it was not to 
be. At 9 a.m. the British ships opened 
fire, the Seydlitz was severely damaged, 
and the BlUcher, the rear ship of the 
enemy, very soon fell out of line and was 
abandoned to her fate. On the other hand, 
Beatty's flagship Lion became the target 
for the concentrated fire of the German 
squadron and after two hours' fighting 
received a blow which stopped one engine 
and caused her to list heavily to port. 
The other ships swept past her, and 
Beatty, who could no longer lead his 
squadron, was obliged to issue instructions 
by flag signals. 

The British squadron had now lost some 
distance on accoimt of a turn to avoid a 
reported submarine. Beatty has been 
criticized for having ordered this turn, 
but he was no doubt influenced by the 
fate which had befallen the three cruisers 
in September. In order to continue the 
pursuit and get his guns to bear on the 
fleeing enemy, Beatty gave the order to 
his signal officer: 'Course north-east — 
attack the rear of the enemy.' But the 
Lion had only two signal halyards left, 
and the arrangement of the signals as 
hoisted conveyed the meaning 'Attack the 
rear of the enemy bearing north-east ', and 
so it-was interpreted by Moore, the second- 
in-command. The effect was tragic, for 
by coincidence the BlUcher, now well 
separated from her consorts, bore north- 
east : consequently the whole of the British 
squadron attacked and destroyed her. 
The Lion by now had dropped well astern, 
and Beatty was at a loss to know why his 
squadron was not continuing the pursuit 
of the main German force. He accordingly 
gave the order to use Nelson's signal 
' Engage the enemy more closely ', but was 
told that it had been omitted from the 
signal book. The modern substitute ' Keep 
nearer to the enemy' was then hoisted, 
but by this time the Lion was so far away 
that the signal could not be read. He 
transferred to a destroyer and gave chase ; 
but it was too late : the enemy had escaped. 
So ended an action, which, although 
acclaimed as a British victory, was not 
so satisfactory as it might have been had 
Beatty been able to retain his leadership. 



59 



Beatty 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



In December 1915 Beatty, now promoted 
to vice-admiral, had under his command 
ten battle-cruisers organized into three 
squadrons, three light cruiser squadrons, 
and the thirteenth destroyer flotiUa, with 
the Lion as fleet flagship. As that year 
wore on it was clear that the Germans 
had no intention of challenging British 
sea power in the North Sea, and no major 
action took place, but in January 1916 
Admiral Scheer, the new commander-in- 
chief of the German fleet, announced his 
intention of coming to 'close grips with 
England'. He implemented his threat by 
carrying out some ineffective ' tip and run ' 
raids at scattered points on the east coast, 
hoping that public indignation would 
cause dispersal of the British fleet. He 
was disappointed; so he planned a more 
ambitious operation in which his light 
forces were to attack trade off the Nor- 
wegian coast and in the Skagerrak while 
the High Sea Fleet remained fifty miles 
to the south ready to poimce on any Brit- 
ish detaclunent which might be sent to 
deal with the raiders. Before putting this 
plan into action, he placed strong forces of 
submarines in positions where they could 
intercept British imits coming out from 
Rosyth, Cromarty, and Scapa. 

The date selected was 31 May, and by 
an extraordinary coincidence Jellicoe had 
also prepared for 2 June an operation 
which was in essence the same as Scheer's, 
namely, to draw the German forces into 
the Skagerrak and destroy them with the 
Grand Fleet. Towards the end of May 
the fleet had taken up its disposition 
for the impending operation, and as the 
third battle-cruiser squadron under Rear- 
Admiral (Sir) H. L. A. Hood [q.v.] hap- 
pened to be at Scapa for routine gunnery 
practice, Jellicoe sent Rear- Admiral (Sir) 
H. Evan-Thomas [q.v.] with the fifth 
battle squadron to replace it in Beatty's 
fleet at Rosyth. 

On 30 May the Admiralty warned 
JeUicoe that the enemy intended to go 
to sea by way of Horn's Reef on 31 May ; 
on the evening of the 30th the Grand 
Fleet sailed from Scapa, and Beatty left 
Rosyth with six battle-cruisers and the 
fifth battle squadron. Jellicoe's plan was 
that the Grand Fleet should pass through 
a position 200 miles east of Kinnaird 
Head on a southerly course. Beatty was 
to take his force to a point seventy mUes 
south of this, and, if nothing was sighted, 
to turn north and take up his position 
ahead of the Grand Fleet. The whole fleet 
would then sweep south towards Horn's 



Reef with the cruiser screen ahead cover- 
ing a wide front. 

Scheer left the Jade the same night, but 
neither Beatty nor Jellicoe had any definite 
information that the enemy was at sea. 
About noon on the 31st, the Admiralty 
incorrectly informed JeUicoe and Beatty 
that the German flagship was stiU in the 
Jade. Beatty reached his rendezvous at 
2 p.m., and having sighted nothing he 
turned his whole force to the north to 
meet Jellicoe. He stationed the fifth battle 
squadron five miles to the northward of 
him so that it could be conveniently situ- 
ated to drop into its normal position ten 
miles north of the battle-cruisers when 
the whole fleet had finally concentrated, 
and was proceeding to the southward in 
accordance with Jellicoe's plan. A few 
minutes later Commodore (Sir) Hugh 
Francis Paget Sinclair in the Galatea, 
scouting to the eastward, reported the 
presence of enemy cruisers and destroyers. 
Beatty immediately turned to south- 
south-east to place himself between the 
enemy and his base. Evan-Thomas with 
the fifth battle squadron did not turn to 
follow Beatty until six minutes later, 
partly because he had not at the moment 
received the report of the enemy, and 
partly because smoke had prevented him 
from seeing the turning signal. This, 
opening the distance between the two 
squadrons, caused Beatty to go into action 
without the support of the four battle- 
ships. It has been suggested that he should 
have waited for Evan-Thomas, but his 
primary duty was to locate the enemy, 
and, if in superior force, to destroy him. 
In view of the Admiralty intelligence 
received two hours previously, he had 
every reason to beheve that he would be 
in superior force, and he had six battle- 
cruisers against Hipper's five. 

At 3.25 p.m. Beatty sighted the German 
battle-cruisers and reported their position 
to JeUicoe, at this time about sixty miles 
to the northward. The two squadrons 
closed, and at 3.48 p.m. a fierce battle 
began on a southerly course at high speed. 
The British were unfavourably placed for 
wind and light, and the Germans quickly 
foxmd the range. The Lion was repeatedly 
hit, and twenty minutes after the battle 
was joined the Indefatigable, which was 
struck by two plunging salvoes, blew up. 
Twenty minutes later the Queen Mary 
blew up, which caused Beatty to remark 
to his flag-captain: 'There seems to be 
something wrong with our bloody ships 
to-day, Chatfield.' In spite of these two 



60 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Beatty 



disasters, Beatty kept at close action 
range ; meanwhile Evan -Thomas, by cut- 
ting corners and cramming on maximum 
speed, had skilfully managed to bring his 
squadron into action against the rear of 
the enemy. At this critical moment, 
Beatty threw his destroyers into the 
attack. Hipper did the same, and a brisk 
destroyer battle took place between the 
lines in which the British attack was the 
more successful, for a torpedo struck the 
Seydlitz and Hipper was forced to turn 
away. The German attack failed com- 
pletely, and this gave the British a slight 
breathing space and from now onwards 
their fire began to tell. 'Nothing', re- 
ported Hipper, 'but the poor quality of 
the British bursting charges saved us from 
disaster.' 

At 4.40 p.m. with dramatic suddenness 
the scene changed. A forest of masts 
appeared on the southern horizon where 
for the moment visibility was good. This 
was the High Sea Fleet, reported for the 
first time seven minutes previously by 
Commodore Goodenough, who had been 
scouting ahead of the battle-cruisers. 
Beatty's duty was clear. He must retire 
to the northward at once and endeavour 
to lead Scheer into Jellicoe's clutches. 
Accordingly he reversed his course and 
after another hour and a half of dogged 
fighting, in which the fifth battle squadron 
bore the brunt, he sighted the Grand 
Fleet. During this time the two British 
squadrons inflicted very heavy damage 
on the German battle-cruisers, all the 
turrets of the Von der Tann being put out 
of action. 

At 5.35 p.m. Beatty, realizing that 
Jellicoe was not far off, turned sharply 
to the eastward in order to bend back 
Hipper' s van and prevent him from sight- 
ing the main British battle-fleet. This 
manoeuvre gave Beatty improved visi- 
bility and after a sharp encounter the 
enemy withdrew from the action behind 
a smoke screen. Of this action, the Ger- 
man official account says: 'Hard pressed 
and unable to return the fire, the position 
of the German battle-cruisers soon became 
unbearable.' 

And now the battleships of the Grand 
Fleet appeared out of the mist in six 
columns to the noilhward, and Beatty 
foimd himself streaking across their front. 
In spite of conflicting reports as to the 
position of the enemy battle fleet, Jellicoe 
deployed into line of battle in the nick of 
time on an easterly course, with the object 
of getting between the enemy and his 



base, and Beatty was able to take up his 
position in the van while Evan-Thomas 
proceeded to his alternative battle-station 
in the rear. By 6.30 p.m. the main battle 
fleets were in action, and Beatty was 
joined a little later by the two remaining 
battle-cruisers out of the three that com- 
posed the third battle squadron vmder 
Hood, who at 6.34 had been lost in the 
Invincible. At 8.25 p.m., Beatty, who was 
conforming as arranged with the move- 
ments of the Grand Fleet, got a sight of 
the German battle-cruisers and one of 
their battle squadrons. He inunediately 
closed and opened fire ; but the Germans, 
having no spirit for further fighting, 
turned away and were lost in the mist. 

Although Beatty's force had sustained 
heavy losses, he had by nightfall under 
his command, ready for action next day, 
six battle-cruisers, whereas Hipper had 
only one. To Evan-Thomas Beatty gave 
full credit in his dispatch for the part 
played by the fifth battle squadron in 
achieving this result. 

Professional investigations at the Royal 
Naval War College and Staff College over 
many years confirm the view expressed in 
Jellicoe's dispatch that Beatty carried out 
the duties assigned to him with con- 
spicuous success. Despite heavy losses, 
he located the enemy battle fleet and led 
it to a position where the Grand Fleet 
could engage it. He also, at the critical 
moment, prevented Hipper from sighting 
the British main fleet and so enabled 
Jellicoe to complete his deployment un- 
observed in the right direction while 
Beatty himself took up his position in the 
van of the British line of battle in accor- 
dance with the commander-in-chief's plan. 
It is true that reports of the enemy's 
positions coming in from Beatty and his 
cruisers were misleading to Jellicoe. The 
main reason for this (apart from bad 
visibility) was that each ship's position 
was based upon her own individual calcu- 
lations, and no means then existed for 
synchronizing these estimates on a com- 
mon basis. Errors of omission can be 
accoimted for by the fact that Beatty was 
hotly engaged most of the time, and the 
Lion's wireless was inoperative. It was 
only natural, therefore, that there should 
have been recriminations, arising mainly 
from the fact that in the conditions of visi- 
bility prevailing, no two commanders got 
the same view of the action, and that, al- 
though 250 ships took part, there were 
never more than three or four enemy 
ships in sight at the same time from any 



61 



Beatty 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



point in our line of battle. It must always 
be remembered that a complete bird's-eye 
view of the battle was denied to those who 
took part, and particularly to the com- 
mander-in-chief, who that day bore on his 
shoulders the responsibility for possibly 
losing the war in an afternoon. 

At the end of 1916 Jellicoe became first 
sea lord, and Beatty, at the age of forty- 
five, when most of his contemporaries 
were still on the captains' list, was ap- 
pointed with the acting rank of admiral 
to command the most powerful fleet in 
history. Early in 1917 he chose the Queen 
Elizabeth as his flagship because she had 
the speed to enable him to get to the most 
favourable position for exercising supreme 
command in battle. He immediately set 
to work to enforce the lessons of Jutland. 
To make his system of leadership clear to 
all, he changed the title 'Battle Orders' 
to 'Battle Instructions', thereby implying 
that senior officers could use their own 
initiative to the fullest extent in trans- 
lating into action the general intentions 
of the commander-in-chief. Being deter- 
mined that the confusion in information 
experienced at Jutland should not recur, 
he introduced a system of plotting the 
positions of British and enemy units upon 
a synchronized basis. He always believed 
in aircraft and arranged for kite balloons 
to be flown by various selected imits. 
Ships were taken in hand by the dock- 
yards to improve their magazine pro- 
tection, and meanwhile the Admiralty 
had designed a really effective projectile 
and was hastening its supply to the fleet. 

The anti-submarine campaign of 1917 
aroused Beatty's hunting instincts. While 
keeping a sharp look-out for a sortie by 
the German fleet — there was indeed one 
abortive attempt — he used every means 
in his power to combat the menace. He 
was a firm believer in the convoy system, 
and, growing impatient with the Admiralty 
slowness in organizing it, asked and ob- 
tained permission to nm convoys under 
his own direction to and from Norway. 
Over 4,000 ships sailed in convoy in the 
North Sea without loss in six months. 
But it was only a question of time before 
one of the Norwegian convoys would be 
located by fast enemy surface ships, using 
the hours of darkness to evade the British 
patrols. This happened on two occasions 
in the autumn of 1917 and the following 
winter. Fortunately neither convoy was 
large and the total loss was sixteen mer- 
chant ships, four destroyers, and four 
armed trawlers. It was, nevertheless, only 



to be expected that the enemy would trj 
again, so Beatty decided to send largei 
convoys at longer intervals, but escortec 
by a division of battleships. The inheren 
hope that this would entice the enemy t< 
send out still stronger forces to attack th< 
convoys was nearly fulfilled, for Scheer, ir 
April 1918, did make one more sortie, bul 
he miscalculated the date and dared nol 
prolong his stay in waters where Beatt5 
might be met. 

The advent of a squadron of Unite( 
States battleships under Admiral Hugl 
Rodman diminished the strain on th< 
Grand Fleet. Beatty and Rodman workec 
in perfect harmony and in a very shot 
time the American squadron became 
integral part of Beatty's battle fleet. Ii 
1918 the added strength of the Unitec 
States navy enabled more effective 
measures to be brought against enemy 
submarines, and the patrols round the 
coasts of Great Britain became so effective 
that the enemy was compeUed to look foi 
targets far out at sea, only to be frustratec" 
by the convoy system. By midsummei 
the submarine danger was definitely 
mastered, but in October there were 
indications that Scheer might take 
'death-ride' with his fleet. Beatty coun 
tered the German move of concentratinj 
all their submarines in the North Se 
in positions where they could attack the 
Grand Fleet on its way to battle, by 
massing all available anti-submarin< 
vessels at the threatened points. Ther 
he dispatched Rear- Admiral (Sir) Artht 
Cavenagh Leveson with the third battle 
cruiser squadron and a strong destroyei 
force on a high-speed sweep through th< 
submarine-infested waters towards th< 
Skagerrak. When Leveson reported oi 
his return that only one torpedo had beei 
fired at his force, it was evident that 
the morale of the German navy was 
broken, and this opinion was confirmee 
by the news that the High Sea Fleet hac 
mutinied and refused to obey orders tc 
sail. 

Two days after the signing of th< 
armistice on 11 November, the Germai 
cruiser Konigsberg arrived at Rosyth^ 
having on board Rear-Admiral Meurei 
and a 'soldiers' and workmen's council" 
which claimed to have plenipotentiary 
powers. Beatty made it clear that he 
would only negotiate with a naval office! 
of flag rank. The delegates could not but 
agree, and Meurer, while thanking Beatty 
at the conference table, stated that this 
was the first time that his rank had been 



62 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Beatty 



recognized during the last two months. 
The necessary arrangements were made 
on 15 and 16 November, and on 21 Novem- 
ber the Grand Fleet escorted the High Sea 
Fleet to its anchorage in the Firth of 
Forth. A service of thanksgiving was 
held in every ship, and that evening 
Beatty made the famous signal: 'The 
German flag will be hauled down at sun- 
set, and will not be hoisted again without 
permission.' On 1 January 1919 Beatty 
was promoted admiral and on 3 April 
admiral of the fleet: four days later he 
hauled down his union flag and the Grand 
Fleet ceased to exist. 

On 1 November 1919 Beatty succeeded 
Admiral of the Fleet Sir R. Wemyss (later 
Lord Wester Wemyss, q.v.) as first sea 
lord, and was immediately confronted 
with the problem of reducing the navy in 
order to reconcile the demands of economy 
with the maintenance of sea power ade- 
quate for national security. The presenta- 
tion of the freedom of many cities gave 
him a fine opportunity of impressing on 
the public the need for a strong navy. 
At the Washington Conference, which 
assembled in November 1921, although 
he agreed generally with the principle of 
parity with the United States, he insisted 
upon Great Britain retaining the right to 
have the number of cruisers necessary for 
her own peculiar needs. He succeeded in 
getting the British case accepted, and it 
was not until he had left the Admiralty 
that the minimum of seventy cruisers for 
Britain was abandoned. Wrapped up with 
this problem was that of overseas bases, 
and Beatty, with his eye on Japan, suc- 
ceeded in convincing the Cabinet that if 
the fleet was to operate in Far Eastern 
waters a strongly defended base with full 
docking facilities must be established at 
Singapore. There were some warm con- 
troversies with the Air Ministry over this 
and other problems, including that of the 
status of the Fleet Air Arm which the Air 
Ministry considered should be retained 
within its own organization, including 
responsibility for providing material and 
training air personnel, but which the 
Admiralty maintained must be an integral 
part of the navy. The dispute was ended 
by the government decision of 1937 by 
which the administration, operating, and 
training of the Fleet Air Arm were put 
almost wholly under naval control. Ex- 
perience in the war of 1939-1945 proved 
that Beatty's view was correct. 

Beatty's experience of naval warfare 
convinced him of the value, which he had 



learned under Mr. Churchill, of a trained 
body of staff officers to assist admirals in 
all the ramifications of war. He approved 
and encouraged the Naval Staff CoUege, 
and re-established the war course for 
senior officers only. To ensure common 
doctrine both were established at Green- 
wich. At the Admiralty he made the naval 
staff responsible for seeing that construc- 
tion and armaments were designed to 
meet fighting requirements, in which he 
was ably assisted by Rear-Admiral (Lord) 
Chatfield. He confirmed the creation of 
the Department of Scientific Research 
advocated by Rear-Admiral (Sir) William 
Coldingham Masters Nicholson and estab- 
lished the Admiralty experimental labora- 
tory at Teddington. He played a leading 
part in the inauguration of the Chiefs of 
Staffs Conunittee which has since proved 
to be a most eificient instrument for the 
conduct of war under the prime minister. 
He was first sea lord for seven and a half 
years, a longer period than any of his 
predecessors, and all the time he had to 
resist continual assaults aimed at re- 
ducing British naval strength. Yet he 
left the Admiralty in July 1927, not only 
with the goodwill and admiration of the 
navy, but with the thanks of the govern- 
ment for invaluable assistance 'during a 
period of exceptional difficulty'. 

On retirement Beatty went back to the 
hunting field, where he had a serious acci- 
dent which necessitated his lying for three 
months with a broken jaw tightly screwed. 
Some years afterwards, while suffering 
from a severe attack of influenza, he rose 
from a sick bed against all medical advice, 
to attend JeUicoe's funeral in November 
1935. During a halt in Fleet Street a 
member of the staff of a newspaper office, 
noticing how ill he looked, kindly revived 
him with a glass of brandy, and he 
marched on with the procession. Barely 
four months later he died in London 
11 March 1936, and was buried in St. 
Paul's Cathedral on the 16th. 

Beatty took a deep interest in the wel- 
fare and recreation of the ships' com- 
panies and devoted much time and energy 
to improving their domestic and service 
conditions. An increase of pay being long 
overdue, he created two committees under 
Rear-Admiral Sir Lionel Halsey and 
Admiral Sir T. H. M. Jerram [q.v.] to 
investigate the question, and as a result 
of their report the pay of officers and men 
was substantially raised in 1919 for the 
first time for many years. This well- 
timed measure did much to alleviate 



63 



Beatty 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



distress and successfully checked any dis- 
content which might have arisen during 
the dangerous period of transition from 
war to peace. Of the many honours done 
to him none pleased him more than the 
invitation issued to him in 1919 by the 
men of the fleet to be their guest at a 
banquet at Portsmouth, where amid a 
vociferous reception, gun teams dragged 
his car through the streets. Ordinary 
honours were legion. He was appointed 
M.V.O. in 1905, C.B. in 1911, K.C.B. in 
1914, K.C.V.O. and G.C.B. in 1916, and 
G.C.V.O. in 1917. In 1919 he was ap- 
pointed to the Order of Merit and later in 
that year he was raised to the peerage as 
Earl Beatty, at the same time receiving 
the thanks of both Houses of Parliament 
and a grant of £100,000. In 1927 he was 
sworn of the Privy Covmcil. He received 
honorary degrees from the tmiversities of 
Oxford and Aberdeen and was lord rector 
of Edinburgh University from 1917 xmtil 
his death. His numerous foreign decora- 
tions included that of grand officer of the 
Legion of Honour. 

Beatty married in 1901 Ethel (died 
1932), only daughter of Marshall Field, 
of Chicago, and formerly wife of Arthur 
Magic Tree, of the United States of 
America. They had two sons, the elder 
of whom, David Field (born 1905), suc- 
ceeded as second earl. 

In the course of his naval career, Beatty 
was sometimes the target of iU-informed 
criticism, but he never spoke a word in 
reply, being content to abide by the ver- 
dict of his coimtrymen and of history. 
He was neither impetuous nor rash; his 
judgement was sound and his decisions 
were the result of careful reflection and 
forethought. During the war he never 
took any leave, and, although his wife and 
family lived close to Rosyth, he slept in 
his flagship every night. He landed every 
afternoon while in harbour for physical 
exercise and maintained perfect health 
throughout, nor did he ever show the 
slightest sign of the strain imposed upon 
him. In moments of crisis his brain 
worked with absolute clarity and he never 
had cause to reverse an important decision. 
Above all was his dauntless courage, both 
moral and physical. 

A portrait of Beatty is included in 
Sir A. S. Cope's picture ' Some Sea Officers 
of the Great War', painted in 1921, in the 
National Portrait GaUery. Another por- 
trait is that in Sir John Lavery's 'Sur- 
render of the German Fleet' in the 
Imperial War Museum. Other portraits 



include a full-length in captain's imiform, 
by Hugh Riviere (1909), a full-length in 
evening dress, by Cowan Dobson (1930), 
and a head (black and white), by J. S. 
Sargent (1919), all in the possession of the 
second Earl Beatty; a head, by P. A. 
de Laszlo, belonging to the Hon. Peter 
Beatty ; and a painting in admiral's uni- 
form, by an unknown artist, at the Naval 
and Military Club, Pall Mall. There is a 
bust, by Feredah Forbes, at Brooksby 
Hall, near Leicester. 

[Official dispatches; Staff College records; 
Admiralty office memoranda, The German 
official account of the Battle of Jutland; 
Winston Churchill, The World Crisis, 1923; 
Sir E. H. Seymour, My Naval Career and 
Travels, 1911 ; Geoffrey Rawson, Beatty, 1930 ; 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 
W. S. Chalmers. 

BEAUCHAMP, seventh Earl (1872- 
1938), politician. [See Lygon, William,] 

BEDFORD, eleventh Duke of (1858- 
1940) and BEDFORD, Duchess of 
(1865-1937). [See Russell, Herbrand 
Arthur.] 

BELL, Sir FRANCIS HENRY DIL- 
LON (1851-1936), New Zealand lawyer 
and statesman, was born at the residency 
of the New Zealand Company at Nelson 
31 March 1851. He was the eldest of the 
six sons of (Sir) Francis Dillon Bell, by 
his wife, Margaret, daughter of Abraham 
Hort, a leading member of the Jewish 
community in Wellington. The Bell family 
was descended from Robert Barclay, of 
Ury [q.v.], the Quaker apologist, and its 
members were thus collateral relations of 
Edward Gibbon Wakefield [q.v.] and 
Elizabeth Fry [q.v.]. Bell's father was a 
member of the Bell-Sewell ministry (1856) 
which was the first New Zealand ministry 
under responsible government. He held 
many high public positions in New Zea- 
land and was decorated for distinguished 
services by Great Britain and France. 

Bell was educated at the Auckland 
Grammar School and the Otago Boys' High 
School at Dimedin (1864-1869), being dux 
of the latter for five years. In 1869 he 
entered St. John's College, Cambridge ; he 
was a college prizeman (1871) and a senior 
optime in the mathematical tripos of 1873. 
He read law in the chambers of (Sir) John 
Gorst [q.v.] and (Sir) John Holker [q.v.], 
and was called to the bar by the Middle 
Temple in Jime 1874. He spent his vaca- 
tions at the home of Lord Kitchener's 



64 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Bell 



father at Dinan, in company with the to criticize pubhcly the administration of 



future field-marshal 

Returning to New Zealand at the end 
of 1874, Bell began practice at Wellington 
in partnership with C. B. Izard. He rose 
rapidly in his profession, and was crown 
solicitor in Wellington from 1879 to 1911 
(except for the years 1893 to 1896 when 
he was in parliament). His conduct of 
many important appeals to the Privy 
Council won high praise from Lord 
Haldane and Lord Macnaghten. For 
nearly forty of his sixty years of practice 
he was the acknowledged leader of the 
New Zealand bar, and in his first year he 
initiated the Colonial Law Journal and 
later other law reports. He took silk in 
1907. He declined a judgeship offered him 
by the Atkinson government of 1887-1891 . 
As mayor of Wellington (1891-1893 and 
1896-1897) he carried out important 
municipal reforms. 

In 1893, after two unsuccessful attempts 
(1890 and 1892) to enter parliament, Bell 
was elected one of the three members for 
Wellington as an opponent of the Seddon 
liberal-labour government, but he did not 
seek re-election in 1896. When W. F. 
Massey [q.v.] became prime minister in 
July 1912 he was made leader of the 
legislative council and minister of internal 
affairs and immigration. He soon raised 
the council to its proper place as a revising 
chamber, and his reforming zeal found 
ample scope. After three years' effort 
(1911-1914) he carried a measure making 
the council elective on a basis of propor- 
tional representation, but, owing to the 
outbreak of war, this Act was suspended 
and is still in abeyance. Bell continued 
as a minister during the national govern- 
ment (1915-1919), the new Massey minis- 
try (1919-1925), and the Coates ministry 
(1925-1928). From 1918 to 1926 he was 
attorney-general. Among his notable 
reforms were a system of state forestry 
(1919-1922), which earned for him the 
title of 'the Father of Forestry' in New 
Zealand, and the extension of the land 
transfer system to bring aU lands imder 
state control (1924). As minister for 
external affairs (1923-1926), he enacted 
important health and education reforms 
for the natives under the mandate. With 
the solicitor-general. Sir John Salmond, 
he drafted much intricate war legislation 
which served as a model for some other 
countries. At his first visit to Geneva as 
representative of New Zealand at the 
League of Nations (1922) he challenged 
the right of the Mandates Commission 



the Samoan mandate, claiming that the 
Assembly alone could do so, and that New 
Zealand had the right to be heard in her 
own defence. In 1921 and 1923 he acted 
as prime minister during Massey's absence 
at Imperial Conferences. 

On the death of Massey in 1925 Bell 
became prime minister, but held office for 
only a brief period (i4-30 May) pending 
the election by the 'reform party' of a 
new leader. He remained leader of the 
legislative council until the defeat of the 
Coates ministry in 1928. In 1926 he 
attended an Imperial Conference with Mr. 
Coates, and also (at the request of the 
Foreign and Colonial Offices) a conference 
at Geneva called to deal with the question 
of the International Court of Justice at 
The Hague. He was a vice-president and 
a member of the drafting committee, and 
he sought to persuade the United States 
of America to participate in the work of 
the court, but, on the ground that they 
were purely domestic issues, he strongly 
objected to disputes between different 
parts of the British Empire being subject 
to the court. At the 1926 Assembly of the 
League of Nations Bell viewed with alarm 
the claim of some Dominions to a seat on 
the Coimcil of the League, fearing that 
this practice would enable a Dominion (e.g. 
Ireland) to veto British proposals. Colour 
was lent to his view in 1937 when a clash 
threatened between Mr. Anthony Eden 
and the New Zealand representative on 
the Council. In like spirit, at the Imperial 
Conference of 1926, with Mr. Coates he 
reluctantly acquiesced in the Balfour for- 
mula for the sake of uniformity. Bell 
thought that the formula and the Statute 
of Westminster (1931) were a grave 
danger to imperial unity. He was equally 
hostile to the formation of an Empire 
Consultative Council, and regarded con- 
ferences of prime ministers as the true 
Imperial Council and 'much superior to 
any conclave or cabal of Ministers of 
second rank in London'. He remained a 
member of the legislative council until his 
death, which took place at his home at 
Lowxy Bay, near Wellington, 13 March 
1936. 

During his public life Bell's influence in 
politics was so great that a labour member 
once described him as 'the uncrowned king 
of New Zealand and one of the ablest men 
in the southern hemisphere'. On all legal 
and constitutional questions he was re- 
cognized as a consummate authority, and 
he was confidential adviser to successive 



05 



Bell 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



governors-general. Sometimes he appeared 
brusque when deputations proved long- 
winded, but he had a kindly and generous 
disposition. He was one of the ablest 
administrators that New Zealand has ever 
had, and he served the British Empire 
with passionate devotion. 

Bell married in 1878 Caroline (died 
1935), third daughter of William Robinson, 
of Cheviot, Runholder, a member of the 
legislative council, and had four sons, of 
whom only the youngest survived him, 
and four daughters. The second son was 
killed in action in France in 1917. He was 
appointed K.C.M.G. in 1915 and G.C.M.G. 
in 1923, and he was sworn of the Privy 
Council in 1926. 

There are portraits of Bell by A. F. 
NicoU in the National Gallery, Wellington, 
in the Parliament House, and at the 
Wellington Club. 

[W. Downie Stewart, The Right Honourable 
Sir Francis H. D. Bell, His Life and Times, 
1937 ; personal knowledge.] 

Wm. Downie Stewart. 

BENNETT, (ENOCH) ARNOLD (1867- 
1931), novelist, playwright, and man of 
letters, was born at Hanley, Staffordshire, 
27 May 1867, the eldest child in a family 
of three sons and three daughters of Enoch 
Bennett, solicitor, of Hanley, by his wife, 
Sarah Ann, elder daughter of Robert 
Longson, a Derbyshire weaver who after- 
wards settled as a draper in the Potteries. 
His father, before becoming a solicitor, 
had been potter and schoolmaster; while 
in a part of the house in Hope Street there 
was carried on for a time a pawnbroking 
business. The Bennetts, although rigid 
Wesley an Methodists, were uncommonly 
musical, artistic, and bookish for the 
Potteries of that day, and had the habit 
attributed to the Orgreaves, in Clayhanger, 
of playing classical music arranged as 
pianoforte duets. Arnold and his brother 
Frank, the most ardent musician of them 
all, likewise acquired a good working 
knowledge of French which in Arnold's 
case proved of cardinal importance. He 
was educated at the Burslem Endowed 
School, and the Middle School, Newcastle- 
under-Lyme, attended a local art school 
(he painted charming, rather pale water- 
colours to the end of his life), and in 1885 
entered his father's office in order to finish 
preparing for matriculation at London 
University and to study for a law degree 
which he never took. 

At the age of twenty-one (1888) Bennett 
left Staffordshire to become clerk to 



Messrs. Le Brasseur & Oakley, a firm of 
London solicitors, at a salary of twenty- 
five shillings a week. He had already made 
precocious experiments in local journalism 
and, without success, in sensational fiction 
combining the grimness of Zola with the 
airy romance of Ouida; and in London, 
where he enjoyed the society of young 
artists, he was encouraged by their belief 
in his talent to become a writer. Some 
unambitious trifles for the press were 
followed by a short story entitled 'A 
Letter Home', which, rejected by a popu- 
lar weekly as below its literary standard, 
was published in The Yellow Book (July 
1895). Bennett thereupon resolved to 
write a novel, which 'was to be unlike all 
English novels except those of one author' 
(George Moore) ; and, 'life being grey, 
sinister, and melancholy, the novel must 
be grey, sinister, and melancholy'. His 
own life, he subsequently remarked, was 
at this time not at all grey or sinister or 
melancholy. The book was at first called 
'In the Shadow' : but when accepted and 
published, in 1898, by John Lane [q.v.], 
upon the recommendation of his reader, 
John Buchan [q.v.], it had become, much 
less greyly, A Man from the North. Mean- 
while Bennett, forsaking the tedium of a 
solicitor's office, and the belatedly con- 
fessed humiliations of free-lance journal- 
ism, had in 1893 become assistant editor, 
later (1896) editor, of the weekly journal 
Woman, thereby founding an assurance 
about feminine clothes and psychology 
which he retained throughout life. 

Bennett possessed immense confidence 
in his own judgement, and from reviews 
and dramatic criticism for Woman passed 
to reviews and critical articles for the 
Academy, at that time the second critical 
journal in the country, which regularly 
employed, among others, E. V. Lucas 
[q.v.], Wilfred Whitten, Francis Thompson 
[q.v.], Thomas William Hodgson Crosland, 
and (Sir) Edmund Kerchever Chambers. 
Then, having as editor to buy serial fiction 
at low prices, he offered boastfully to 
write for Tillotsons' Newspaper Syndicate, 
which sold him such fiction, a sensational 
serial story which should surpass all rivals. 
This story, which he called 'For Love and 
Life', was sold outright for £75, and, with 
a later performance of the same order, but 
of lower quality, 'Teresa of Watling Street', 
greatly embarrassed the author when, 
after the great serial success of 'The 
Grand Babylon Hotel' (also sold outright 
to Tillotsons), he failed to prevent publica- 
tion in book form. 'For Love and Life' 



60 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Bennett 



appeared in 1907 as The Ghost; and, again 
to Bennett's embarrassment, was long 
afterwards made the first volume in a 
French translation of his novels published 
by La Nouvelle Revue Frangaise. 

In 1900 Bennett resigned the editorship 
of Woman, and went to live at Trinity 
Hall P^arm, on Watling Street, near the 
village of Hockliffe in Bedfordshire, with 
his parents and his youngest sister. He 
had shown facility in two slight books, 
Journalism for Women (1898) and Polite 
Farces for the Drawing Room (1899), and, 
besides doing much journalistic work and 
'reading' for the firm of Pearson, was 
writing plays, alone and in collaboration 
with Arthur Hooley, short stories, and 
the first of those serious novels about life 
in the Potteries upon which his fame as 
an author rests. Anna of the Five Towns, 
begun in 1896, was finished in 1901 and 
published almost simultaneously with The 
Grand Babylon Hotel in 1902. By this 
simultaneous publication Bennett showed, 
either modestly or in bravado, or perhaps 
by mere chance, that the opposed styles 
in which he had experimented as a youth, 
the styles of Zola and of Ouida (now, more 
accurately, those of George Moore and 
Eugene Sue), still irresistibly attracted 
him. He was to be at the same time an 
artist and a professional writer. And, as 
Moore and Sue had both been distin- 
guished Parisians, it is not surprising that 
by the end of 1902 Bennett himself was 
in Paris. There, and at Fontainebleau, he 
lived for ten happy, supremely influential 
years. Having been briefly engaged to an 
American girl, he married in Paris in 1907 
a P'rench woman, Marie Marguerite Soulie. 
They had no children. 

Bennett maintained in France his habit 
of regular industry. Writing steadily, 
continuing dramatic collaborations with 
Mr. Eden Phillpotts, with whom he also 
wrote two romances, he contributed 
shrewd advisory self-help articles to T.P.'s 
Weekly (a periodical founded by T. P. 
O'Connor [q.v.], but edited by Bennett's 
old colleague on the Academy, Wilfred 
Whitten) which were afterwards (1908) 
printed in book form under such signifi- 
cant titles as Hmv to Live on Twenty-four 
Hours a Day and Mental Efficiency. He 
continued to release his natural sense of 
fun in such works as The Truth About an 
Author (1903) and A Great Man (1904) ; 
and at this time was perhaps doing too 
many things not quite well enough to 
consolidate a single reputation. Although 
it was in 1903 that he saw in a restaurant 



in Paris the ungainly elderly woman who 
first inspired his best novel. The Old Wives' 
Tale, he did not begin writing that book 
until four years later, and meanwhile all 
his industry made little public impression, 
so that his earnings from novels remained 
small, usually under £100 apiece. 

But 7'he Old Wives' Tale (1908) changed 
everything. Whereas liis former tales of 
Staffordshire types had lacked attractive 
characters and Bennett's characteristic 
humour, this book represented all his gifts. 
It was both generous and minute ; it was 
thoroughly English ; and it brimmed over 
with the author's compassionate merri- 
ment. Although the publishers were at 
first rueful at its length, and although its 
first sales, by present-day standards, 
would be considered small. The Old Wives' 
Tale caused Bennett to be accepted, with 
H. G. Wells and John Galsworthy [q.v.], 
as one of a dominating triumvirate of 
novelists. It made him an influence in 
British letters, and potentially a rich man. 
And while the first volume of the Clay- 
hanger trilogy, published in 1910, con- 
firmed his rank as a serious novelist. The 
Card, the best sustained of his comic 
inventions, written in two months in 1909 
during a Swiss holiday, but not published 
until 1911, endeared him to those who 
may have found Clayhanger a little slow. 
'Meticulous' was the word most used of 
his method at this time by reviewers who 
thus met objectors half-way. Bennett, 
however, was not at the end of his danger- 
ous versatility; and some pungent and 
adventurous brevities about books which, 
as ' Jacob Tonson ', he contributed between 
1908 and 191 1 to the Neiv Age, the briUiant 
weekly edited by A. R. Orage [q.v.], gave 
him still another fame. A visit paid to the 
United States of America in 1911 had a 
success unequalled by that of any English 
author since Dickens, and inevitably pro- 
duced a lively book, Those United States 
(1912). Finally, his plays, What the Public 
Wants (1909), Milestones (written in col- 
laboration with Edward Knoblock, 1912), 
and The Great Adventure (1913), a drama- 
tization of his own novel. Buried Alive 
(1908), brought him for a time almost 
unlimited theatrical popularity. In 1912 
he left France and returned to England 
for good, buying, restoring, and lavishly 
furnishing in the Empire style an oldish 
house at Thorpe-le-Soken in Essex. He 
was an outstandingly successful man ; criti- 
cally, his prestige was at its zenith. 

When the war of 1914-1918 began, 
Bennett became less a novelist and 



67 



Bennett 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



dramatist than a public servant and a pub- 
lic figure. He at once engaged in power- 
ful journalism, the object of which was 
to instruct and hearten the nation and to 
carry assurance of British effort to allied 
and neutral countries, and served on 
various committees such as those for War 
Memorials and Woxmded Allies Relief. 
His home at Thorpe-le-Soken, which, as a 
yachtsman, he had bought because of its 
nearness to the Essex waterways, became 
a military and political centre for the 
district. He was sent to France in 1915 
to describe, very discreetly, conditions at 
the front, and the collected impressions 
appeared in a little book called Over There 
(1915). When Lord Beaverbrook became 
minister of information in 1918, Bennett 
was given charge of propaganda in France, 
and he later succeeded Lord Beaverbrook 
for a few weeks as head of the organization. 
His associates were no longer only the 
stimulating writers and artists of former 
years, but, in addition to the large number 
of those with whom he was in natural 
sympathy, the wealthy men and women 
of social and political power whom he 
satirized in The Pretty Lady (1918) and 
Lord Raingo (1926). Such men and women 
offended the rigid Wesleyan Methodist 
(the supremely 'decent' man of Mr. Aldous 
Huxley's sketch in The Times, 31 March 
1931) who lived at the core of Bennett's 
nature ; but the more superficial Bennett 
was flattered and impressed by them. 
Much of his later work suffered from a loss, 
not of the craftsman's integrity, but of 
certainty in the author's mind that it had 
ultimate importance. The Pretty Lady 
showed the conflict in progress; Lord 
Raingo a restoration of values ; but neither 
equalled These Twain (1916), that stub- 
born completion of a task confidently 
undertaken after the success of The Old 
Wives'* Tale, when, at the age of forty-one, 
Bennett planned with lighthearted ambi- 
tion to tell in three volumes the whole life- 
stories of Edwin Clayhanger and Hilda 
Less ways, his wife. 

After the war Bennett became still 
further involved in large affairs. He lived 
entirely in London, and between 1919 and 
1930 successively rented the upper portion 
of a house in George Street, Hanover 
Square, and a house in Cadogan Square, 
where he entertained in the grand style. 
He began an intimate association with the 
stage by partnering (Sir) Nigel Play fair 
[q.v.] and Alistair Tayler in the manage- 
ment of a new enterprise at the Lyric 
Theatre, Hammersmith, where Abraham 



Lincoln by John Drinkwater [q.v.] and a 
production of The Beggar'' s Opera decorated 
by C. L. Eraser [q.v.] caught different 
moods of the post-war spirit. Endless 
social engagements ; inexhaustible patron- 
age of musicians, actors, poets, and 
painters ; the maximum of benevolence to 
friends and strangers alike, marked the 
last ten years of his life. He wrote the 
best, and worst, of his later novels amid 
this hurly-burly, and a number of plays, 
some of which were not even produced, 
while the rest were received with critical 
hostility and public indifference; and he 
contributed week by week to the Evening 
Standard the most readable and most 
highly priced literary causerie of the time. 
In 1921 he was legally separated from his 
wife ; and in the following year he met and 
fell in love with an English actress. Miss 
Dorothy Cheston, by whom, in 1926, he 
had one daughter. At the end of 1930 
he visited France, returned to London in 
January 1931, ill with what, at first diag- 
nosed as influenza, proved to be typhoid 
fever, and, after a long struggle for life, 
died in his flat at Chiltern Court, Maryle- 
bone, at night, 27 March 1931. 

Any assessment of Bennett's work is 
complicated by the problems of his versa- 
tility and capacity to perform at different 
levels of seriousness. In part this versa- 
tility was due to conflict between his 
temperament, his early training, his later 
artistic enthusiasms, and his unlimited 
sense of fun. Temperamentally, he was a 
puritan ; intellectually, he was a liberal ; 
personally, he was a humorist. In addition, 
he was naturally diffident ; from childhood 
he was handicapped by an impediment 
which was not so much a stanuner as a 
total inability to utter the word which he 
proposed to use, which word, nevertheless, 
owing to pride and determination, he 
would never abandon. As a child he had 
suffered from the rigours of a strict reli- 
gious upbringing in a denomination which 
he several times harshly derided ; and, 
although a fine swimmer and a formidable 
opponent at lawn tennis, he had little 
taste, as child, boy, and man, for violent 
physical activity. He claimed to be in- 
capable of moral indignation; his work 
suggests that he was either incapable of 
passion or incapable of allowing it to 
master him. He might be grim, or sar- 
donic ; he was always restrained ; and the 
fun to be seen in his happiest works 
lightened all that close observation upon 
which reaUsts depend for the effect of 
veracity, and overflowed into the wit of 



68 



D.N.B. 1081-1040 



Bennett 



his abrupt speech and careless plays and 
'frolics'. He was as scrupulously a realist 
as humour and kindness of vision allowed 
in such novels as A Man from the North, 
Anna of the Five Towns, Leonora (1903), 
Whom God Hath Joined (1906), The Old 
Wives' Tale, Clayhanger, Hilda Lessways 
(1911), The Price of Love (1914), These 
Twain, Riceyman Steps (1923), Lord 
Raingo, and Imperial Palace (1930). He 
was a farceur in A Great Man, Buried 
Alive, The Card, The Regent (1913), and 
Mr. Prohack (1922). His plays suffered as 
a rule from the lack of a strong central 
idea, and, having entertained for an even- 
ing by verbal adroitness, were quickly 
scorned. His criticism startled, amused, 
and annoyed, as it was meant to do. His 
short stories ranged from the trivial to 
rich and delightful cameos of provincial 
life. His utilitarian homilies were as 
natural to him as his fun. His sensational 
tales, such as The Grand Babylon Hotel 
and Hugo (1906), enjoying great ingenui- 
ties of incidental invention, were robbed 
of vehemence and suspense by that same 
fun. He passed from one type of writing 
to another, without warning, without pro- 
gress; and critics coming to such varied 
activities have found it hard to draw lines 
between the good, the bad, and the in- 
different, Bennett could not have helped 
them. His pride never allowed him to 
admit a failure. 

For this reason there were always books 
or plays or articles or short stories from 
Bennett's industrious pen which offered 
excellent targets for detractors. There 
were always books, and in particular the 
most ambitious of all his later novels, 
Imperial Palace, which could be repre- 
sented as illustrating a legendary Bennett, 
a vulgar, gaping provincial with a passion 
for money and gilded luxury. It did not 
matter that his sensitiveness to beauty in 
character and all the arts was beyond 
question. It did not matter that the 
foundation of Imperial Palace was his 
delight in microcosms and his enthusiasm 
at the emergence of servants to any micro- 
cosm as mysterious individual human 
beings whose soids were free. The fact 
remained that there were writings by 
Arnold Bennett which had been produced 
at different levels of seriousness ; and it is 
undeniable that his reputation suffered 
fronx their existence. 

It is therefore necessary to remember 
that, at his very best, in Whom God Hath 
Joined, The Old Wives'' Tale, Clayhanger, 
These Twain, and the directly personal 



parts of Lord Raingo, Bennett was a highly 
scrupulous artist and a profoundly wise 
and resolute truth-teller. No novelist of 
his day had a greater, or perhaps an equal, 
integrity. The kind of life described in 
these books came perfectly within the 
range of his comprehension, and his por- 
trayal of it was warmed and made beauti- 
ful by exceptional understanding. He did 
not at any time surpass The Old Wives' 
Tale, because that book, alone among his 
novels, had an inspired and inspiring 
design, which was to show the moulding 
of character by experience, and the tragic 
inevitability of old age. Clayhanger was 
in a sense to repeat that design, the middle 
portion of the book, Hilda Lessways, 
approximating to the Paris chapters about 
Sophia, and the third. These Twain, to 
that reunion of the sisters in which The 
Old Wives'* Tale rises to its height. But 
the design of the Clayhanger trilogy re- 
mains mechanical ; and for the poignancy 
of the reunion is substituted, first Edwin's 
'terrible gloom which questioned the 
justification of all life', and secondly 
Edwin's realization that 'the conflict 
between his individuality and Hilda's 
would never cease'. Nevertheless, while 
the other books are fragmentary, or are 
based, as Imperial Palace is based, upon a 
conception of material rather than spiritual 
coherence, they hold innumerable scenes 
in which the author's ruthless vision is 
courageously expressed. If the Clayhanger 
trilogy had been written continuously, 
without knowledge of the expectations 
formed by readers of The Old Wives'' Tale, 
the mechanical nature of its design would 
have been redressed, and its execution 
exactly proportioned to the design. Events 
intervened; the first enthusiasm for its 
plan was lost ; and the strain of imagina- 
tively living and writing These Twain in 
the first years of a terrible war was even 
physically too much for Bennett. It is 
all the more to his credit that this third 
volume contains superb scenes from pro- 
vincial life and the most powerfvd and 
truthful picture ever painted in England 
of the conflict of wills in inharmonious 
marriage. 

The defect in the Clayhanger trilogy, as 
in all Bermett's novels and plays, excepting 
The Old Wives'* Tale, arises from meagre or 
insufficiently considered design. He had 
great resource in arrangement and inci- 
dental invention; he would never shirk 
the truth of his perceptions, and so was 
never sentimental; but he could not con- 
ceive life as tragedy, and modesty forbade 



69 



Bennett 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



him to plan any work as epic. His strength 
lay in the unique degree of his love for 
simple people, and in his ability to see 
interest and beauty in much that to the 
superficial eye is squalid or tedious. That 
love and perception were best informed 
when he described life in the Five Towns, 
and accordingly it is as the profound and 
comic dramatist and historian of life in 
the Potteries that Bennett, for all his 
versatility, his brilliance, and his position 
between 1914 and 1930 as an adored 
English figure, will live as long as English 
novels are read. 

A drawing of Bennett, by (Sir) William 
Rothenstein (1920), is in the City Art 
Gallery, Stoke-on-Trent ; another drawing, 
by W. E. Tittle (1923), and a plasticine 
medallion, by Theodore Spicer-Simson, 
are in the National Portrait Gallery. 

[Arnold Bennett, The Truth about an 
Author, 1903 ; The Journals of Arnold Bennett, 
1896-1928 (edited by Newman Flower), 
3 vols., 1932-1933; Margaret Locherbie-Goff, 
La Jeunesse (T Arnold Bennett (1867—1904), 
1939 ; private information ; personal know- 
ledge.] Frank Swinnerton. 

BENSON, EDWARD FREDERIC 

(1867-1940), author, was born at Welling- 
ton College 24 July 1867, the third son of 
Edward White Benson, afterwards arch- 
bishop of Canterbury [q.v.], by his wife, 
Mary Sidgwick, He was a younger brother 
of A. C. Benson and an elder brother of 
R, H. Benson [qq.v.]. He was educated at 
Marlborough and at King's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he was exhibitioner (1888) 
and scholar (1890) ; after taking his degree 
with first classes in both parts of the 
classical tripos (1890, 1891) he worked in 
Athens for the British School of Archaeo- 
logy (1892-1895) and in Egypt for the 
Society for the Promotion of Hellenic 
Studies (1895). Latterly he lived for the 
greater part of each year at Lamb House, 
Rye, which had been the home of Henry 
James [q.v.]. He was mayor of Rye from 
1934 to 1937. He was elected an honorary 
fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge, 
in 1938. As a young man he was a con- 
siderable athlete, particularly as a skater 
and winter sportsman. He never married ; 
and many of his novels suggest that he 
had a generalized dislike of women. He 
died in London 29 February 1940. 

As a writer Benson was uncontrollably 
prolific : he published at least ninety -three 
books (not counting collaborations), of 
which about twenty are plays, biogra- 
phies, sporting or political, and the rest 



fiction and reminiscences. This was his 
first misfortune. The second was that his 
first story, Dodo (1893), had a great suc- 
cess. In consequence — because he wrote 
too much and too quickly, and because 
the adolescent thrill of being in ' society ' 
matured into a witty and malicious de- 
light in mocking fools and climbers — his 
genuine talents as a novelist seldom 
achieved the perfection of form or the 
permanence of interest of which they were 
certainly capable. A few of his books 
are so nearly first rate that the reader 
becomes regretfully aware that none quite 
reaches that level. A further result of 
his easy, careless writing, added to his 
obsession with the artificialities of socially 
ambitious women, was that he became 
repetitive. He would re-use one of his 
series of groupings, embellishing it with 
new and amusing dialogue, with new and 
crushing incidental detail, yet in fact writ- 
ing the same story two, three, or even four 
times over. 

In one of his books of family recollec- 
tions Benson claims for himself a retentive, 
observational memory, even of things 
hardly noted at the time; and this is 
perhaps his most remarkable quality. In 
non-fiction and fiction alike, he shows an 
extraordinary power of recalling scenes 
and individuals over the whole period of 
his adult life. This capacity gives to his 
works of reminiscence (e.g. Account Ren- 
dered, 1911 ; Our Family Affairs, 1867- 
1897, 1920 ; As We Were, 1930 ; As We Are, 
1932 ; Final Edition, 1940) real value as 
sources for social history and personal 
anecdote, even though the student may 
hesitate to take them literally. Those of 
his novels — and they are the majority — 
which applaud or scarify smart London, 
or literary, or provincial society, give so 
strong an impression of carefully distorted 
portraiture that, just as the 'Dodo' series 
{Dodo, Dodo the Second, 1914, Dodo Won- 
ders, 1921) is generally assumed to centre 
on Margot Tennant, who became Lady 
Oxford; just as Secret Lives (1932), one 
of his best novels, can hardly have been 
based on anyone but Marie Corelli; just 
as the 'Lucia' series (the first two. Queen 
Lucia, 1920, and Lucia in London, 1927, 
are the best) are said to be romans a cle, 
so it is natural to suspect real people 
everywhere. It is hardly worth while to 
wonder on whom are based the chattering 
West End exhibitionists in such remem- 
bered but inferior books as Scarlet and 
Hyssop (1902), Sheaves, and The Climber 
(1908) ; but the reader might well like to 



70 



D.N.B. 1981-1040 



Benson, F. R. 



know from whom are derived the more 
modest provincial intrigantes in such far 
superior stories as Mrs. Ames (1912) and 
Miss Mapp (1922). 

Apart from social satire Benson made 
repeated experiments in two other fictional 
directions. The first comprises stories of 
public school, university, and immediately 
post-university life. These are so over- 
sweetened as to be almost intolerable. 
From the tedious sparkle of The Babe, 
B.A. (1897), an early product of ' dodoism' 
in undergraduate terms, through the 
'Blaize' books to Colin II (1925), the 
tales pile wholesome fun on saccharine 
sentimentalism, until the reader sickens 
of the clean-limbed young Apollos, for all 
the frequent wit with which they are 
presented. The second group, that of 
stories of horror and of the supernatural, 
contains much excellent work. The Luck 
of the Vails (1901) perhaps hardly quali- 
fies, as nearly half of it is a lavish picture 
of rich, selfish folk, painted with the 
admiring relish which Benson at this 
early period undoubtedly felt for persons 
of the kind ; but the second portion of the 
story is at once dramatic and brilliant, 
terror and wit being perfectly fused. The 
Room in the Tower (1912) shows him 
mastering the technique of macabre writ- 
ing, although he still overdoes the details 
of spendthrift luxury and too often lets 
the climax of his tale dissolve in senti- 
ment. Visible and Invisible (1923) is 
'horror' in perfect training, proficient, 
inventive, but, save in the final story, 
queerly devoid of feeling. Spook Stories 
(1928) and More Spook Stories (1934) mark 
the closing stages of a highly efficient, 
coldly unemotional excursion into the 
realm of ghosts and marvels. 

[The Times, 1 March 1940; The Times 
Literary Supplement, 9 March 1940; Final 
Edition: Informal Autobiography, 1940; 
private information.] Michael Sadleir. 



BENSON, Sir FRANCIS ROBERT 
('FRANK') (1858-1939), actor-manager, 
was born at Tunbridge Wells 4 November 
1858, the third son and fourth child of 
William Benson, barrister, of Alresford, 
Hampshire, by his wife, Elizabeth Soulsby, 
daughter of Thomas Smith, of Colebrooke 
Park, Tonbridge. He was educated at 
Winchester and New College, Oxford, but 
gained no academic honours. He became 
famous at the university as an all-round 
athlete, devoting himself to football, 
cricket, rowing, and running, his greatest 



achievement being the winning of the 
three-mile race against Cambridge. 

Always attracted to the theatre, Benson 
became one of the leaders of the move- 
ment which led in 1884 to the foundation 
of the Oxford University Dramatic Society. 
In the hall of Balliol College, in June 1880, 
he took part in a performance of the 
Agamemnon of Aeschylus, in which he 
played the part of Clytemnestra with con- 
siderable success. This performance was 
repeated at the St. George's Hall, London, 
in September of the same year, and his 
success turned Benson's thoughts to the 
adoption of the stage as his profession. In 
July 1881 he took the Imperial Theatre, 
London, for a single performance of Romeo 
and Juliet, and appeared as Romeo. He 
then studied voice production under Emil 
Bencke and Hermann Vezin [q.v.], and at 
the invitation of Ellen Terry [q.v.], who 
had witnessed his performance of Clytem- 
nestra, he was invited in July 1882 to 
take part in a private Shakespearian read- 
ing of Much Ado About Nothing, at the 
house of Sir Theodore Martin [q.v.], 
appearing as Don Pedro, with (Sir) Henry 
Irving [q.v.] as Benedick and Lady 
Martin (Helen Faucit, q.v.) as Beatrice. 

Benson made his first appearance on the 
professional stage at the Lyceum Theatre 
in September 1882, when he played Paris 
in Irving's production of Romeo and Juliet, 
with Ellen Terry as Juliet. On her advice, 
he then joined the Shakespearian company 
of Miss AUeyn and Charles Bernard, in 
order to gain experience, and a few months 
later he was a member of a company under 
the management of Walter Bentley, a 
well-known Shakespearian actor. This 
manager became involved in financial 
difficulties, and Benson, with monetary 
aid from his father, promptly acquired 
the company. He opened under his own 
management in a hall at Airdrie, Lanark- 
shire, in May 1883, with The Corsican 
Brothers and Cramond Brig, and in this 
modest way the famous Benson repertory 
company came into being. 

It was not long before Benson had 
established a sound reputation and the 
Benson company became an important 
factor in the provincial theatre. He 
gathered together a very capable band of 
actors, and by 1886 his company was of 
sufficient importance to be invited to pro- 
vide the Shakespearian festival at the 
Memorial Theatre, Stratford-on-Avon, 
where he appeared for the first time, in 
April of that year, playing Richard III. 
During the next thirty-three years he 



71 



Benson, F. R. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



provided the plays for twenty-eight spring 
festivals and some half-dozen summer 
festivals at the theatre, in the course of 
which period he presented all Shake- 
speare's plays except Titus Andronicus 
and Troilus and Cressida. In addition he 
presented many old comedies and one or 
two modern plays. In recognition of his 
services to Stratford-on-Avon, Benson 
received the freedom of the borough in 
1910, an honour only once previously con- 
ferred on an actor, namely, David Garrick, 
in 1769. He appeared as director of the 
Stratford festival for the last time in 1919, 
and at the birthday celebrations that year 
he was presented with a handsome gift 
by Stratfordonians and festival patrons. 

Benson's first London season was given 
at the Globe Theatre, where, in December 
1889, he opened with a revival of A Mid- 
summer NighVs Dream, which was per- 
formed 110 times, a record at that date. 
Revivals of The Taming of the Shrew, 
Hamlet, and Othello were also presented. 
His next London season, the most impor- 
tant of his eight London ventures, began 
at the Lyceum Theatre in February 1900, 
with a revival of Henry the Fifth. Sub- 
sequent seasons were given at the Comedy 
(1901), Adelphi (1905), St. James's (1910), 
Shaftesbury (1914), Court (1915), and St. 
Martin's (1920) theatres. At the height of 
his success there were no fewer than three 
of his companies touring the country. In 
addition, he toured in Canada and the 
United States of America, in 1913-1914, 
and in South Africa, in 1921. During his 
Canadian tour Montreal University con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of 
LL.D. 

At the Shakespeare tercentenary perfor- 
mance, given at Drury Lane Theatre on 2 
May 1916, Benson appeared in the title- 
role of Julius Caesar, and at the conclusion 
of the performance was knighted by King 
George V, in the stage-box, the only 
occasion on which an actor had been 
knighted in a theatre. The ceremony was 
performed with a 'property' sword, no 
other being available. 

Although he was nearing the age of 
sixty, from 1916 to 1918 Benson served in 
France as an ambulance-driver, and re- 
ceived the French croix de guerre. In Jvme 
1925, in the picture-gallery of the Stratford 
Memorial Theatre, Dame Ellen Terry un- 
veiled the stained-glass windows to Old 
Bensonians, including one in memory of 
the ten players of the company who had 
fallen in the war. 

Benson was never a great actor, and he 



was handicapped somewhat by defects of 
voice and gait. Richard II and Petruchio 
in The Taming of the Shrew were among 
his best performances. His Richard had 
much grace and dignity and his Petruchio 
was full of excellent touches. He also gave 
a notable performance as Caliban in The 
Tempest. Many of the numerous parts 
which he undertook, including Hamlet, 
Othello, Shylock, and Henry V, were quite 
uninspired. It was not his acting which 
made Benson great, nor his teaching. His 
genius lay in the opportunities which he 
afforded to the many capable yoimg artists 
whom he gathered round him, many of 
whom achieved greater fame than Benson 
himself. His company became the nursery 
for the English stage. It is truly said of 
him that he gave the best years of his life 
to spreading the love of Shakespeare 
throughout the world. In his efforts he 
exhausted the whole of his considerable 
personal fortune, and in July 1933 he was 
granted a civil list pension of £100. 

Benson made his last appearance in 
London in 1933; this was at the Winter 
Garden Theatre, as Dr. Caius in The Merry 
Wives of Windsor. He published his remini- 
scences, My Memoirs (1930), and a short 
work entitled I Want to Go on the Stage 
(1931). In July 1886 he married Gertrude 
Constance, daughter of Captain Morshead 
Fetherstonhaugh Samwell, of the Indian 
army, and had a son and a daughter. Lady 
Benson was a capable actress, and played 
leading parts in his company for many years. 
Their son was killed in action in France in 
1916. Benson died in London 31 December 
1939. 

An early portrait of Benson, by Hugh 
Riviere, hangs in the picture gallery of 
the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre. Of a 
drawing of him as Mark Antony, by Will 
Ledbury, and of another by R. G. Eves 
(1927), the whereabouts are imcertain. 

[The Times, 1 January 1940; Who's Who 
in the Theatre, 1939; Sir F. Benson, My 
Memoirs, 1930; Lady Benson, Mainly 
Players, 1926 ; personal knowledge.] 

John Parker. 

BENSON, STELLA (1892-1933), 
novelist. [See Anderson, Stella.] 



BESANT, ANNIE (1847-1933), theoso- 
phist, educationist, and Indian politician, 
was born in London 1 October 1847, the 
only daughter of William Persse Wood, 
man of business, of London, by his wife, 
Emily Mary Roche, daughter of James 



72 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Besant 



Morris, of Clapham. Her father, who was 
Irish on his mother's side, belonged to 
an elder branch of the Woods of Tiver- 
ton, which included Sir Matthew Wood, 
W. P. Wood, Lord Hatherley, Sir Henry 
Evelyn Wood [qq.v.], and Mrs. O'Shea 
nde Wood, later the wife of C. S. Parnell. 
Her mother's family was Irish. She was 
educated by Miss Marry at, a sister of the 
novelist, and in 1867 married Frank 
Besant, later vicar of Sibsey in Lincoln- 
shire until his death in 1917, and a 
younger brother of Sir Walter Besant 
[q.v.]. They had a son and a daughter. The 
mother lost her religious faith, left Sibsey 
in 1873, and was legally separated from 
her husband. 

In 1874 Mrs. Besant joined the National 
Secular Society, of which she became vice- 
president, and formed a close friendship 
with Charles Bradlaugh [q.v.], to whose 
paper she contributed, acting some time 
as co-editor. In 1878, as authoress of the 
Gospel of Atheism (1877) and a champion 
of nco-Malthusianism, she was deprived by 
the courts of the custody of her daughter 
who, like her son, returned to her later. In 
1885 she joined the Fabian Society and 
the Social Democratic Federation. She 
was present at the famous meeting in 
Trafalgar Square (1886), organized the 
matchmakers' strike (1888), and formed 
their union. But drifting apart from 
Bradlaugh she announced her conversion 
to theosophy as taught by Madame 
Blavatsky, who with Colonel H. S. Olcott 
had founded an association in the United 
States for 'the study and elucidation of oc- 
cultism, the Kabbala, etc.', with branches 
in London, India, and Ceylon. After 
Madame Blavatsky's death Mrs. Besant 
visited India in 1893, and speedily dis- 
covered that she had often been incarnated 
in that sacred land. She announced that 
she had received 'phenomenally' letters 
from the mahatmas, but on this point she 
quarrelled with W. Q. Judge who with her 
was one of the two ' heads ' of the Esoteric 
section, and the quarrel led to the secession 
from the Theosophical Society of the major 
part of the American members. In 1895 
she became absolute head of the inner 
organization, being elected president of 
the society in 1907. 

F'rom 1895 onwards India was the scene 
of Mrs. Besant's activities. She devoted 
herself to representing theosophy as com- 
patible with the ancient Hindu religion, 
philosophy, and morality. These, she said, 
were on a higher plane than the West had 
ever reached, and she urged the Hindus to 



sympathize with the cause of the ' Indian 
National Congress', first convoked in 1885 
under the guidance of A. O. Hume [q.v.]. 
In 1899 she persuaded the Maharaja of 
Benares to give her foundation, the Central 
Hindu College, a fine site and buildings, 
and by her energy, zeal, eloquence, and 
powers of organization the college, with a 
girls' school founded at Benares in 1904, 
became the nucleus of a Hindu university 
in 1916. But in 1909 she put forward the 
strange claim that her adopted son, a 
young Madrasi, named Krishnamurti, had 
been revealed to her as the vehicle of the 
world teacher or Messiah. The claim (only 
renounced by the yoimg man in 1932) led 
to Mrs. Besant's resignation of the presi- 
dency of the Central Hindu College, and 
she shifted her headquarters to the Theo- 
sophical Institution at Adyar near Madras. 
In September 1916, when Lord Chelms- 
ford had succeeded Lord Hardinge of 
Penshurst as viceroy, and the British 
Empire was fighting for its life, Mrs. Besant 
thought fit to initiate a Home Rule for 
India League. From Adyar she proclaimed 
herself ' an Indian tomtom waking all the 
sleepers so that they may work for their 
Motherland'. As some of her pamphlets 
and speeches were considered by the 
Madras government likely to inflame racial 
feeling, she was called on under the Press 
Act to give pecuniary security for her 
better conduct. She deposited, but soon 
forfeited, the large sum. At least one 
governor refused her admission to his 
province, and in 1917 the governor of 
Madras interned her, but allowed her to 
direct her home rule campaign. But on 
20 August 1917 the famous declaration 
had been issued, and India was to be 
placed on the path to responsible govern- 
ment by stages. In order to create the 
calm atmosphere requisite for the investi- 
gations of E. S. Montagu [q.v.], the secre- 
tary of state, and the viceroy, Mrs. Besant 
was released from internment. Politically 
minded Hindus caused her to be elected 
president of the Indian National Congress 
which met at Bombay in December 1918. 
Although the year 1919 began with the 
end of the war and ended in December 
with the Government of India Act, it also 
saw the rise of Gandhi's ' civil disobedience ' 
and ' passive resistance ' movement against 
the Rowlatt legislation, the consequent 
riots, and the Amritsar tragedy. The riots 
of April 1919 shocked Mrs. Besant into 
sober reflection. Before Gandhi began 
to move she had found it desirable to 
point out in the press that India depended 



78 



Besant 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



on England for safety : that was the plain 
brutal truth, and no amount of shouting 
could alter it. When after order had been 
restored and some moderates of the central 
legislature did not condemn the doings 
of Gandhi's followers with downright 
emphasis, she declared herself vigorously: 
' None, I presume, will contend that govern- 
ment should look on while mobs murdered, 
wrecked banks, fired railway stations. Do 
[the critics] then think that it is more 
merciful to give a mob its head than to 
attack it at the very outset of violence, 
at the cost of a score of lives, or will the 
critics say at what stage the government 
should interfere? Let us in the time of 
danger drop all criticism of government 
action and stand firmly against revolution, 
which means bloodshed at home and 
invasion from abroad.' Such doctrine 
alienated the extremist Congress politi- 
cians: even her own Home Rule League 
rejected her as president in favour of 
Gandhi, and for a time she seemed to have 
tired, for she took no action against an 
outspoken exposure (The Evolution of Mrs. 
Besant) published in 1918 by Dr. T. M. 
Nair, the leader of the non-Brahmans of 
Madras. In 1925 she brought a Common- 
wealth of India bill to England where it 
was twice introduced into the House of 
Commons and obtained the active support 
of the labour party, which she joined. 
Late in life she travelled by air, and often 
kept her intellectual powers long on the 
stretch, but in 1931 her health failed, and 
she lived in retirement at Adyar where she 
died 20 September 1933 and was cremated 
on the sea-shore. 

The influence of Mrs. Besant on the 
growth of nationalist feeling in India was 
at one time considerable, largely because 
she painted the India of the fabled past 
in attractive colours, and associated theo- 
sophy with Hinduism in a manner flatter- 
ing to the beliefs of intellectual Hindus, 
while her prestige was increased by her 
successful effort to found the Hindu College 
and University. When, moreover, in the 
early stages of the war of 1914-1918, 
Indian politicians generally agreed to 
suspend such agitation as might impede 
the war effort, Mrs. Besant put no such 
restriction on her activities, and thereby 
gained an advantage which she fully ex- 
ploited. Her facile but somewhat shallow 
eloquence also increased her following. 
She thus influenced both in Upper India 
and in Madras several rising politicians 
who afterwards reached prominence. But 
her influence, at least in political life, was 



short-lived: the courageous stand which 
she made after the riots of 1919 turned 
even the students of Madras against her. 
Her share in the foundation and control 
of the Hindu University was regarded with 
jealousy by a section of the orthodox 
Hindus ; her position in the theosophical 
world was prejudiced by a scandal that 
was attached to the principal of the in- 
stitution near Madras, by the sponsoring 
of Krishnamurti, and by the lengthy 
proceedings by which the boy's relatives 
sought to recover his custody. Her name 
will be remembered among Indian theoso- 
phists, but these are no longer a political 
body and tend to become one more among 
the sects of Hinduism. 

{The Times, 21 September 1933; H. V. 
Lovett, History of the Indian Nationalist 
Movement, 1920 ; private information.] 

H. V. Lovett. 

Patrick Cadell. 

BEVAN, ANTHONY ASHLEY (1859- 
1933), orientalist and biblical scholar, was 
born at Trent Park, Barnet, 19 May 1859, 
the eldest of the three sons of Robert 
Cooper Lee Bevan, of Fosbury House, 
Wiltshire, and Trent Park, head of the 
great banking-house later known as Bar- 
clay & company, by his second wife, Emma 
Frances, daughter of P. N. Shuttleworth, 
bishop of Chichester [q.v.]. The youngest 
son was the archaeologist and Hellenist 
Edwyn Robert Bevan. Ashley Bevan was 
educated at Cheam, Surrey, the Gymnase 
Litteraire, Lausanne, and the university 
of Strasburg, where he studied under 
Theodor Noeldeke, the greatest of scholars 
in the field of oriental studies. He entered 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1884, and 
obtained a first class in the Semitic lan- 
guages tripos of 1887. In 1888 he gained 
a Tyrwhitt Hebrew scholarship and the 
Mason prize for biblical Hebrew, and two 
years later was elected a fellow of his college 
and appointed lecturer in oriental lan- 
guages. In 1893 he became lord almoner's 
professor of Arabic at Cambridge, a post 
previously held by his brother-in-law 
I. G. N. Keith-Falconer and by R. L. Bensly 
[qq.v.]. The post was abolished after his 
death. He was elected a fellow of the 
British Academy in 1916, resigning in 
1928. 

Bevan was 'one of the dozen most 
learned Arabists, not of England and 
Europe only, but of the whole world. He 
was almost equally distinguished for his 
knowledge of Hebrew and Old Testament 
literature. He knew Syriac thoroughly 



74 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Bhownaggree 



and other Semitic languages well, and he 
had an excellent acquaintance with Per- 
sian language and literature ' (F. C. Burkitt 
in Cambridge Review, 27 October 1933). 
He also had a knowledge of Sanskrit, and 
was fluent in P>ench, Italian, and German. 
His published work was relatively small, 
but what there is of it is of the highest 
scholarship. His edition of the satirical 
poems the NdlfaHd ofJarir and al-Farazdak 
(Arabic text, 3 vols., 1905-1912), was a 
tribute to his teacher, the famous orien- 
talist William Wright [q.v.] ; and in an 
exhaustive volume of indexes and addenda 
to the Mufaddaliyat (1924) he completed 
the edition of the poems edited by Sir C. 
J. Lyall [q.v.]. He was interested in classi- 
cal Arabic rather than later Mohammedan 
literature, in a knowledge of which his 
more enthusiastic colleague E. G. Browne 
[q.v.] excelled. But among various articles 
contributed to the Journal of Theological 
Studies he wrote one on 'The Beliefs of 
Early Mohammedans respecting a Future 
Existence' (October 1904). He was also 
interested in Manichaeism, and besides 
contributing an article on the subject to 
Hastings's Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics, completed, with F. C. Burkitt 
[q.v.] in 1912, under the title St. Ephraim's 
Refutations, the collections of St. Ephraim's 
writings on that and allied sects which 
C. W. Mitchell had prepared before his 
death. Mention must also be made of his 
edition of the Gnostic Syriac Hymn of the 
Soul Contained in the Syriac Acts of St. 
Thomas ('Cambridge Texts and Studies', 
vol. V, No. 3, 1897). 

Bevan's Short Commentary on the Book 
of Daniel (1892) was the first work in 
English to demonstrate the Maccabean 
date of this perplexing document, and was 
regarded as a masterpiece. Besides articles 
in the Encyclopaedia Biblica, he contribu- 
ted an important 'Essay on Historical 
Methods in the Old Testament ' to Essays 
on Some Biblical Questions of the Day 
(edited by H. B. Swete, 1909). These and 
various reviews exhibit his keen critical 
faculty and incisive judgement. Classical 
Hebrew was his interest, and although 
he was an enthusiastic pupil of Solomon 
Marcus Schiller-Szinessy, the university 
reader in Talmudic and rabbinic literature 
and a remarkable figure in his day, Bevan's 
attitude to medieval New Hebrew litera- 
ture was not sympathetic. Throughout he 
was fastidious and scrupulously careful: 
as he observed in the course of one of his 
typically uncompromising reviews, 'even 
slight inaccuracies are liable to become 



sources of confusion'. His friends and 
pupils could well believe the story that he 
was almost reduced to tears on discovering 
a misprint in one of his own works. 

If Bevan's output was slight he spared 
himself no pains in assisting his colleagues, 
among other ways by reading their proofs : 
many, including his brother Edwyn, were 
indebted to his scholarship. Even the 
inner circle stood a little in awe of his 
immense erudition and the authority 
which it gave him. He did much teaching, 
and as a teacher surprised his pupils by 
his methods and by his readiness to confess 
his inability to translate some Hebrew 
passage which they thought that they had 
mastered from their knowledge of the 
Authorized Version . But he was hospitable 
and at his ease with undergraduates, with 
soldiers and policemen, and especially 
with humbler folk. A hater of tobacco, he 
freely provided excellent cigars; witty, 
with a characteristic laugh and with a 
tongue like a rapier, he was a man of 
unbounded kindness and sympathy. Un- 
ostentatious, no one was ever more deter- 
mined to prevent his left hand from 
knowing what his right hand was doing. 

Bevan had had an extremely evangelical 
upbringing, which led to later reaction; 
he was liberal and outspoken in his 
opinions. Slightly built and of middle 
height, he was scrupulously neat and tidy 
in dress and demeanour, and his politeness 
was almost a byword. He was over-parti- 
cular about his food and over-anxious 
as to his health. He died, unmarried, at 
Cambridge 16 October 1933. 

[The Times, 17 and 20 October 1933; 
Cambridge Review, 27 October 1933; private 
information ; personal knowledge.] 

S. A. Cook. 

BHOWNAGGREE, Sir MANCHER- 
JEE MERWANJEE (1851-1933), Indian 
lawyer and politician, was born at Bombay 
15 August 1851, the son of Merwanjee N. 
Bhownaggree, a Parsee merchant of that 
city, who belonged to a family of Persian 
origin, by his wife, Coo verbal. He was 
educated at Elphinstone College, Bombay, 
and Bombay University. After a brief 
apprenticeship to j ournalism , he succeeded , 
on the death of his father in 1875 to the 
agency in Bombay for the Kathiawar 
State of Bhavanagar. At this time he 
published a translation into Gujerati of 
Queen Victoria's Leaves from the Journal 
of our Life in the Highlands. In 1881 he 
came to London in order to study law, and 
in 1885 was called to the bar by Lincoln's 



75 



Bhownaggree 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Inn. Thereafter as judicial counsellor in 
Bhavanagar, he introduced far-reaching 
reforms in law administration. Appointed 
CLE. in 1886, he was advanced to K.C.I.E. 
in 1897. He had settled in London, and 
at the general election of 1895 was returned 
to parliament for North-East Bethnal 
Green, in the conservative interest. His 
only Indian predecessor in the House of 
Commons, elected in 1892 as a radical 
reformer and now defeated, was Dadabhai 
Naorojij one of the founders of the Indian 
National Congress and a severe critic of 
British rule. Bhownaggree, on the other 
hand, was a sound and practical imperi- 
alist. His resourceful advocacy of the 
removal of disabilities suffered by Indians 
in South Africa and other parts of the 
British Empire deeply impressed the 
House. After ten years in parliament he 
was among the unionists who were swept 
away by the tide of liberal victories in the 
general election of January 1906. Yet 
another Parsee, Shapurji Saklatvala [q.v.], 
was a third — and so far the last — Indian 
to sit in the House of Commons. 

Over a long period of years Bhownag- 
gree was the leading Indian permanently 
resident in Great Britain. Among many 
other institutions which he served he was 
dominant as chairman of the Parsee 
Association of Europe, the Northbrook 
Society, and the Indian Social Club. Under 
the title of Verdict of India he published 
in 1916 a booklet repelling German false- 
hoods as to British rule in his native land. 
In memory of his only sister, Ave Bhow- 
naggree, he founded a nurses' home in 
Bombay and provided the Bhownaggree 
corridor to the east whig of the Imperial 
Institute in London. He married in 1872, 
and his wife ordinarily resided in Bombay 
as she could not keep well in the variable 
English climate. He was predeceased by 
the elder of his two sons, and his daughter 
married a distinguished Bombay physician. 
Dr. J. N. Bahadurjee. He died at his 
London house 14 November 1933. 

A portrait in oils of Bhownaggree, by 
Mrs. Radcliffe Beresford, was presented 
to him in 1927 by the Parsee Association 
of Europe, and is now in the possession of 
his daughter in Bombay. 

[The Times, 15 November 1933 and 27 July 
1928; Hansard, Parliamentary Debates; per- 
sonal knowledge.] F. H. Brown. 

BIGGE, ARTHUR JOHN, Baron 
Stamfordham (1849-1931), private sec- 
retary to King George V, was born at 
Linden Hall, near Morpeth, Northumber- 



land, 18 June 1849, the fourth of the five 
sons of John Frederick Bigge, vicar of 
Stamfordham in the same county, by his 
wife, Caroline Mary, only daughter of 
Nathaniel Ellison, barrister and commis- 
sioner in bankruptcy, of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. He was educated at Rossall School 
and at the Royal Military Academy, where 
he was a fellow cadet with Prince Arthur, 
later Duke of Connaught. In 1869 he 
obtained a commission in the Royal Artil- 
lery, from which he retired as lieutenant- 
colonel (1892) in 1898. A few years after 
he entered the army there was attached 
to his battery the Prince Imperial, the only 
son of Napoleon III, and the close friend- 
ship which sprang up between the two 
young men determined Bigge's career. 

Serving in the Kaffir and Zulu wars of 
1878-1879, Bigge was mentioned in dis- 
patches after the battle of Kambula on 
29 March 1879: the part played by the 
Horse Artillery battery in which he was 
serving is thus commended by Sir (Henry) 
Evelyn Wood [q.v.] (From Midshipman to 
Field-Marshal, vol. ii, p. 59): 'I have 
never known a battery so exceptionally 
fortunate in its subalterns. . . . Both Bigge 
and Slade were unsurpassable ; they with 
their gunners stood up in the open from 
1.30 p.m. till the Zulus retreated at 5.30 
p.m.' Later in that year the Prince Imperial 
was killed in South Africa and Bigge had 
the melancholy task of escorting the body 
of his friend back to England. He went 
to Abergeldie to tell the Empress Eugenie 
of the circumstances in which the Prince 
had been killed, and while staying there 
he had several interviews at Balmoral 
with Queen Victoria, who wrote of him to 
her eldest daughter (24 October): 'He is 
a charming person, of the very highest 
character, clever, amiable and agreeable, 
as well as good looking.' Three days later 
the Queen recorded in her diary: 'After 
tea saw Lieut. Bigge, with whom I had 
a long talk. He was at Inhlobane and 
Kambula, his horse being killed under him 
at the latter. . . . After Kambula Lieut. 
Bigge became very ill indeed and the 
Prince Imperial came to see him in hos- 
pital, when he said he hoped they would 
meet again soon. This was only a week 
before the Prince was killed, and humanly 
speaking it seemed more likely that Lieut. 
Bigge should die than that the other 
should happen. He cautioned and begged 
the Prince to be very careful, which he 
promised he would. . . . We spoke of the 
Empress' wish, indeed determination, to 
go to South Africa to visit the spot where 



76 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Bigge 



her dear son fell, which will be difficult to two sovereigns he revealed qualities of tact 



carry out, but not impossible.' 

On 1 January 1880 the Queen appointed 
Bigge a groom-in-waiting to herself, giving 
him leave first to accompany Wood, to 
whom he was at that time aide-de-camp, 
and who had undertaken to conduct the 
Empress to the scene of the tragedy. Bigge 
went ahead, on 1 1 March, to make arrange- 
ments. On their return from South Africa 
at the end of July he went for two nights 
to Osborne to report to the Queen, who 
immediately appointed him assistant 
private secretary and assistant privy 
purse, 'as both Sir Henry Ponsonby and 
I think no-one better fitted than him' 
(Diary, 2 August). This association with 
Sir Henry Ponsonby [q.v.] proved most 
happy on both sides, and Bigge carried 
with him to the grave an unstinted ad- 
miration for his former chief. He resigned 
as groom in May 1881, having been 
appointed equeiTy in the previous month. 
He was made C.B. in 1885 and C.M.G. in 
1887. In May 1895 he was advanced to 
K.C.B. upon succeeding Ponsonby as 
private secretary to the Queen, a post 
which he held until the close of her reign. 

King Edward VII came to the throne 
already provided with a private secretary 
in the person of Sir Francis (later Viscount) 
Knollys [q.v.]. But when the heir to the 
throne. Prince George, Duke of Cornwall 
and York, made his famous tour through 
the British Dominions in 1901, Bigge 
accompanied him as private secretary. At 
the close of the tour Bigge was appointed 
G.C.V.O. and K.C.M.G. He retained the 
post of private secretary to the Prince of 
Wales throughout King Edward's reign 
and accompanied him to India in 1905. 
He was appointed K.C.S.I. in 1906. 

On his accession in 1910 King George V 
at first made use of the services and 
experience of both Knollys and Bigge as 
joint private secretaries. Knollys retired 
in 1913, and Bigge, who had been raised 
to the peerage as Baron Stamfordham in 
1911, remained until his death eighteen 
years later principal private secretary. He 
was sworn of the Privy Council in 1910, 
attended the King to India in 1911, and 
was appointed G.C.I.E. in 1911 andG.C.B. 
in 1916, He also received several foreign 
decorations, including the I^egion of 
Honour, and in 1906 the university of 
Durham conferred upon him the honorary' 
degree of D.C.L. 

Among Starafordham's few but distin- 
guished predecessors in his office his place 
is deservedly high. As private secretary to 



and wisdom, a sure grasp of affairs, and 
an imswerving rectitude. Politically he 
was at once less eager and less radical than 
either of his immediate forenmners. The 
affinity between Ponsonby and Gladstone, 
or that between Knollys and Asquith, 
found its natural parallel in the intimacy 
which for nearly fifty years linked Stam- 
fordham with Randall Davidson [q.v.]. 
His impartiality was never questioned. 
Upon vacating office in December 1910 
Asquith wrote to him: 'Our intercourse, 
official and personal, during all these 
years, is one of the pleasantest memories 
of my public life. The times have not 
been easy, and of late more than difficult, 
but our task has been lightened by com- 
plete mutual confidence and ever-growing 
friendship.' 

Stamfordham was a man of persistent 
industry, making it his practice to finish 
the day's work within the day, whatever 
the cost in leisure or the physical burden. 
This towards the close of Queen Victoria's 
life became heavy, for her eyes began to 
fail, and by 1895 the task of writing to her 
legibly had become so exacting that the 
prime minister permitted himself to com- 
municate with her through Bigge, dictating 
his letters to an amanuensis with a clear 
handwriting (Lord Crewe, Lord Rosehery, 
vol. i, p. 508). For his part, Bigge used to 
dry his submissions in a stove of ingenious 
design instead of blotting them ; and he 
taught himself afresh to write. It was 
thus that he acquired the bold script 
which remained to the end the joy and 
envy of his correspondents. His letters 
were largely handwritten ; if they lack the 
astringency and sparkle of Ponsonby's 
they are marked by a like economy of 
phrase. 

Against the wiles of the importimate 
he knew well how to guard himself, and 
fashionable company he resolutely es- 
chewed. A certain austerity which he had 
imbibed in the north-country vicarage 
mellowed in later years to a gentler toler- 
ance, and he came to be regarded by his 
colleagues with a love which perhaps 
never whoUy cast out fear. But the young, 
the shy, and the inexperienced were drawn 
towards him by the candour and the 
simplicity of his bearing. 'I shall never 
forget', wrote Ramsay MacDonald after 
his death, 'the kindness he shewed to 
my colleagues and myself when we were 
but prentices in 1924. The country has 
lost a devoted servant who for many 
years bore delicate responsibilities with 



77 



Bigge 



D.N.B. 1981-1040 



a sagacity and resourcefulness which 
smoothed many a difficult road and enabled 
change to come gently and be accepted 
without misgiving as a thing belonging to 
the natural flow of time.' 

Stamfordham had learnt his trade in 
the service of an aged queen, of towering 
personal ascendancy, unrivalled experi- 
ence, and marked political capacity. It 
was to a different scene that he returned 
a decade later, at a period of strong civil 
ferment, the intermediary this time be- 
tween a reticent and untried sovereign 
and a resourceful prime minister. It was 
Stamfordham's solicitude which brought 
confidence to the new king at the same 
time as his experience brought counsel in 
statecraft. There was in him an absence 
of self-esteem which responded to a like 
quality in his master, establishing between 
them more than a merely professional 
relationship throughout the thirty years 
of their association. On the day of his 
death at St. James's Palace 31 March 
1931, the King wrote in his diary: 'Dear 
Bigge passed peacefully away at 4.30 
to-day. I shall miss him terribly. His loss 
is irreparable.' 

Stamfordham married in 1881 Constance 
(died 1922), second daughter of William 
Frederick Neville, vicar of Butleigh, 
Somerset, and had one son, who was 
killed in action in 1915, and two daughters. 
He had but one grandchild. Major Michael 
Adeane. 

A portrait of Stamfordham, by H. A. 
Olivier (1927), is in the possession of the 
family, and a charcoal drawing, by Francis 
Dodd (1931), is in the Royal Library, 
Windsor Castle. A poor cartoon of him, 
by 'Spy', appeared in Vanity Fair 6 
September 1900. 

[The Times, 1 April 1931 ; published LeHers, 
and unpublished diary, of Queen Victoria; 
P. H. Emden, Behind the Throne, 1934; 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 
Owen Morshead. 

BILES, Sir JOHN HARVARD (1854- 
1933), naval architect, was born at Ports- 
mouth 6 January 1854, the third son of 
John Biles, an official at Portsmouth 
dockyard, by his wife, Margaret, second 
daughter of William Groombridge, of 
ErnehiU, Kent. His childhood was spent 
at Portsmouth, where in his early years 
his interest in ships was quickened and his 
natural bent for mechanics encouraged by 
the very nature of his surroundings. He 
was educated at G. L. Oliver's school (now 
the Mile End House School), Portsmouth, 



from which he passed to serve his appren- 
ticeship at Portsmouth dockyard, at a 
period during which the use of wood in 
warship construction was being largely 
superseded by steel, and sails were giving 
place to mechanical power. The Devasta- 
tion, on which he was chiefly engaged, was 
the first of the modern ships built entirely 
by the new methods. 

In 1872, at the age of eighteen. Biles 
was placed first on the list of candidates 
for a scholarship at the Royal School of 
Naval Architecture and Marine Engineer- 
ing, moving in 1873 to the Royal Naval 
College, Greenwich, where he finished his 
three-year course in 1875. As was custo- 
mary with all students of the school, at 
the end of his course he returned to the 
dockyards for practical experience, mainly 
at Pembroke, until in 1876 he was ap- 
pointed Admiralty overseer at the Landore 
ironworks in South Wales, where he gained 
intimate knowledge of steel manufacture. 
Biles's ability was soon recognized, and 
on joining the Admiralty in 1877 he was 
given full opportunity to use his growing 
skill and knowledge. At this time no 
great importance was attached to the 
investigations of William Froude [q.v.] in 
estimating resistance of ships' models, but 
Biles, with his quick perception and vision, 
rightly judged the value of Froude's work, 
and studied its possibilities whilst he was 
stiU at the Admiralty. In 1880 he was 
offered the post of chief designer to Messrs. 
J. and G. Thomson, of Clydebank (later 
Messrs. John Brown & company), where 
his reputation as a naval architect was 
soon established. Under his guidance the 
firm became famous for the building of 
both naval and mercantile ships, and his 
study of Froude's work led to improve- 
ments in hull form which resulted in 
increasing speed in passenger vessels. The 
City of Paris and City of New York, built 
in 1887, were revolutionary in design and 
construction, demonstrating the advan- 
tages of lighter construction coupled with 
adequate strength, made possible by 
scientific design. 

In 1891 Biles was appointed to the chair 
of naval architecture in Glasgow Univer- 
sity, a post which he held for thirty years. 
Here he was extremely popular, not only 
for his talent for teaching but for his 
sympathetic understanding of his students, 
many of whom became distinguished 
naval architects in later life. During this 
period Biles combined lecturing at the 
university with practical work on designs 
for various firms, and gave his students 



78 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Birch 



practical experience by allowing them to 
help in the working out of the plans. In 
1907 he opened offices in Broadway, West- 
minster, as a consulting naval architect 
and engineer. His reputation was almost 
world-wide: he travelled widely, particu- 
larly in North and South America and 
in India, where his work was so highly 
thought of that on the death of Sir E. J. 
Reed [q.v.], in 1906, he was appointed 
consulting naval architect to the India 
Office. The British Admiralty called him 
in as a consultant on many occasions, and 
he was associated with the development 
of river and shallow-draft vessels for use 
in Mesopotamia during the war of 1914- 
1918. 

Among the many government com- 
mittees on which Biles served were the 
dry-dock experiments on the Wolf (1901- 
1903) to test for the first time by actual 
measurements the stresses on the hull of 
a destroyer, a highly successful piece of 
experimental work; the Board of Trade 
departmental committee on boats and 
davits (1912) after the disaster of the 
Titanic; the ship designs conrnnittee 
(1904-1905) appointed by Lord Fisher 
[q.v.], from which there emerged the design 
of the Dreadnought, completed under Sir 
Philip Watts [q.v.], director of naval con- 
struction at the Admiralty. For his services 
on these and other committees he was 
knighted in 1913 and appointed K.C.I.E. 
in 1922. He was elected a member of 
council of the Institution of Naval Archi- 
tects in 1889, vice-president in 1905, and 
honorary vice-president in 1919. His first 
paper, ' Some Results of Curves of Resis- 
tance and Progressive Measured Mile Speed 
Curves', was read to the institution in 
1881, and his last, 'Draught and Dimen- 
sions of the Most Economical Ship', in 
1931. For many years he served on the 
court of the Worshipful Company of Ship- 
wrights and was master of the company in 
1904. He published The Marine Steam 
Turbine in 1906 and The Design and Con- 
struction of Ships in 1908. The honorary 
degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him 
by the universities of Yale (1901) and 
Glasgow (1922), and of D.Sc. by Harvard 
(1908). He was an honorary member of 
the Japanese Society of Naval Architects, 
and was decorated with the Egyptian 
order of Osmanieh in 1906. 

Biles was a man of remarkable vitality, 
genial disposition, and possessed of a 
physical stamina which enabled him to 
use his mental powers to the full in his 
professional capacity. That his work did 



not absorb the whole of his energy is 
shown by his filling in his spare time when 
working on the Devastation reading the 
whole of Alison's History of Europe while 
seated in the double bottom of the ship. 
A keen yachtsman, he won many prizes 
at Cowes, Dublin, and the Clyde regattas 
with his yawls Caress and Lais, and he 
presented one of these trophies to the 
Shipwrights' Company. 

Biles married in 1876 Emma Jane (died 
June 1933), only child of Richard Hoskyn 
Lloyd, of Pembroke, and had one son and 
two daughters. He died at Virginia Water, 
Surrey, 27 October 1933. 

A portrait of Biles, by Maurice Greiffen- 
hagen, is in the possession of the family. 

[The Times, 28 October 1933; Nature, 
4 November 1933; private information.] 

E. H. T. D'Eyncourt. 

BIRCH, Sir (JAMES FREDERICK) 
NOEL (1865-1939), general, was born at 
Llanrhaiadr, Denbighshire, 29 December 
1865, the second son of Major Richard 
Frederick Birch, J.P., of Maes Elwy, St. 
Asaph, by his wife, Euphemia Mercer, 
eldest daughter of James Somerville, of 
Edinburgh. Educated at Giggles wick, 
Marlborough, and the Royal Military 
Academy, he was commissioned in the 
Royal Artillery in 1885. An exceptionally 
fine horseman and whip, he quickly gained 
his Royal Horse Artillery 'jacket' and in 
1894 became aide-de-camp to the general 
commanding the Woolwich district. In 
1895-1896 he took part in the Ashanti 
expedition, and in South Africa he served 
with his Royal Horse Artillery battery in 
the Cavalry division under the command 
of Sir John French [q.v.], taking part in 
the relief of Kimberley, the operations in 
the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, 
and being present at the battle of Diamond 
Hill. He was promoted major in Jime 
1900, and in 1901 was given command of 
a battalion of Imperial Yeomanry, which 
he led in the operations in Cape Colony 
from December 1901 to the conclusion of 
hostilities. He was in command of the 
Riding Establishment at Woolwich from 
1905 to 1907. 

Promoted lieutenant-colonel in 1912, 
Birch commanded the 7th brigade. Royal 
Horse Artillery^ and took it to France in 
August 1914, serving with the Cavalry 
division under the command of Sir 
Edmimd (later Viscount) Allenby [q.v.], 
in the retreat from Mons and in the battles 
of the Aisne andof Ypres-Armentieres. In 
January 1915 he was appointed brigadier- 



79 



Birch 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



eff 



general on the general staff of the Cavalry 
Corps, and a few months later C.R.A. of 
the 7th division, going in the same position 
in July to the I Corps, then commanded 
by Sir Douglas Haig [q.v,]. In May 1916 
Haig brought him to general headquarters 
as artillery adviser, and he held that post 
until the end of the war. He was promoted 
major-general in 1917 and lieutenant- 
general in 1919. In 1920 he became 
director of remounts at the War Office and 
had regretfully to supervise the changes 
required by the development of mechanical 
transport. In the following year he was 
appointed director-general of the Terri- 
torial Army and concerned himself actively 
with the development of cadet corps. In 
1923 he was appointed master-general of 
the Ordnance and fourth military member 
of the Army Council. He held this position 
until 1927, during a period when important 
experiments, followed by equally impor- 
tant developments in artillery, were in 
progress, and his long experience of 
artillery in war, from the fighting front 
to general headquarters, was of great 
value. He was promoted general in 1926 
and retired from the army in the following 
year in order to become a director of 
Vickers-Armstrong. 

Birch was made a colonel commandant 
of the Royal Artillery in 1919 and in 1923 
a colonel commandant of the Royal Horse 
Artillery. He was appointed C.B. in 1916, 
K.C.M.G. in 1918, K.C.B. in 1922, and 
G.B.E. in 1927, and received numerous 
foreign honours. He published two books. 
Modern Riding (1909) and Modern Riding 
and Horse Education (1912). He married 
in 1903 Florence Hyacinthe (died 1938), 
youngest daughter of Sir George Chetwode, 
sixth baronet, of Oakley, Staffordshire, 
and Chetwode, Buckinghamshire, and had 
two sons. He died at his home in London 
3 February 1939. 

A portrait of Birch, by Oswald Birley, 
is now in the possession of his son, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Nigel Birch, M.P. 

[The Times, 4 February 1939 ; personal 
knowledge.] F. Maurice. 

BIRRELL, AUGUSTINE (1850-1933), 
author and statesman, born at Wavertree, 
near Liverpool, 19 January 1850, was the 
yovmger son of Charles Morton Birrell, 
minister of Pembroke Baptist chapel there, 
by his wife, Harriet Jane, daughter of 
Henry Grey [q.v.], Free Church minister, 
of Edinburgh. Thus he was reared in the 
tradition of liberal nonconformity which 
reckons education to be one of the orna- 



ments of a good life. On leaving AmefP 
ham Hall School, Caversham, in 1866, he 
became an articled clerk in a solicitor's 
office in Liverpool ; but a fortunate legacy 
enabled his father to send him to Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge, and it seemed as though 
he had burned his last boat on Merseyside, 
and would qualify for a profession else- 
where. He began university life in dingy 
lodgings near the Hall, and his preference 
for retaining them throughout his whole 
career at Cambridge indicates the quiet 
studious life which he led in the company 
of a few special friends, not engaging in 
college competitions on field or river, but 
carrying on a modest existence, varied by 
occasional rides on the broad grass verges 
of roads ending on Newmarket Heath, and 
working hard enough to obtain the good 
second class in the law tripos of 1872 
which he thought represented his merits 
and his prospects, for without affectation 
of humility he was never ambitious, or 
believed that the glittering prizes of life 
were there for him to grasp. He was 
elected an honorary fellow of Trinity Hall 
in 1899. 

At the age of twenty -five Birrell was 
called to the bar by the Inner Temple. 
The excitements of the Common Law bar 
and going on circuit had no attractions 
for him, and with some advantages at the 
start, he settled down to quiet Chancery 
business, securing before long enough work 
to enable him in 1878 to marry Margaret, 
daughter of Archibald Mirrielees, of St. 
Petersburg, to whom he had long been 
attached. This happy union was broken 
up by her death after thirteen months, 
and his younger sister came to live with 
him for the next nine years, during which 
his practice grew steadily but not on a 
great scale, and he was able to devote 
his leisure to reading, of infinite variety, 
but not in the direction of an increased 
study of the classics, or the acquisition of 
modern languages, although he was able 
to enjoy not a few expeditions to European 
countries. 

In time Birrell became known as a 
capable and versatile reviewer. A per- 
sistent exception to the catholicity of his 
reading was his inability to enjoy a novel: 
he read but few, and never reviewed one 
until the persuasion of a younger esteemed 
critic induced him to crown the popular 
admiration already given to Miss Margaret 
Keimedy's The Constant Nymph (1924). 
In 1884 he became a public character by 
the appearance of a collection of essays on 
various subjects, including one 'On the 



80 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Birrell 



Alleged Obscurity of Mr. Browning's 
Poetry ', 'A Rogue's Memoirs' (Benvenuto 
Cellini), a note on Carlyle, and another on 
Falstaff, thus covering a wide field. Obiter 
Dicta was published at a time when an 
influential section of fashionable society 
had become ashamed of appearing only 
to frequent Melton and Newmarket, and 
the book's fascinating style and its small 
bulk made it easy to carry about from 
country house to country house and dis- 
cuss under the trees on a fine afternoon. 
A second series was published in 1887 and 
many years later More Obiter Dicta (1924). 
His literary reputation was further en- 
hanced by the publication in 1887 of 
Charlotte Bronte, which he describes as a 
biographical sketch, in no way intended 
to supersede Mrs. Gaskell's authoritative 
memoir, but so to be called because it is 
impossible to criticize her work without 
telling something of the story of her life. 

Some critics were disposed to regard 
Birrell's literary judgements as somewhat 
superficial. The term 'Birrelling' was 
devised to describe a sort of literary flute- 
playing, agreeable to listen to, but not to 
be compared with mastery of the violin 
or pianoforte. This was luifair: during 
his Liverpool years he had absorbed a vast 
quantity of sixteenth- and seventeenth- 
century literature, including the arcana of 
long-forgotten divinity and social history. 
This enabled him to write entertainingly 
on a dull subject, the reverse practice to 
that of some of his critics, who did not 
contribute anything fresh or novel to a 
subject known to be exciting in itself. He 
made no claim to the profound erudition 
of his friend W. P. Ker [q.v.], but neither 
that scholar nor others who enjoyed 
Birrell's essays expected it of him. Among 
British essayists probably none found it 
so needless to follow a single path for 
information or study. 

In 1888 Birrell married Eleanor Mary 
Bertha, widow of Lionel Tennyson, 
younger son of the poet laureate. This 
alliance encouraged fresh intimacies in the 
region governed by the Muses, for she was 
the daughter of Frederick Locker, later 
Locker-Lampson [q.v.]. She was a woman 
of much charm and mental capacity, with 
a sense of humour that chimed in happily 
with Birrell's, and she became a favourite 
in many political and social circles. She 
died in 1915 after a happy married life of 
twenty-seven years. Two sons were born 
of this marriage. 

In 1885 and again in 1886 the liberal 
barrister had been an unsuccessful cajidi- 



dateforthe Walton division of Liverpool, 
and it was not until 1889 that a by-election 
for the West Fife division offered the 
chance which one or two fortunate acci- 
dents enabled Birrell to grasp. He became 
a loyal follower of Gladstone's government 
in 1892 and afterwards of Rosebery's 
briefer leadership (1894-1896), and in the 
following years shared the political views 
of Campbell-Bannerman. In 1895 he took 
silk, and from 1898 to 1899 he held the 
Quain professorship of law at University 
College, London. In 1900 he was unfor- 
tunately persuaded to abandon West Fife 
and fight a losing battle for the North-East 
division of Manchester, so that he was 
absent from parliament during the later 
stages of the South African war and took no 
part in the acrimonious discussions on the 
education bill of 1902, in which he was 
destined to be so deeply interested. The 
resignation of the Balfour government in 
1905 brought about the formation of 
Campbell-Bannerman's administration, in 
which Birrell, who was to be elected 
member for North Bristol at the general 
election of 1906, accepted the presidency 
of the Board of Education. It was a par- 
ticularly important post at the moment, 
for the Education Act of 1902 had not 
only infuriated the great nonconformist 
bodies, but had convinced liberals of all 
shades that the legislation of 1870 was 
being tampered with in a spirit of undue 
favouritism towards Church of England 
elementary schools. Birrell's upbringing 
pointed him out as being especially quali- 
fied to redress the balance, while his 
broad sympathies and a sense of humour 
which pervaded all his speeches and 
writings saved him from being identified 
with the extreme section of dissenting 
spokesmen, of whom Dr. John Clifford [q.v.] 
was the most conspicuous. The education 
bill of 1906 was accordingly framed on 
lines designed to restore equality of 
treatment, notably in single-school areas. 
The fight in the House of Commons was 
long and bitter; Birrell did not enjoy the 
support of the Irish members, many of 
whom were Roman Catholics, while all 
were irritated at finding that their griev- 
ance was not set in the forefront of 
reforms to be dealt with. But the measure 
passed on to the House of Lords, and there 
its doom was sealed in spite of the qualified 
support of some members of the opposition, 
of whom the Duke of Devonshire was the 
most notable, and the efforts of the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury to state the Church 
case moderately. After long conferences 



81 



Birrell 



D.N.B. 1031-1940 



between the Houses the bill was lost by a 
large majority. 

Birrell was only thirteen months at the 
Board of Education, and in 1907 was 
nominated chief secretary for Ireland, in 
succession to James (afterwards Viscount) 
Bryce [q.v.]. It was felt that Birrell's 
qualities were predominantly fitted to the 
task, as minister in charge of Ireland. 
Thus three eminent men of letters, Morley, 
Bryce, and Birrell were nominated by 
liberal prime ministers to the chief secre- 
taryship: it may be held by some that 
experienced administrators in India or 
Africa might have been able to cope more 
appropriately with the situation in Dublin, 
since they would begin by recognizing the 
deep-seated and sometimes unplumbed 
divergencies between the two races. Be 
that as it may, Birrell accepted the chief 
secretaryship with little hope of scoring 
a triumphant success during his term of 
office, but he was stimulated by the hope 
of doing something to set education in 
Ireland, particularly religious education, 
on a sounder footing than it had enjoyed 
since the Act of Union, most of all in its 
higher branches. The creation of a really 
representative Roman Catholic university, 
facing on equal terms Trinity CoUege, the 
great and honoured foundation emblema- 
tic of Protestant ascendancy, would mean 
triumph for the liberal administration of 
Ireland such as it had not achieved for 
many years. He set to work at once on 
the complicated details of this measure, 
and amid much criticism and some dis- 
appointments became responsible for the 
new National University of Ireland, with 
three constituent colleges in Dublin, Cork, 
and Gal way, established in 1908. Trinity 
College was of course not included, but 
submitted to a vague connexion of affilia- 
tion, while the university of Belfast 
satisfied the amour propre of Northern 
Ireland. 

The old landlord and tenant system had 
broken down, and both English parties, 
especially the conservatives, had engaged 
in vast purchase schemes for the benefit 
of occupying ownership. Reviewing his 
Irish experiences in later years, Birrell was 
able to claim that he had completed this 
task. 

Birrell remained chief secretary for over 
nine years, but he never became a leading 
member of the Cabinet, even for Irish 
affairs. The home rule bill of 1912 was 
not his work, but that of the prime 
minister, Asquith; and it was Asquith 



the two years of its stormy career was 
responsible for the negotiations carried on 
from time to time with Carson and John 
Redmond [qq. v .] . It is significant that when 
on the eve of the outbreak of war in 1914 a 
supreme effort was made to settle the home 
rule problem by a four-day conference at 
Buckingham Palace, the Irish chief secre- 
tary was not one of the eight statesmen 
who composed it. His position, well under- 
stood, was different. He was not respon- 
sible for high policy as Forster, Morley, 
Balfour, and Wyndham had been in their 
times, but merely for the day-to-day 
administration of Dublin Castle. Even 
that was slackly performed, and on terms 
which (as the Larne gtm-running in 1914 
showed) impaired the efficiency of the 
Royal Irish Constabulary. His qualities 
for his task were good nature and humour ; 
his defect was indolence. 

As time went on, Birrell saved himself 
much trouble by following a single pre- 
scription — to act on the advice of the 
Irish leader John Redmond. There was 
much to be said for it ; Redmond was not 
only a great Irish patriot, but a good 
friend to England and a loyal ally of the 
liberal government ; and since he was cast 
for the part of Ireland's future ruler, why 
not leave it to him to prepare the ground ? 
Unfortunately he was not a reliable 
mentor. Living mainly in England he had 
no longer an inside knowledge of Irish 
movements, and especially after August 
1914 failed to realize either the shock to 
nationalist sentiment through the shelving 
of home rule or the power of Sinn Fein to 
overthrow his own position. John Dillon 
[q.v.] was much better informed on these 
subjects, but he had not Birrell's ear. 
Despite warnings the chief secretary did 
nothing whatever to counter the plotting 
of the Sinn Feiners, luitil at Easter 1916 
they launched in collusion with Germany 
their open, armed rebellion. The long-term 
effects which that famous rising would 
leave on the history of Irish separatism 
could hardly be foreseen at the moment. 
But what was obvious to everybody was 
the military danger of an Irish revolt at 
the height of a great European war, and 
Birrell's complete blindness to its coming 
until it came. The condemnation passed 
on him was universal. He did not challenge 
it ; his resignation speech in the House of 
Commons was a frank and penitent 
admission of the facts. As such it evoked 
respect and sympathy on all sides; but 
his political career was ended. There could 



who introduced it, piloted it, and dvu-ing I be no question of public responsibilities 

82 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Blackett 



being entrusted to him again, and he did 
not seek re-election to parliament at the 
general election of 1918. 

Birrell survived this catastrophe by 
over seventeen years. He settled quietly 
in Chelsea, surrounded by the care of the 
Locker-Lampson brothers and of his wife's 
sons by her first marriage. He resumed 
writing; a sketch of his father-in-law, 
Frederick Locker-Lampson, appeared in 
1920, followed by two volumes of collected 
essays and one of reminiscences, the last 
published posthumously in 1937. These 
neither raised nor lowered his literary 
reputation, which rests essentially on the 
two earlier volumes of Obiter Dicta. 

Birrell died in London 20 November 
1933. He was not a great nor even a 
fortunate statesman. But as a writer he 
has stronger claims, being one of that 
happy fellowship who, by recording good 
hves of the past and adorning their tale 
with scintillant wit and kindly humour, 
have helped to make goodness attractive 
to the less gifted of their own and future 
generations. 

A portrait of Birrell, which hangs in the 
National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin, was 
painted by Sir William Orpen who also 
executed a chalk drawing of him (1909) 
which is in the National Portrait Gallery, 
London; a portrait by Roger Fry (1928) 
was sold when Birrell' s effects were dis- 
persed. A small version is in the possession 
of Mr. Charles Tennyson. A cartoon by 
'Spy' appeared in Vanity Fair 18 January 
1906. 

[The Times, 21 November 1933 ; Augustine 
Birrell, Things Past Redress, 1937.] 
Crewe. 
R. C. K. Ensor. 



BLACKETT, Sir BASIL PHILLOTT 

(1882-1935), financial administrator, was 
born 8 January 1882 in Calcutta, where 
both his parents (the Rev. William Russell 
Blackett, at that time principal of a 
theological training college, and later of 
another in London, and his wife, Grace 
A.nne Phillott), were missionaries. They 
returned to England shortly afterwards 
and in 1893 the father died, leaving his 
widow in straitened circumstances, with 
five children of whom Basil was the eldest 
ion. He went to Marlborough as a founda- 
:ion scholar and was elected to a classical 
scholarship at University College, Oxford, 
ivhere he obtained a first class in literae 
lumaniores in 1904. In the same year he 
mtered for the civil service examination, 
ntending to go to India, but being placed 



first he chose the Treasury. On the out- 
break of war ten years later he was in the 
financial division, and had been secretary 
to the royal commission on Indian finance 
and currency (1913-1914). Foreign ex- 
change problems took him to America for 
the first time in October 1914 and he went 
again a year later as a member of the 
Anglo-French financial commission, so 
that when the United States entered the 
war he was the natural choice for the post 
of representative of the British Treasury 
hi Washington; this he held from 1917 
to 1919. On his return he became the 
first controller of finance at the Treasury, 
and in 1922 he went to India as finance 
member of the viceroy's council. 

Blackett's work in India during the next 
five years showed him to be not only an 
exceptional but an outstanding financial 
administrator. Within a twelvemonth he 
had initiated and put through three major 
financial reforms. The Indian railways 
were ripped out of the central budget and 
placed on an independent footing; the 
charges for the repayment or avoidance 
of public debt were concentrated into a 
statutory sinking fund; and the eight 
provincial finance members were brought 
together for the first time in a conference, 
which has been repeated annually, to 
compare and co-ordinate their problems 
and to discover means of reducing, if not 
abolishing, the provincial contributions to 
the central revenues. The same principles 
of conference and co-ordination were 
applied by the finance member to the 
vexed poUtical questions with which, more 
and more, he came to be concerned in 
virtue of his personal prestige. That 
prestige was enhanced by the fact that, 
although he lacked both talent and experi- 
ence as a debater, he taught himself the 
art and became leader of the legislative 
assembly, in which he introduced six 
successive budgets and fixed the value of 
the rupee at eighteen pence. 

When Blackett returned to England in 
1928, by way of Australia, New Zealand, 
China, Japan, and North America, he was 
a marked man for whom a future had been 
prepared outside the civil service. His 
friend Mr. Montagu (later Lord) Norman, 
then governor, sponsored his election to 
the court of directors of the Bank of 
England in 1929 ; a merger of cable and 
wireless services provided an opportunity 
for placing him in charge of the new 
Imperial and International Communica- 
tions Company ; and a place was waiting 
for him in London from which his influence 



83 



Blackett 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



could be brought to bear on colonial 
currency problems. In order to undertake 
this triple task he left the Treasury for 
the City. But within three years the 
crisis of 1931 and the devaluation of 
sterling created a breach of continuity in 
which he found himself on the side of the 
future rather than of the past. His 
attention was increasingly engaged by 
national problems and he became a convert 
to planned money (on which he published 
a book imder that title in 1932) and to 
budgeting for a deficit. He was a prophet 
of the ' sterling area ' — a phrase which he 
popularized if he did not invent it. He 
also stood for parliament as an unofficial 
conservative candidate for the St. Maryle- 
bone division in 1932, but was not elected. 
In the same year he resigned the chairman- 
ship of the Imperial and International 
Communications Company and joined the 
board of De Beers Consolidated Mines. 
He also took a keen interest in the British 
Social Hygiene Council, of which he was 
president. 

Blackett died in hospital at Marburg, 
Germany, as the result of a motor accident 
15 August 1935. While he was still at 
Marlborough an injury to his leg had 
caused him to spend a period of enforced 
idleness in a visit to Germany which 
roused an interest that did not end with 
his membership of the international com- 
mittee on reparations which produced the 
Young Plan in 1929, and when he died he 
was on his way to lecture at Heidelberg 
University. A volume of translations 
published posthumously in 1937 bears 
witness to his abiding scholarship and 
particular interest in Byzantine Greek, 
acquired from his father. A window in 
Durham Cathedral — the Blacketts are a 
Durham family — and the school observa- 
tory at Marlborough preserve his memory. 

Blackett was twice married : first in 1905 
to Marion Enid, daughter of David Provan 
Graham, of Glasgow; secondly, in 1920 
to Beatrice, daughter of Edward Henry 
Bonner, of New York. He had no children. 
He was appointed C.B. in 1915, K.C.B. in 
1921, and K.C.S.I. in 1926. 

[The Times, 16 August 1935; private 
information ; personal knowledge.] 

H. A. SlEPMANN. 

BLAND-SUTTON, Sm JOHN, baronet 
(1855-1936), surgeon. [See Sutton.] 

BLOOD, Sir BINDON (1842-1940), 
general, was born near Jedburgh 7 
November 1842, the eldest son of William 
Bindon Blood, of Cranaher, co. Clare, 



civil engineer, by his first wife, Margaret, 
daughter of Robert Stewart, of Hawick. 
He was a descendant of Colonel Thomas 
Blood [q.v.] who attempted to seize the 
crown jewels in 1671. He was educated at 
the Royal School, Banagher, and Queen's 
College, Galway, whence he went to the 
Indian Military Seminary at Addiscombe, 
near Croydon, and in 1860 received his 
first commission as temporary lieutenant 
in the Royal Engineers. For the next ten 
years he specialized in signalling and 
pontoon bridge construction. He was 
responsible for the design of the boats 
which replaced the old sausage system of 
pontoons, and he became the first 
commander of the R.E. Telegraph Troop 
formed in 1870. He embarked for India in 
1871 , and, except for short periods of active 
service in Zululand and South Africa, 
served there for thirty-five years. On 
arrival in India he was posted to the Bengal 
Sappers and Miners at Roorkee where he 
remained for the next few years enjoying 
much sport and big-game shooting. 

In 1873 Blood was promoted captain, 
and served on the committee under Sir F. 
(later Earl) Roberts [q.v.] which arranged 
for the ceremony to proclaim Queen 
Victoria Empress of India in 1877. To- 
wards the end of that year he commanded 
on the North-West Frontier part of a 
punitive expedition against the Jowaki 
Afridis (1877-1878) for which he received 
the medal and clasp. In August 1878 he 
came home on leave, but on the outbreak 
of the Zulu war he was drafted to Africa 
early in 1879 as commanding royal 
engineer, 1st division Zulu Field Force. 
He was made brevet major and received 
the medal and clasp for his services in the 
campaign. On his return to England at 
the end of 1879 he found orders awaiting 
him to proceed to Kabul, where he arrived 
in 1880 a few months after the outbreak 
of the second Afghan war. He took very 
httle part in the actual fighting and re- 
tvimed to Roorkee towards the end of the 
year with the medal of the campaign. He 
left India in 1882 and was posted to 
command the 26th Field Company, Royal 
Engineers, at Shorncliffe, but after only a 
few months was ordered on active service 
to Egypt, where his sappers took part in 
the battle of Tel-el-Kebir. This cam- 
paign brought him promotion to brevet 
lieutenant-colonel (1882), the medal and 
clasp, and the Osmanieh Egyptian medal. 

Blood returned to England in 1883 but 
soon succeeded in getting himself posted 
once more to India, rejoining the Sappers 



84 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Bone 



and Miners as commandant in Simla in 
1885. Seven years later he was promoted 
brigadier-general and in 1 894 colonel on the 
staff in command of the garrison at Rawal- 
pindi. In the following year he was made 
chief staff oflicer of the Chitral relief force. 
For these services he received the medal 
and clasp and was appointed K.C.B. He 
came home in 1896 but returned before 
the end of the year to command the 
Malakand Field Force and the Buner 
Field Force (1897-1898). He was promoted 
major-general in 1898. Owing to Blood's 
skilful handling the campaign was speedily 
brought to an end. Returning to India 
from short leave, he commanded the 
Meerut division for the next two years, 
but early in 1901 Lord Kitchener [q.v.] 
asked for his services in South Africa, and 
as lieutenant-general he commanded the 
troops in the Eastern Transvaal with 
headquarters at Middelburg and for some 
months was engaged on various ' rounding- 
up' operations. Late in the year he 
returned in order to take up the important 
military command of the Punjab. This 
appointment he held, having been pro- 
moted full general in 1906, imtil he retired 
in November 1907 when he settled in 
London, continuing to lead a very active 
hfe. 

Iri 1909 Blood was appointed G.C.B. 
and in 1914 colonel-commandant, Royal 
Engineers. For the next sixteen years his 
activities were largely concerned with the 
interests of the corps, but he found time 
for recruiting work in connexion with the 
war of 1914-1918. \Vhen he was ninety 
years of age (1932) he was appointed 
G.C.V.O., and four years later he was the 
first officer to fill the re-created post of 
chief royal engineer. 

Blood's great popularity earned him 
many friends. His successes were due to 
his brilliant staff work and strategy and his 
carefully acquired knowledge of the habits 
and temperament of opposing forces. 

Blood married in 1883 Charlotte Eliza- 
beth, second daughter of Sir Auckland 
Colvin [q.v.], a distinguished Indian and 
Egyptian administrator, and had one 
daughter. He died in London 16 May 
1940, at the great age of ninety-seven, his 
name having appeared in the Army List 
for eighty years. 

[The Times, 17 May 1940; Sir Bindon 
Blood, Four Score Years and Ten, 1933; 
Journal of the Royal Engineers, vol. liv, 
1940; Sir J. F. Maurice and M. H. Grant, 
(Official) History of the War in South Africa, 
1899-1902, 1906-1910.] C. V. Owkn. 



BONE, WILLIAM ARTHLTR (1871- 
1938), chemist and fuel technologist, was 
born at Stockton-on-Tees 19 March 1871, 
the eldest son of Christopher Bone, tea 
merchant, of Stockton, by his wife, Mary 
Elizabeth Hutchinson. He was educated 
at Middlesbrough High School, and then 
at the Friends' School at Ackworth 
whence he entered Stockton High School ; 
there the science master was a particularly 
inspiring teacher. Bone's uncle, T. C. 
Hutchinson, was manager of the Skinnin- 
grove iron- works, in which the boy spent 
much of his spare time. These two 
influences led him towards a scientific 
career. Before entering the Owens College, 
Manchester, in 1888, he spent a year at 
the Leys School, Cambridge. After gradua- 
tion in chemistry three years later, he 
continued to work in Henry Baily Dixon's 
laboratory at the Owens College and his 
first paper, entitled 'The behaviour of 
ethylene on explosion with less than its 
volume of oxygen', was published in 1892. 
In 1896 he went to study for a year in 
Victor Meyer's laboratory at Heidelberg 
and worked there on the Indoxazen deriva- 
tives. Returning to England, he was head 
of the chemistry department at the 
Battersea Polytechnic for two years. In 
1898 he went back to the Owens College 
as lecturer in chemistry and metallurgy 
and worked along with W. H. Perkin [q.v.] 
on various carboxylic acids. During the 
next ten years Bone continued researches 
in organic chemistry and published a 
number of papers with collaborators. 
Whatever Bone undertook, he pursued 
with relentless vigour; nevertheless his 
early interests were at this time drawing 
him back to study the chemistry of 
combustion, which became his life's work. 

In 1906 Bone was appointed professor 
of fuel and metallurgy, and in 1910 first 
Livesey professor of coal, gas, and fuel 
industries at the university of Leeds. 
After six years of activity, he was called 
to London in 1912 to estabhsh at the 
Royal College of Science, South Kensing- 
ton, a department of fuel technology, and 
became professor of chemical technology 
in the university of London ; he retired in 
1936. He was a fine experimentalist and 
the founder of a flourishing school of fuel 
technology at the Imperial College of 
Science and Technology. Bone continued 
the supervision of researches on blast 
furnace reactions there after his retire- 
ment, but a serious illness ended his life's 
work and he died in London 11 June 1938. 
He was elected F.R.S. in 1905, received 



85 



Bone 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



the Davy medal in 1936, and delivered 
the Bakerian lecture in 1932. He received 
the Melchett medal of the Institute of 
Fuel in 1931, and the medal of the Society 
of Chemical Industry in 1933. 

Most of Bone's work was published 
along with collaborators in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions and Proceedings of 
the Royal Society and the Journal of the 
Chemical Society. He summarized the 
main content of his life's work in a lecture 
delivered to the Society of Chemical 
Industry in 1933: his early interests in 
iron smelting combined with the influence 
of Dixon at the Owens College enabled 
him to envisage combustion from both 
the technical and the scientific points of 
view. His early work on combustion was 
in support of some long neglected experi- 
ments of John Dalton [q.v.], which showed 
that in hydrocarbon combustion the 
hydrogen was not burnt preferentially: 
during this work he investigated the 
explosive combustion of ethylene, acety- 
lene, cyanogen, hydrogen, and pentane. 
Perhaps the most important section of his 
whole work was that on the slow combus- 
tion of the hydrocarbons which began in 
1902 and continued until the end of his 
career. As a result of these researches. 
Bone formulated an hypothesis, known as 
the hydroxylation theory of hydrocarbon 
combustion. Although more recent work 
on the reactions of hydrocarbons and 
oxygen shows that the 'hydroxylation 
theory' does not truly represent all that 
happens, nevertheless the hypothesis was 
a useful guide in the pioneer work which 
he carried out in this field, and he staunchly 
defended it. 

While he Avas at Leeds, Bone carried 
his researches on gaseous combustion to 
high pressures and he continued this work 
at South Kensington in collaboration with 
Dr. Dudley Maurice Newitt and Dr. Donald 
Thomas Alfred Townend, and they eventu- 
ally reached initial pressures of 750 atmo- 
spheres and explosion pressures as high 
as 7,000 atmospheres. The combustion 
of carbon monoxide and the influence of 
water on its combustion became the subject 
of an elaborate series of investigations 
which illustrate the exceptional pertinacity 
possessed by Bone. He eventually proved 
that carbon monoxide could be btu'nt 
without the intervention of any water 
vapour. Quite early in his career he set 
about studying the catalytic combustion 
at surfaces of various kinds. At one period 
of this work (1908-1912), along with C. D. 
McCourt, he developed the incandescent 



surface combustion process (to which the 
name Bonecourt was given). The process 
was adapted to crucible and muffle 
furnaces, to steam-raising in multi-tubular 
boilers, etc. He was also known for the 
improvements which he introduced in 
methods for the accurate analysis of gases. 

Bone and his collaborator, R. P. Fraser, 
from about 1930 onwards carried out the 
most remarkable series of photographic 
investigations of flame propagation which 
had been made up to that date. 

Bone had a very wide knowledge of coal 
and its treatment and his advice was 
widely sought by industry. In 1919 he 
began to publish his researches on the 
constitution of coal. He proved that 
the benzenoid constituents increase with 
the maturity of the coal. Of his other 
books, the last, written jointly with G. W. 
Himus and entitled Coal, its Constitution 
and Uses, was published in 1936. 

Bone's early interest in blast furnace 
technology culminated in studies with his 
assistant, H. L. Saunders, on the chemical 
reactions within the blast furnace; the 
importance of the direct reduction of ore 
by carbon was established. 

Bone was twice married: first, in 1893 
to Kate (died 1914), daughter of Richard 
Hind, J.P., who was twice mayor of Stock- 
ton, and had one son and two daughters ; 
secondly, in 1916 to Mabel Isabel (died 
1922), daughter of John Edward Liddiard, 
civil engineer, of Swindon. Like his father, 
Bone was fiercely independent, and force- 
ful in expression. Rugged in appearance 
and above the average in stature, he had 
a positive and dominant personality which 
inevitably led him into controversies; 
nevertheless many of those who disagreed 
with him admired his character. He 
had wide interests and a memory richly 
stocked with Icnowledge. He was a 
staunch supporter of the policy of free 
trade. 

[The Times, 13 June 1938 ; Obituary Notices 
of Fellows of the Royal Society, No. 7, January 
1939 (portrait) ; personal knowledge.] 

A. C. Egerton. 

BOOT, JESSE, first Baron Trent 
(1850-1931), man of business and philan- 
thropist, was born in Nottingham 2 June 
1850, of humble origin. His lineage has 
been traced back to one Richard Boote of 
Diseworth, Leicestershire, who died in 
1577. But he himself liked to recall that 
he was the grandson of an agricultural 
labourer: his family had lived for over 150 
years in various Nottinghamshire villages. 



86 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Borden 



He was the only son of John Boot, by his 
second wife, Mary, daughter of Benjamin 
Wills, of Nottingham. His father traded 
as a herbalist in Nottingham, and died 
when his son was ten years old. Three 
years later Jesse left school and took 
complete control of the shop. He devoted 
all his spare time to the study of pharmacy, 
but it was not until he was twenty-seven 
that he opened his first chemist's shop in 
an adjoining street. His untiring energy 
made this venture a success, and after 
turning his business into a limited liability 
company in 1888, he went on opening new 
shops until he had built up the largest 
retail chemists ' undertaking in the world. 

In middle age Boot had a complete 
breakdown in health. A description which 
he gave of his early days, of the work 
which he did, and of the hours which he 
kept, makes it no surprise that his health 
gave way, but remarkable that he lived 
at aU. He says that after being busy all 
day in the shop, he had usually hours of 
writing to do. Later on when there were 
branches to manage, he would work at 
stocktaking all through the night for a 
fortnight on end. He was so worn out that 
when he was thirty-six, anyone could have 
bought his business very cheap. When he 
was -fifty an insidious disease, ossification 
of the muscles, set in, crippling him so 
hopelessly that he had to be carried about 
like a child. But this disability did not 
affect his working powers: his business 
and philanthropic labours increased with 
his malady. He owed much to his wife, 
for she was a woman of remarkable judge- 
ment and business capacity, and her 
assistance was of the greatest value to him. 

In 1892 Boot's company began the 
manufacture of its own drugs and other 
commodities. Large modern factories were 
built at Nottingham, and the business, 
both retail and wholesale, grew rapidly. A 
new idea was the opening in his shops of 
other 'lines', circulating libraries, restau- 
rants, jewelry, silver, and art departments. 
During the war of 1914-1918 the company 
rendered notable service by supplying the 
troops with effective respirators for resist- 
ing poison gas, and millions of tablets for 
sterilizing water. In 1920 Boot sold the 
controlling interest in his Pure Drug 
Company to the United Drug Company of 
America, and a few years later he retired 
from business, to be succeeded as chairman 
of all his companies by his only son. 

Boot's benefactions to Nottingham were 
on the most munificent scale, and cannot 
have fallen far short of £2,000,000. His 



greatest gift was the new University 
College at Highfields, together with the 
park of several hundred acres in which it 
stands. Part of this park was devoted to 
the public, and used for sports and games. 
He made other gifts to the city, and con- 
tributed handsomely to other good causes. 
In recognition he received the freedom of 
Nottingham in 1920. He was a man of 
plain, straightforward character, and his 
wealth afforded him welcome opportunities 
of extended social service. 

Boot was knighted in 1909 and created 
a baronet in 1917. In 1929 he was raised 
to the peerage as Baron Trent, of Notting- 
ham. He married in 1886 Florence Anne, 
daughter of William Rowe, of St. Heliers, 
Jersey, and had one son and two daughters. 
He died at Millbrook, Jersey, 13 June 
1931, and was succeeded as second baron 
by his son, John Campbell (born 1889). 

Portraits of Boot, by Denholm Davis, 
at the ages of sixty and seventy, are 
respectively in the possession of the 
second Lord Trent and of the Dowager 
Lady Trent. A bust, by C. L. J. Doman, 
stands outside the Nottingham University 
College gates. 

[The Times, 15 June 1931.] 

Alfred Cochrane. 

BORDEN, Sir ROBERT LAIRD 

(1854-1937), Canadian statesman, was 
born on a farm near Grand Pre in Nova 
Scotia 26 June 1854, the eldest surviving 
son of Andrew Borden, by his wife, 
Eunice Jane, daughter of John Laird, 
schoolmaster, of Grand Pre, who was of 
Scottish descent. His father, a farmer at 
the time of Robert's birth, was later 
station-master on the railway at Grand 
Pre. His great-grandfather. Perry Borden , 
of Kentish descent, emigrated from Massa- 
chusetts to Nova Scotia about 1763. His 
mother's father was a classical scholar and 
mathematician. Robert Borden was edu- 
cated at Acacia Villa Academy, Horton, 
and taught classics and mathematics in 
Nova Scotia and New Jersey at an early 
age. At nineteen he was apprenticed to the 
law in Halifax, where he later practised. 
He was called to the bar in 1878 and 
took silk in 1891. At twenty-eight his 
income was large and, despite his political 
preoccupations, he remained a practising 
lawyer until his fifties. 

An industrious and able lawyer, Borden 
hoped for a judicial position. He entered 
parliament reluctantly (as conservative 
member for the city and county of Halifax 
in 1896), and never found it congenial, but 



87 



Borden 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



he soon became a front-bencher, and, in 
1901 at the age of forty-seven, on the 
resignation of Sir Charles Tupper [q.v.], 
leader of the conservative party, then in 
opposition. He always called himself a 
liberal conservative, being at heart a 
reformer. He was fascinated by the long 
constitutional development towards 
Canadian nationhood, a process which 
accelerated diu-ing his lifetime. He wanted 
a civil service free from patronage and 
doubted whether any real advance could 
have been made except under his so-called 
vmion government, which showed little 
'enthusiasm'. He wanted railways and 
water-powers nationahzed. Even in oppor^ 
sition he secured the initiation of free 
rural mails, and curbed corruption in 
elections. His Halifax manifesto (1907) 
called for other reforms: reform of the 
Senate ; closer supervision of immigration ; 
nationalization of telephones and tele- 
graphs ; a public utilities commission close- 
ly controlling corporations with national 
franchises; control of their natural re- 
sources by the western provinces; a 
protective tariff. Except that last named, 
such ideas did not attract conservatives ; 
Borden had to face mutinies in his own 
party. Besides, the great prosperity of Can- 
ada since 1896 had made the liberals, under 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier [q.v.], very strong. 

Two clouds now appeared in the political 
sky: the threat of national bankruptcy 
through extravagant railway building and 
the threat of war in Europe. The election 
of 1908 revealed an ebb in liberal fortvmes. 
In the 1909 session a further loan to the 
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway was keenly 
debated, Borden maintaining that since 
the taxpayers had put about $250,000,000 
into the enterprise — nine-tenths of the 
cost — the government should expropriate. 
But the question of naval defence over- 
shadowed all others. To a conservative 
resolution Laurier proposed a less definite 
amendment which, however, gave assur- 
ance that Canada, in emergency, would 
make any sacrifice required. Borden, 
urging a Canadian navy, feared that a 
crisis might come before it could be built. 
Laurier accordingly modified his amend- 
ment, which was passed unanimously. From 
the Imperial Conference of July 1909 two 
plans for a Canadian fleet unit emerged, 
one to cost £400,000 annually, the other 
£600,000. It soon appeared that Quebec 
conservatives were taking the same stand 
as Quebec nationalists in opposing any 
immediate action. This hardly justified 
the charge that 'the conservative party of 



Canada allied with Quebec isolationists 
to oust Laurier'. Borden had as much 
difficulty with conservatives elsewhere as 
with Quebec conservatives. The latter 
wanted him to do nothing; the former 
denounced his support, for unanimity's 
sake, of the resolution put forward by 
Laurier, who was experiencing the same 
division between Quebec liberals and 
liberals elsewhere. The double aspect of 
the case, the political necessity that the 
fleet unit, however smaU, be Canadian, 
preferably built in Canada, and the 
possibility of the outbreak of war before 
this unit could be ready, lent plausibility 
to the 'die-hards' of all parties. Few 
could be so isolated as to escape the din 
of Germany's naval preparations, but the 
government, in touch with the Admiralty, 
could best judge the risks. 

The naval defence bill of 1910, providing 
for eleven ships, to cost $11,000,000, 
passed by a majority of forty -one. During 
the same session a conservative cabal, 
outside Quebec, made Borden consider 
resignation. Meanwhile Laurier, touring 
the western provinces, was being heckled 
on his failure to redeem his promise of free ' 
trade. Now, it happened that in March 
1910 the United States of America had 
offered the Canadian government better 
tariff relations . Early in 1 9 11 the Canadian 
minister of finance divulged the famous 
reciprocity proposals. These were so close 
to what both parties had long sought that 
they seemed an overwhelming triumph for 
Laurier. But presently the banks, manu- 
facturers, and railways began a crusade 
against them; indiscreet utterances of 
American pubhc men set the Canadian 
heather afire; although the cabal against 
Borden was broken, there was a strong 
defection of liberals from the government. 
At the general election in September the 
conservatives won by a large majority, and 
Borden became prime minister: he held 
this position until his resignation, owing 
to ill health, in July 1920. The naval bill 
of 1912-1913, providing for an emergency 
contribution of capital ships to the British 
navy, was rejected by the Senate, still 
strongly Uberal. 

Borden has frequently been blamed for 
'splitting' Canada, especially by his con- 
scription measure during the war of 191 4- 
1918. The wisdom of conscription in 1917 
was certainly debatable in view of Canada's 
sudden industrialization, added to her 
great agricultural output. In the more 
perilous war of 1939-1945 a liberal govern- 
ment avoided it; but it may be doubted 



88 



D.N.B. 1931-1040 



Borden 



whether this latter course allayed sectional 
odium: certainly rioting in Quebec itself 
was not diminished. From Laurier's point 
of view it was an invitation to political 
suicide to decide upon conscription and 
then ask him to join a union government 
to enforce it. Nevertheless, Borden ran 
risks in forming in October a government 
equally divided, except for the premier- 
ship, between both parties. This govern- 
ment was given a mandate, in a general 
election, to proceed with conscription. If 
Borden erred, he erred with the large 
majority. 

In view of the frequent unqualified 
statement that it was Borden who 'split' 
Canada it may be best to set forth here 
his own considered statement, made at 
the close of his days, and before the 
outbreak of war in 1939 : 'The comparative 
failure of recruiting in Quebec was due, 
like most human events, to a variety of 
causes, and it would be difficult, in fact 
impossible, to assign to each cause its 
proportionate influence. 

'The Canadian of French descent is 
essentially a most desirable and useful 
citizen. He is devout, industrious, hard- 
working and frugal, thoroughly devoted 
to his people and his province and deeply 
attached to his family, his friends and his 
neighbours. To leave them for military 
service beyond the seas, to cross the ocean 
in unknown adventure made no appeal 
and seemed undesirable and indeed des- 
perate. Naturally his vision was not very 
wide and sometimes it did not extend far 
beyond the boimdaries of his parish. He 
had an unbounded belief in the invincible 
power of Great Britain and regarded the 
co-operation of Canada as useless and 
futile as well as burdensome. It was no 
lack of courage that held back these people 
from enlistment. Those who went overseas 
proved themselves worthy of their descent 
from a fighting and heroic race. 

'One might suppose that the savagery 
of German warfare against the French 
people would have aroused her kindred in 
Quebec, but the clergy had been alienated 
from their natural sympathy by confisca- 
tion of religious houses and property and 
by the growth of atheistic outlook and 
tendency in France. The Quebec peasant 
was sometimes told that the sufferings of 
the French people were just retribution 
for the imholy spoliation and humiliation 
of the Church in France.' [Memoirs, 
pp. 612-613.] 

From 1763 onward the 'split' has been 
there. It was not just chance that Borden, 



a native of Grand Pre, whence the French 
settlers, or Acadians, were expelled, failed, 
despite great efforts, to bridge the rift 
between Quebec and the rest of Canada. 
Quebec has dominated all Canadian life in 
war and peace. The French-Canadians — 
Laurier was a notable exception, and there 
have been thousands of other exceptions, 
among the less eminent — have adopted all 
the liberties and constitutional privileges 
won in the secular development in Great 
Britain, but have adopted them to their 
own purposes, showing little consciousness 
of the responsibility entailed. The legacy 
of modern France they have never acknow- 
ledged. Few patriotic men have been so 
little tainted with bigotry, religious or 
racial, as Borden, who loved the French, 
read their Uterature from an early age, 
and finally spoke their language fluently. 
He and Laurier respected one another 
highly. 

It was Laurier's fortune, early in his 
premiership, to experience an 'Imperial' 
war in the southern hemisphere. The 
expediency and morality of that war were 
debated far more in Great Britain itself 
than in Canada. But it was not a war 
requiring a levy en masse, nor did it bring 
Britain's naval supremacy into question. 
It was Borden's fortune to be premier 
when a long expected war broke out, a 
war which threatened Britain's very 
existence, but which was fought largely on 
French soil, on behalf of the French people. 
If any war, short of the invasion of Quebec 
itself, could have united Canada it was 
the war of 1914-1918. Its failure to do so 
does not reflect on Borden's statesmanship. 
Indeed, few Canadians have so richly 
deserved the title of 'statesman' as did 
he; few Canadians have played so large 
a part in making Canada a nation, 
and for the consummation of unity in 
Canada no idle word of his will have to be 
forgotten, no mistaken action to be 
forgiven. 

One marked characteristic merits an 
added word. Steady judgement and 
critical power are not common virtues, 
especiaUy in public men. Borden was a 
critic and a courageous one. No one 
described more trenchantly than he the 
withering away of interest in education in 
his native province, or the general phleg- 
matic unconcern of Canadians about 
the evils of corruption, and the spoliation 
of the public domain. Generous with 
praise, putting the best construction on 
the motives of others, ready to work with 
men of every type for the conmion good. 



80 



Borden 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



he yet recorded, even of men still living 
while he wrote, faults which made them 
dangerous. Sometimes he did not mince 
words, but the wickedest Canadian he met 
in high places was blasted with an 
understatement : ' untrustworthy ' . 

Borden attended the Imperial Confer- 
ence of 1917. He was chief Canadian pleni- 
potentiary at the Paris Peace Conference 
in 1919 and he represented Canada at the 
Washington Conference of 1921-1922 and 
Great Britain in the arbitration with Peru 
conducted in Paris in 1922. He also 
represented Canada on the Council of the 
League of Nations, and was chief Canadian 
delegate at the Assembly in 1930. He was 
the author of several books, including 
Canadian Constitutional Studies (1921), 
Canada in the Commonwealth (1929), and 
his Memoirs up to the year 1920 (published 
posthumously in 1938). He was sworn of 
the Privy Council in 1912 and appointed 
G.C.M.G. in 1914. His many academic 
and other distinctions included the chan- 
cellorship of McGill University (1918- 
1920) and of Queen's University, Kingston 
(1924-1929), and honorary degrees from 
numerous British and Canadian univer- 
sities. He married in 1889 Laura (died 
1940), yoimgest daughter of Thomas 
Henry Bond, of Halifax, and had no 
children. He died at Ottawa 10 June 1937. 

There is a portrait of Borden by Dorothy 
Vicagi (1925) in the Law Courts, Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, and another, by John 
MacgiUivray, is at Acadia University, 
Wolfville, Nova Scotia. 

[The Times, 11 June 1937; Robert Laird 
Borden, his Memoirs, edited by H. Borden, 
2 vols., 1938 ; O. D. Skelton, Life and Letters 
of Sir Wilfrid Laurier (New York), 1922 ; 
R. M. Dawson, The Civil Service of Canada, 
1929; 'Borden and Canadian Nationhood' in 
Canadian Forum, July 1937 ; Hansard, Parlia- 
mentary Debates ; personal knowledge.] 

Carleton Stanley. 

BOSANQUET, ROBERT CARR 

(1871-1935), archaeologist, was born 7 
June 1871 in London where his father, 
Charles Bertie Pulleine Bosanquet, of Rock 
Hall, near Alnwick, the eldest brother of 
Bernard Bosanquet [q.v.], was then acting 
as honorary secretary to the recently 
formed Charity Organisation Society. His 
mother, Eliza Isabella, eldest daughter of 
Ralph Carr (afterwards Carr-EUison), 
belonged to a well-known Northumbrian 
family, the Carrs of Dunston Hill, co. 
Durham, and Hedgeley, Northumberland. 
Robert was the elder son in a family of 
eight children. 



After a brilliant career as a king's scholar 
at Eton, where he won the Newcastle 
scholarship, Bosanquet, as a scholar of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, attracted at- 
tention by his light verse, the felicities of 
which lived long in the memories of his con- 
temporaries, and was awarded a first class 
in both parts of the classical tripos (1882 and 
1884). As Craven student (1895-1897) he 
went to Greece and visited museums on the 
continent, following this with the excava- 
tion of Housesteads on the Roman Wall in 
1898, the results of which he published in 
'The Roman Camp at Housesteads' 
{Archaeologia ^liana, vol. xxv, 1904). 
These activities led to his being offered 
the post of assistant to Ernest Gardner 
[q.v.], then director of the British School 
of Archaeology in Athens, and in 1900 he 
himself became director. The next six 
years were spent almost entirely in Greek 
lands, developing the activities of the 
school in Athens and supervising its ex- 
cavations on the islands of Melos (Phyla- 
kopi), Crete (PraesosandPalaikastro), and 
on the mainland of Greece (Sparta). 

In 1905 the death of his father made it 
advisable for Bosanquet to live within 
reach of the Northumbrian estate to which 
he now succeeded. He therefore resigned 
the post at Athens and in 1906 he was 
appointed to the newly established chair 
of classical archaeology in the university 
of Liverpool. With congenial colleagues 
and generous financial backing an Institute 
of Archaeology was soon built up . Although 
Egypt, Greece, and Crete were the chief 
fields of research, a beginning was also 
made on the excavation of Roman sites 
in Wales, his appointment enabling him 
to spend one term in travel or excavation. 

When, therefore, war broke out in 1914, 
Bosanquet was involved in a variety of 
interests, domestic and professional, and 
he had gained a European reputation. He 
at once put his knowledge of the Near 
East at the disposal of the War Office, but 
met with no response, and he was glad to 
be attached to that part of the Friends ' 
Emergency Committee which was working 
for the defeated Serbs in Albania and 
Corfu. In July 1916 he was sent to 
Salonika as agent of the Serbian Relief 
Fund and remained there until his health 
broke down after attacks of malaria and 
enteric. For this mission and for his work 
in Greece he received the Serbian order of 
St. Sava and the Greek order of the 
Redeemer. 

In 1920 Bosanquet resigned his chair at 
Liverpool and thenceforth until his death, 



90 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Bottomley 



which took place at Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
21 April 1935, he lived at his Northum- 
brian home, Rock Moor, an adapted farm- 
house on the estate, in a 'retirement' 
which never gave him the leisure which he 
needed to write the books on Roman trade 
routes and on the Covenanters in Nor- 
thumberland for which he had collected 
material. 

Bosanquet married in 1902 Ellen Sophia, 
third and youngest daughter of Thomas 
Hodgkin, the historian [q.v.], and had 
two sons and four daughters. 

[Personal knowledge.] 

E. S. Bosanquet. 

BOTTOMLEY, HORATIO WILLIAM 

(1860-1933), journalist and financier, the 
only son of William King Bottomley, a 
tailor's foreman, and his wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of George Holyoake, engineer, 
of Birmingham, and sister of George Jacob 
Holyoake [q.v.], was born in his father's 
house in Bethnal Green 23 March 1860. 
Sidney Theodore Felstead writes that some 
little time before he died, Bottomley told 
James Douglas that he was in fact though 
not in law the son of Charles Bradlaugh 
[q.v.] whom he strikingly resembled, but 
his birth certificate is reproduced by 
Henry James Houston, who describes him 
as deeply attached in earlier years to the 
memory of his father W. K. Bottomley. 
He lost both parents before he was five 
years old and was placed by his uncle 
G. J. Holyoake in the Sir Josiah Mason 
Orphanage at Erdington. He ran away 
at the age of fourteen, and after a year or 
two as an errand boy served in a London 
solicitor's office for five years and as a 
shorthand writer in the Supreme Court of 
Judicature for three further years; this, 
supplemented by Bradlaugh, who intro- 
duced him to the world of books, was the 
effective part of his education. 

In 1880 Bottomley married Eliza, 
daughter of Samuel Norton, a debt- 
collector, of Battersea (where Bottomley 
was then living), whence they moved to 
the City, and then to Clapham where he 
was ' a pillar of the Methodist Church ' and 
in private a virulent atheist. He entered 
the printing business and in 1884 started 
a small suburban weekly, the Hackney 
Hansard. Its success encouraged him to 
establish others of the same nature, and 
in 1889 he promoted the Hansard Publish- 
ing Union with a capital of £500,000. It 
failed in 1891 and left him bankrupt. He 
was charged with conspiracy to defraud 
and, stimulated by Bradlaugh' s example, 



he defended himself and was acquitted. 
Mr. Justice Hawkins (afterwards Lord 
Brampton, q.v.) who tried the case (Janu- 
ary-April 1893) was so much impressed 
by Bottomley 's conduct of it that he urged 
him to study law, but not obtaining 
admission to any Inn of Court, he plunged 
with surprising audacity into finance. He 
founded the Joint Stock Trust and Insti- 
tute and floated a number of gold-mining 
companies (Associated Gold Mines of West 
Australia, Great Boulders Proprietary 
Gold Mines, West Australian Loan and 
Finance Corporation, etc.) and other enter- 
prises (one appropriately called Nil Des- 
perandum Mines) few of which paid the 
shareholders. In little over ten years he 
promoted nearly flifty companies with a 
total capital of over £20,000,000, and he 
says that his name ' constantly cropped up 
in the Courts', rarely with reverence. In 
five years (1901-1905) sixty-seven bank- 
ruptcy petitions and writs were filed 
against him. In 1897 his photograph 
appeared in a series of 'Men of Millions' 
in the Financial Times. It was estimated 
that he made £3,000,000 by promoting 
companies. 

Bottomley' s astonishing success made 
him equally reckless in venture and 
expenditure. He started a racing stable 
in 1898 and although he won the Cesare- 
witch, the Stewards ' Cup, and other prizes 
of the turf, squandered very large sums 
on racing and gambling, theatrical adven- 
tures, newspaper enterprises, lawsuits, a 
very costly country house. The Dicker, at 
Hailsham in Sussex, a luxurious flat in 
Pall Mall, and a villa in France, all of 
which, together with lavish expenditure on 
travelling, entertaining, and gifts , absorbed 
most of his income. According to his 
secretary, their joint expenses on the 
journey to Brighton and back would 
amount to £25. Apart from finance, 
Bottomley was a journalist and speaker 
of great ability, and by these gifts alone 
could have made a very large income. He 
bought the Sun in 1898 and he founded 
John Bull with an expenditure of £96,000 
(a large part of which was supplied by 
Ernest Terah Hooley) in 1906. When the 
Sunday Pictorial was established in 1915 
he was engaged at £100 an article. He got 
this increased later, though he now 
employed others to write articles for him 
at one-fourth of his fee, and he sacrificed 
his position to foimd an illustrated weekly 
of his own which failed. He had no apti- 
tude for the business management of a 
newspaper. He was elected liberal member 



91 



Bottomley 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



for South Hackney in 1906; but his 
financial methods were now being gravely 
questioned, and in 1907 the shareholders 
of the Joint Stock Trust petitioned for the 
liquidation of the concern. The officials 
spent eighteen months in examining his 
books, the more important of which were 
missing, but when he was charged with 
fraud at the Guildhall in 1909 he secured 
an acquittal. His skill and wit in court 
drew crowds at all his cases and generally 
baffled leading coimsel, but he lost a case 
in which Mrs. Cvui;is sued him for £50,000 
which he had got from her aged father 
and lost his appeal. 

By 1911 Bottomley 's financial position 
was so desperate that he presented a 
petition in bankruptcy disclosing liabilities 
to the extent of £233,000 and £50,000 
assets and in 1912 he applied for the 
Chiltern Hundreds. His country house 
and French viUa were foimd to be in his 
wife's name, and he made large sums by 
organizing lotteries and sweepstakes on 
sporting events. The outbreak of war in 
1914 gave him a new opportunity. He 
told friends that he would break with his 
' sordid past ' and his inmunerable patriotic 
speeches (for each of which he got at 
least £50) and the articles in the Sunday 
Pictorial gave him a national reputation. 
His popularity stimulated again his 
financial audacity and in 1915 he began to 
organize the enterprises which eventually 
ruined him. He received subscriptions to 
the extent of nearly £900,000 and in 1918 
he paid off his old creditors, was relieved 
from his bankruptcy, and again won his 
seat at South Hackney, this time as an 
independent, with a huge majority. But 
the very complicated affairs of his new 
enterprises were already arousingsuspicion, 
and demands for repayment began to pour 
in. An associate with whom he quarrelled 
issued a very defamatory pamphlet and 
in the course of his action for criminal 
libel, in which he did not succeed, there 
were ominous revelations. When friends 
warned him he said that if there were any 
proposal to prosecute him, fifty thousand 
ex-servicemen would march on West- 
minster. Chancery appointed a receiver 
to examine his enterprises and in March 
1922 he was charged at Bow Street with 
fraudulent conversion and was committed 
for trial. In May he was found guilty on 
twenty-three counts out of twenty-four 
and sentenced to seven years' penal 
servitude. On his appeal being rejected, 
he was formally expelled from the House 
of Commons in August. He was released 



in 1927, but all his confident efforts at 
rehabilitation, which included founding a 
new weekly, John Blunt (1928), failed, and 
his wife, who had always loyally supported 
him, died in 1930. He passed into want 
and obscurity, and died in London 26 May 
1933. He had one daughter. 

{The Times, 27 May 1933 ; Bottoinley's Book 
(his autobiography), 1909; H. J. Houston, 
The Real Horatio Bottomley, 1923; S. T. 
Felstead, Horatio Bottomley, 1936 ; personal 
knowledge.] E. S. P. Haynes. 

BOURNE, FRANCIS ALPHONSUS 

(1861-1935), cardinal, was born at Clap- 
ham 23 March 1861, the younger child and 
son of Henry Bourne, a principal clerk 
in the Post Office, by his wife, Ellen, 
daughter of John Byrne, a Dublin mer- 
chant. Religious interests dominated in 
their home. St. Cuthbert's College, Ushaw, 
near Durham, was the school chosen for 
the two brothers, but after the death in 
1874 of the elder boy, Francis was removed 
in the following year to St. Edmund's 
College, Ware. After reading philosophy 
he went, in 1880, to St. Thomas's seminary 
at Hammersmith to begin his theological 
course, and thence to St. Sulpice in Paris. 
The training there had a marked influence 
on his spiritual development. He was a 
painstaking student though not marked 
by great depth of learning. In Paris he was 
ordained deacon by (Cardinal) Richard, 
archbishop of Paris, in 1883, and after 
some months spent at Lou vain University, 
he received the priesthood at St. Mary's 
church, Clapham, in 1884. 

After several brief curacies. Bourne 
went, in 1887, to West Grinstead, Sussex, 
where his work included some responsi- 
bility for the boys of an orphanage. He 
took a personal interest in his charges and 
gave Latin lessons to some who seemed 
likely to be suitable candidates for the 
priesthood. The bishop of Southwark, 
John Butt, had decided to found a college 
for the training of his future clergy, but 
had difficulty in finding suitable teachers. 
Bourne was recommended to him as one 
interested in fostering vocations among 
boys, and the bishop opened a house of 
studies at Henfield Place, Sussex, in 1889 
and put Bourne in charge. He took with 
him a few of the boys whom he had begun 
to teach at West Grinstead. Meanwhile a 
permanent college was being built at 
Wonersh, near Guildford. In 1891 the 
Henfield school was transferred there and 
Bourne became the first rector of the new 
diocesan seminary. He was appointed a 



92 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Bourne, G. C. 



domestic prelate to Pope Leo XIII at 
Easter 1895. 

Bishop Butt was in failing health and 
petitioned the Holy See for a coadjutor 
with the right of succession to the bishopric 
of South wark. Bourne, his nominee, was 
consecrated titular bishop of Epiphania 
by Herbert Cardinal Vaughan [q.v.] in 
1896. He was thirty -five years of age and 
quite unknown to the diocesan clergy. He 
remained at Wonersh as rector while 
assisting in the episcopal oversight of the 
diocese. Within a year Butt resigned and 
Bourne succeeded him. This necessitated 
his residence in south London where the 
work of the large parishes was new to him. 
Although shy and resers'cd, he gave himself 
entirely to his many new tasks with much 
success. 

In August 1903, while still the youngest 
bishop on the bench, Bourne was translated 
to the archiepiscopal see of Westminster 
in succession to Cardinal Vaughan. There 
he had to deal with larger problems, for 
he was now leader of the Roman Catholic 
bishops of England and Wales, West- 
minster until 1911 being the only archi- 
episcopal see of the Roman Catholic 
Church in this country. His new duties 
brought him into contact with various 
government departments and he had to 
represent the Holy See in its relations 
with the British government when Roman 
Catholic interests within the Empire were 
at issue. Westminster Cathedral was not 
yet open for divine service and Bourne 
was not enthroned until December 1903. 

The education question loomed large 
throughout Bourne's episcopate and caused 
him much anxiety. Some measure of 
justice had been done to the voluntary 
schools by the Balfour Act of 1902, but the 
liberal government of 1906 was pledged 
to important changes. Bourne's steady 
leadership saved the volvmtary schools for 
forty years. 

In September 1908 the International 
Eucharistic Congress was held at West- 
minster and its great success was due to 
the organizing ability of the archbishop. 
June 1910 saw the consecration of 
Westminster Cathedral. 

Bourne was created cardinal priest with 
the titular church of Santa Pudenziana at 
the consistory of November 1911 . He was 
twice legate of the pope, in May 1931 at 
Rouen for the Joan of Arc celebrations, 
and at the consecration of Buckfast Abbey 
church in August 1932. 

A man of prayer and of deep spirituality. 
Bourne's conception of the episcopal office 



was very high. He was a great pastor. No 
orator, his straightforward utterances were 
everywhere received with respect. His 
only published work, apart from sermons 
and pastoral letters, was his book Eccle- 
siastical Training (1926). He received 
honorary degrees from the universities of 
Lou vain and Oxford. 

After occupying the see for over thirty- 
one years Bourne died at Westminster 
1 January 1935 and was buried at St. 
Edmtind's College, Ware. He had a great 
love for the college, where part of his 
studies had been made and where the 
Westminster clergy are trained. His bene- 
factions to it were of princely munificence 
and he may well be called its second 
founder. 

A portrait of Bourne, by A. Chevallier 
Tayler (1934), is at Archbishop's House, 
Westminster. 

[Ernest Oldmeadow, Francis, Cardinal 
Bourne, 2 vols., 1940-1944; personal know- 
ledge.] W. J. Wood. 



BOURNE, GILBERT CHARLES 

(1861-1933), zoologist and oarsman, was 
born at Grafton Manor, Worcestershire, 
5 July 1861, the second son of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Robert Bourne, 54th Regiment, 
of Cowarne Court, near Ledbury, by his 
wife, Anna Eliza, youngest daughter of 
Samuel Baker, of Lypiatt Park, Glouces- 
tershire. He was educated at Eton and at 
New College, Oxford, where he gained an 
exhibition in natural science. He rowed in 
the winning university crews of 1881 and 
1882. While still an luidergraduate he 
studied at Freiburg-im-Breisgau imder 
August Weismann. On his return to 
Oxford he obtained a first class in natural 
science in 1885. After making a scientific 
study of the atoll of Diego Garcia, in the 
Indian Ocean, he was elected to a fellow- 
ship at New College in 1887. Shortly 
afterwards he acted for two years as the 
first director of the Marine Biological 
Laboratory at Plymouth. He returned to 
Oxford and in 1906 was elected to the 
Linacre chair of zoology and comparative 
anatomy with a fellowship at Merton 
College, both of which he held until 1921, 
when he succeeded to his father's property 
in Herefordshire. 

Bourne's early researches in Diego 
Garcia were concerned with the origin of 
coral reefs. He attributed the formation 
of atolls in the Indian Ocean to the rapid 
growth of corals round the edges of sub- 
merged banks. He denied Darwin's theory 
of reef-formation by subsidence, and 

93 



Bourne, G. C. 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



considered that the lagoon within an atoll 
was present from the time when the grow- 
ing coral first reached the surface in a ring. 
Bourne's later zoological interests were 
largely determined by his visit to Diego 
Garcia. He made important studies on 
the structure, development, and classifica- 
tion of corals and related animals, and 
much of his work in this field has passed 
into the text-books. He also made detailed 
morphological studies of certain groups of 
mollusca. Although in later years his 
researches were mainly in morphology, 
yet his interests remained wide. He 
entered into the preformation-epigenesis 
controversy and wrote two articles of 
lasting value in defence of the cell-theory 
against the attack of Adam Sedgwick 
[q.v.]. His Introduction to the Study of the 
Comparative Anatomy of Animals (1900- 
1902) provided a fresh and readable 
approach to a subject that is often drily 
presented. He was a contributor to the 
Treatise on Zoology (1900-1909) by (Sir) 
E. R. Lankester [q.v.]. His writing was 
crisp, vigorous, and scholarly, and the 
illustrations to his morphological papers 
show considerable artistic ability. He was 
a stimulating teacher, and some of those 
who studied under him passed on to 
particularly successful careers in zoology. 
He served as a member of the advisory 
committee on fisheries of the development 
commission, and in 1931 was appointed 
chairman. He was elected F.R.S. in 1910. 
Apart from his scientific pursuits, 
Bourne devoted much time to boats and 
oarsmanship. He was an outstanding 
figxire in the rowing world as an oarsman 
and subsequently as an expounder of the 
theory and practice both of oarsmanship 
and the design of racing boats. He had 
imbibed at Eton the principles of Edmond 
Warre [q.v.], the founder of the orthodox 
style of rowing, but it is as a coach that he 
achieved renown. To his teaching of the 
correct method of applying muscular power 
is to be attributed the high position held by 
his college on the river for some fifty years, 
and many university crews owed much to 
his coaching in the early days of their 
training. His Text Book on Oarsmanship 
(1925), a masterpiece of careful detail, was 
compiled with the help of mechanical 
experts and mathematicians who worked 
out innumerable experiments for him. By 
developing Warre's theories on the lines of 
racing eights, and from his own observa- 
tions of the streamlines of fish, he con- 
sidered that the racing boat should have 
its greatest beam and draught much 



farther forward than was usual, so that the 
waves thrown off by the boat's entry into 
the water met exactly at the stern. This 
would eliminate any suction to impede 
the boat's progress, and undue friction on 
its sides. The main features of his design 
are now adopted by several designers of 
racing eights. 

Always a keen soldier, Bourne rose to 
be second in command of the 4th battalion 
of the King's Shropshire Light Infantry 
during the South African war. He repre- 
sented the university of Oxford on the 
committee appointed by the War Office in 
1906 to consider the provision of an 
Officers' Training Corps, which proved of 
the greatest value on the outbreak of war 
in 1914. In that war he was appointed 
superintending officer of the young officers' 
company of the 12th Reserve Infantry 
Brigade. 

Bourne married in 1887 Constance 
Margaret Graham, eldest daughter of Sir 
John Frederick Croft, second baronet, of 
Dodington Place, Kent, and had a son, 
Robert Croft Bourne [q.v.], and a daugh- 
ter. He died at Tubney Warren House, 
near Abingdon, 9 March 1933. 

[The Times, 10 March 1933 ; G. C. Bourne, 
Memories of an Eton Wet Bob of the Seventies, 
1933 ; Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal 
Society, No. 2, December 1933 (portrait); 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 

John R. Baker. 

C. M. Pitman. 

BOURNE, ROBERT CROFT (1888- 
1938), poUtician and oarsman, was born 
at Dodington Place, Kent, 15 July 1888, 
the only son of Gilbert Charles Bourne 
[q.v.]. At Eton he rowed in the eights of 
1906 and 1907; at New CoUege, Oxford, 
where he obtained a second class in 
modern history (1911), his chief renown 
was gained on the river, as he was the first 
stroke of a university crew to win the boat 
race in four successive years. In April 
1909, at the end of his third term. Bourne 
confounded the riverside critics by win- 
ning the race with a spurt which revealed at 
once his powers of leadership, his immense 
reach, and his nice sense of rhythm. His 
last university race (1912) became famous 
by both boats being swamped in the pre- 
vailing hurricane, and was called off when 
Oxford, who at the Meadows were over- 
come by the fate that had befaUen Cam- 
bridge at Harrod's, were given unsolicited 
help by over-zealous spectators. The race 
was decided two days later. At Henley 
Bourne won the Stewards ' Cup three times 



94 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Boycott 



(1912-1914) and in 1912 stroked his college 
crew in the final of the Olympic regatta at 
Stockholm, 

After being called to the bar by Lincoln's 
Inn (1913), Bourne went in 1915 with his 
territorial battalion of the Herefordshire 
regiment to the Mediterranean and had 
one hand crippled and a lung seriously 
injured at Suvla Bay in August. Further 
active service being impossible (he had 
also while at school lost the sight of one 
eye when playing rounders during the 
summer holidays) Bourne, now a captain, 
served on the Claims Commission (1917) 
and on the Herefordshire County Council 
(1922). In 1923 he contested Oxford City 
as a conservative, and, on his opponent 
being unseated on petition, was returned 
at the resultant by-election (1924). He 
retained the seat vmtil his death. In the 
House of Commons, where he rose to be 
deputy chairman of ways and means 
(1931), Bourne's name was canvassed as a 
possible Speaker, for, although on the 
platform he filled his speeches with too 
much information for a popular audience, 
he earned the respect of all parties by his 
mastery of the rules of procedure, the 
clearness and quickness of his rulings, his 
skill as a draftsman, and, above all, by 
that same strict impartiality which had 
secured for him as president of the Oxford 
University Boat Club the complete con- 
fidence of his fellow oarsmen in the justice 
of his choices when making up his crews. 
He was sworn of the Privy Council in 1935. 
On 7 August 1938, while walking on the 
moors near Strontian, Argyll, he suddenly 
fell dead. 

Bourne married in 1917 Lady Hester 
Margaret, eldest daughter of Wilfrid 
Dallas Cairns, fourth Earl Cairns, and had 
two sons and one daughter who all 
survived him. 

A cartoon of Bourne by 'Ape Junior' 
appeared in Vanity Fair 29 March 1911. 

[The Times, 9 August 1938 ; private informa- 
tion ; personal knowledge.] 

L. G. WiCKHAM Legg. 

BOYCOTT, ARTHUR EDWIN (1877- 
1938), pathologist and naturalist, was 
born at Hereford 6 April 1877, the third 
son of William Boycott, solicitor, by his 
wife, Eliza Mellard. He was educated at 
Hereford Cathedral School, and gained a 
classical scholarship at Oriel College, 
Oxford, where, however, he read natural 
science, being awarded a first class in 
physiology in 1898. After election to a 
senior demyship at Magdalen in A900, he 



completed his medical training at St. 
Thomas's Hospital in 1902. In the last- 
named year he was elected to one of the 
last prize fellowships at Brasenose. The 
influence of three of his Oxford teachers, 
Sir J. S. Burdon-Sanderson [q.v.], J. S. 
Haldane [q.v.], and James Ritchie, fellow 
of New College, later first professor of 
bacteriology at Edinburgh University, 
never left him. 

Shortly after qualifying B.M. in 1902 
Boycott assisted Haldane in an inquiry 
into hookworm disease among Cornish 
miners (the subject of his Milroy lectures 
to the Royal College of Physicians in 1 91 1 ) , 
and later joined him in his investigations 
into the physiological effects of compressed 
and rarefied atmospheres. Between 1904, 
when he graduated D.M., and 1907 he was 
on the staff of the Lister Institute and 
published papers on the bacteriology of 
diphtheria and of the paratyphoid fevers. 
In 1907 he returned to Guy's Hospital 
(where he had been for a short time in 
1 903-1904) as Gordon lecturer in pathology 
and there began a series of investigations 
on the physiology and pathology of the 
blood which continued intermittently 
luitil his retirement. Independently, and 
with Dr. Claude Gordon Douglas, he 
studied the blood volume and its response 
to changes in environment and to disease. 
In later life he used to say that the experi- 
ment which had pleased him most was the 
demonstration that the rate of blood re- 
generation after haemorrhage was in in- 
verse proportion to the size of the animal. 
He returned to this subject many years 
later and showed that oxygen tension was 
the factor controlling haematopoiesis. It 
was on the basis of these and related obser- 
vations that he postulated the 'erythron', 
the circulating blood and haematopoietic 
tissues considered as a single organ. In 
1912 he was appointed professor of patho- 
logy in the luiiversity of Manchester and 
there he continued the work begun earlier 
on the function of the kidney in controlling 
the volume and composition of the blood . 
The war of 1914-1918 coincided with his 
appointment, in 1915, to the Graham chair 
of pathology in the university of London, 
which is held at University College Hospital . 
After serving on the Health of Munition 
Workers Committee he was commissioned 
in the Royal Army Medical Corps to work 
at the Chemical Warfare Experimental 
Station at Porton. He co-operated with 
(Sir) Joseph Barcroft and others in exten- 
sive experiments on the physiological 
action of toxic gases, but it was for him, a 



95 



Boycott 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



pacificist by conviction, a mof^t unhappy 
time. After the war he returned to 
University College Hospital where he spent 
the remainder of his working life; he 
retired, owing to ill health, in 1935. In his 
later years he published some addresses of 
a speculative nature which gave an 
accurate picture of his width of interest 
and originality of inquiry. 

Pathology was half of Boycott's life; 
natural history, conchology in particular, 
was the other. At the age of fifteen he 
published a catalogue of Herefordshire 
moUusca and until his death his chief 
recreation was the oecology of British 
land and freshwater snails, on which he 
published numerous papers. An offshoot 
of this interest was an inquiry into the 
genetics of left-handed twist in the shell of 
Lymnaea peregra which occupied several 
years and involved breeding over one 
million snails. 

Boycott was elected F.R.S. in 1914 and 
F.R.C.P. in 1926. In 1924 McGill Univer- 
sity conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of LL.D. For fifteen years he was 
assistant editor and for eleven editor of 
the Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. 
He was fluent and lucid as a writer and 
speaker but he was not a magnetic teacher 
of imdergraduates and had little influence 
on current medical practice. Apart from 
his contributions to knowledge his desire 
that pathology should be recognized as a 
science in its own right found expression 
in the Journal which he edited for so long 
and in the work of his pupils and close 
associates. He enjoyed well-mannered 
controversy but was a man of firm 
convictions and some odd prejudices. 

Boycott married in 1904 Constance 
Louisa, daughter of Colonel William Agg, 
of the (51st) King's Own Yorkshire Light 
Infantry, of Prestbury, near Cheltenham, 
and had two sons. He died at Ewen, 
Cirencester, 12 May 1938. 

[The Times, 18 May 1938 ; Obituary Notices 
of Fellows of the Royal Society, No. 7, January 
1939 (portrait); British Medical Journal, 
1938, vol. 1, p. 1133 (portrait); Journal of 
Pathology and Bacteriology, vol. xlvli, 1938 
(bibliography) ; private information ; personal 
knowledge.] J. A. Boycott. 



BRADFORD, Sm JOHN ROSE, 
baronet, of Mawddwy (1863-1935), physi- 
cian and physiologist, was born in London 
7 May 1863, the only son of Abraham Rose 
Bradford, by his wife, Ellen, daughter of 
Nicholas Littleton. Both parents came 



from Saltash, near Plymouth, where 
Littletons had for generations been general 
practitioners in the neighbourhood ; Abra- 
ham Bradford was a surgeon in the navy, 
finally attaining the rank of deputy . 
inspector-general of hospitals. I 

Bradford was educated at University * 
College School, London, and after a year 
spent at Bruges in learning French, he 
entered University College in 1881 as a 
medical student with an exhil)ition and 
began the close association with the college 
and hospital which lasted unbroken until 
his death. Here he met the inspiring 
teaching of (Sir) E. R. Lankester [q.v.], 
in zoology, in which he gained a first class 
in 1883 when he graduated B.Sc. The 
subject fascinated him ; to the end of his 
life he was a nature lover, and he would 
have preferred to continue that study had 
not lack of means compelled him to adhere 
to his original choice of medicine as a 
securer way to livelihood. Gold medals in 
anatomy and physiology in 1884 were 
followed in 1889 by the gold medal in 
medicine when he proceeded M.D. (Lond.). 
But time was also seized for laboratory 
research, and in 1885 (Sir) WiUiam 
Bayliss [q.v.] and he, yornig men of twenty- 
five and twenty-two respectively, pub- 
lished in the Proceedings of the Royal 
Society the first of a series of excellent 
papers on the electrical changes accom- 
panying nervous stimulation of the 
salivary glands. 

Allowing for a brief period of residence 
in 1886 as house physician, teaching in 
anatomy and research in physiology con- 
tinued to be Bradford's main occupation 
until 1889 when he was appointed to the 
staff of University College Hospital as 
assistant physician, with (Sir) Henry Head 
[q.v.] as his first clinical clerk. Thence- 
forward he gave first place to his clinical 
duties, and even sought special acquain- 
tance with nervous diseases by joining the 
staff of the National Hospital for Diseases 
of the Nervous System, Queen Square, as 
assistant physician from 1893 to 1896. 
But still he continued to press forward 
eagerly with fundamental researches in 
physiology that had no immediate refer- 
ence to clinical problems, and freedom to 
do so was given him by his success in 
obtaining certain research studentships, 
rareties at that time in London. Starting 
from the great scheme of the anatomical 
distribution of spinal nerves to viscera 
that had been unfolded in the illuminating 
paper of W. H. Gaskell [q.v.], in 1886, 
Bradford sought to analyse in precise 



96 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Bradford 



detail the physiology of this nervous 
supply. He began with the innervation of 
the blood-vessels of the lungs, and then 
passed to those of the kidneys. But he 
was soon outpaced by J. N. Langley [q.v.], 
who had also taken Gaskell's field for 
experimental study and, in advance on 
the routine methods of nerve stimulation, 
could also use his own discovery of the 
power of nicotine to paralyse and thus 
identify ganglion cells on the paths of the 
visceral nerves. 

Bradford now moved towards pathology 
and began a laborious study on dogs of 
the general changes caused by removal of 
a portion of the kidney substance. This 
was designed to answer some of the 
questions arising from clinical experience 
in man ; it focused his attention on kidney 
diseases, and in that branch of medicine 
he was thenceforward recognized as an 
authority. As professor-superintendent of 
the Brown Animal Institution from 1895 
to 1903 he carried on the great tradition of 
Sir Victor Horsley [q.v.] and (Sir) Charles 
Sherrington. The high quality of Brad- 
ford's physiological studies led to his 
election in 1894 as F.R.S. at the early age 
of thirty-one. He was elected F.R.C.P. in 
1897, and delivered the Goulstonian lecture 
in 1898, the Croonian lectures in 1904, and 
the Harveian oration in 192G. 

In 1900 Bradford became full physician 

with charge of wards at University College 

Hospital, and soon afterwards he ceased 

all sustained research. It was not that he 

sought time to secure the rewards of 

consulting practice, for after his marriage 

e no longer needed them, but he now 

eemed to prefer to devote himself to 

caching duties and especially to the 

dvance of scientific thought in medicine 

hrough work by other hands than his own. 

n both of these directions his influence 

as of high importance for British medi- 

me. He served on his hospital staff until 

923, and was one of the greatest clinical 

eachers in the history of that distinguished 

ichool. His formal lectures, delivered with 

ever a note or illustrative diagram, had 

.hat perfection of clarity and emphasis 

vhich makes an audience understand as 

veil as remember. He always sought to 

nake men think, and think with scientific 

exactitude resting on observed facts. In 

he wards there was no overbearing dogma, 

►ut rather an encouraging comradeship in 

he way in which he would seek to help 

is students. On one principle he stood 

rmly, that while medicine needed all 

ossible aid from such ancillary sciences 



as physiology or pathology, notliing could 
be accepted from animal experiments 
except by analogy: in the last resort 
clinical science could only rest on what 
was proved to occur in man himself. That 
point of view was not commonly held 
either by clinicians or scientific workers of 
his period in medicine. 

Friendship with (Sir) David Bruce 
[q.v.] aroused Bradford's interest in 
tropical medicine, and he sought clinical 
experience in that direction by serving as 
physician at the Seamen's Hospital at 
Greenwich from 1905 to 1919. In 1907 he 
became a member of the tropical diseases 
conunittee of the Royal Society, and in 
1908 he was foremost in planning the 
Sleeping Sickness Bureau which developed 
into the Tropical Diseases Bureau of the 
London School of Tropical Medicine. He 
was senior medical adviser to the Colonial 
Office from 1912 to 1924. 

In the Royal Society itself Bradford 
had the rare distinction of serving from 
1908 to 1915 as secretary on the biological 
side, a post that had not been entrusted to 
a practising physician for over eighty 
years. This enabled him to advance still 
further the relationship of the society 
with government departments, especially 
with regard to the study of tropical 
diseases. He was on the governing body 
of the Lister Institute from 1899 to 1918 
and chairman from 1912 to 1914, and the 
creation of the Beit Trust for fellowships 
in medical research in 1909 was entirely 
due to the guidance of Bradford and (Sir) 
James Kingston Fowler [q.v.]. 

On the outbreak of war Bradford reUn- 
quished all his interests in London and 
served in France from 1914 to 1919 as 
consulting physician to the British Expedi- 
tionary Force, with the rank of major- 
general, Army Medical Service, being 
appointed C.B. in 1915 and C.B.E. in 1919. 
Towards the end of that time he attempted 
a bacteriological study of some of the 
non-suppurative diseases prevalent in the 
army, and published his belief that his 
laboratory colleagues and he had di scovered 
the viruses of trench fever, nephritis, and 
influenza. Faulty technique was soon 
proved to have spofled the observations. 
This was the only error in aU Bradford's 
scientific work ; he felt it deeply. 

Returning to London, Bradford no 
longer took a chief part in the projects for 
the advancement of medical research. But 
his authority among clinicians was con- 
firmed by his election as president of the 
Royal College of Physicians (1926-1931) 



97 



Bradford 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



and it was a happy turn of fortune that 
in 1928 one with his true reverence for 
science conducted the College celebrations 
of the tercentenary of the publication of 
Harvey's De Motu Cordis. He was vice- 
chairman of the governing body of 
University College, London, from 1922 
to 1932, and chairman in 1932. He was 
appointed K.C.M.G. in 1911 and created 
a baronet in 1931. The universities of 
Cambridge, Edinburgh, Durham, Dublin, 
and Christiania conferred honorary degrees 
upon him. In 1924 he unsuccessfully 
contested the parliamentary seat of the 
university of London. 

Tall and austerely erect, with an air of 
authority in his approach, Bradford was 
surprisingly found to be a man of the 
warmest human feelings and ready acces- 
sibility. Organization was easy to him, 
for he united a most retentive memory 
with a clear judgement, and was not 
lightly swayed when once his resolution 
was formed. 

In 1899 Bradford married Mary (died 
1937), daughter of Thomas Ffoulkes 
Roberts, of Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire, 
sometime mayor of Manchester, and niece 
of the physician Sir William Roberts 
[q.v.] ; there was no issue of the marriage. 
He died in London 7 April 1935. 

A posthumous portrait of Bradford, by 
Randolph Schwabe, is in the library of 
University College Hospital medical 
school. 

[The Times, 8 April 1935 ; Obituary Notices 
of Fellows of the Royal Society , No. 4, December 
1935 (portrait) ; British Medical Journal, 1935, 
vol. i, p. 805; Lancet, 1935, vol. i, p. 906; 
personal knowledge.] T. R. Elliott. • 

BRADLEY, ANDREW CECIL (1851- 
1935), literary critic, was born at Chelten- 
ham 26 March 1851, the fourth and 
youngest son of Charles Bradley [q.v.], 
vicar of Glasbury, Brecknockshire, and 
incumbentof St. James's chapel, Clapham, 
by his second wife, Emma, daughter of 
John Linton, stockbroker, of Clapham. 
His father, of Yorkshire stock on both 
sides, was a distinguished cleric and notable 
preacher. Andrew Bradley was a younger 
brother of F. H. Bradley [q.v.], and a 
half-brother of G. G. Bradley [q.v.], who 
was in succession (head) master of Marl- 
borough, master of University College, 
Oxford, and dean of Westminster. 

Bradley was educated at Cheltenham 
College, and in 1869 went up to Balliol 
College, Oxford, as a classical exhibitioner. 
He was awarded a second class in classical 



moderations in 1871, but he followed this 
up with an excellent first class in literae 
humaniores in 1873. In 1874 he was 
elected to a fellowship at Balliol, and in 
1875 won the chancellor's English essay 
prize for an essay on 'Utopias, Ancient 
and Modern ' . Next year he was appointed 
a lecturer of the college, at first in English, 
and then, vmtil 1881, in philosophy. In 
this work he was in close contact with 
T. H. Green [q.v.], and, like all who came 
within the orbit of that wise and selfless 
teacher and had the temper to estimate 
him rightly, Bradley was deeply influenced. 
The Balliol of those days, under Jowett in 
his prime, was a brilliant and stimulating 
college, but the stimulus was perhaps at 
times a little feverish, and the atmosphere 
not wholly congenial to all, even among 
the ablest, of its members. 

In 1882 Bradley became the first occu- 
pant of the chair of literature and history 
at University College, Liverpool, and 
threw himself with ardour into a new and 
very busy life, grasping eagerly the rich 
opportunities which it offered, especially 
those of sharing with men and women 
whose lines had been cast in less pleasant 
places all that his own life and education 
had given him. On his evening classes 
and everything that had to do with adult 
education he spent himself unsparingly, 
and his lectures, on the testimony of many 
who heard them, were a revelation. To 
this period of his life belong his edition of 
T. H. Green's Prolegomena to Ethics (1883), 
with an analysis, and his Commentary 
on Tennyson's ^ In Memoriam\ which, 
although not pubhshed until 1901, was an 
expansion of lectures delivered to one of 
his evening classes at Liverpool. 

After eight strenuous years at Liverpool 
Bradley was elected to the chair of English 
language and literature at Glasgow Univer- 
sity, where, as a Glasgow student wrote, 
his 'brilliant dark eyes lighting up his 
pale black-bearded face and a voice that 
matched it in gentle sweetness, not less 
than his great intellectual gifts, gave him 
quite an unusual sway over the minds of 
his students'. In 1897 he edited, with a 
biographical sketch, the first volume of 
the Philosophical Lectures and Remains of 
R. L. Nettleship [q.v.]. In 1900 he retired 
to London, proposing to devote himself to 
his critical work in a leisure which his two 
professorships had precluded. But in 1901 
he was elected to the professorship of 
poetry at Oxford, and to that election we 
owe, at least in part, one of the great works 
of English criticism . Bradley was in the full 



98 



D.N.B. 1081-1940 



Bradley 



maturity of his powers, and doubtless 
Shakespearean Tragedy (1904) would have 
been a notable work under whatever con- 
ditions it had been written. But the 
professorship of poetry, light though its 
duties are if computed by the number of 
lectures that must be delivered, none the 
less imposes the duty of lecturing, and 
Shakespearean Tragedy, if written purely 
to be read, would have been a different 
work. Bradley needed precisely the 
stimulus of exposition before a living 
audience to put the last fine edge on his 
work. He was always a philosopher as 
well as a literary critic, and subtle intellec- 
tual distinctions were to him a delight, 
sometimes a temptation . But the challenge 
of an audience which was to be convinced 
by the spoken, not the written, word 
evoked from him the subtle persuasiveness 
of the orator, and enforced that limpid, 
relentless clarity of presentation in which 
he had no rival. 

Re-election to the chair of poetry in 
1906 was, to the general regret, statutorily 
impossible. He was offered the new King 
Edward VII chair of English literature at 
Cambridge, but declined it, and devoted 
the rest of his life to quiet work in London, 
with holidays spent among his beloved 
Alps^ which were one of the passions of 
his life. In 1907 and 1908 he delivered 
two courses of Gifford lectures at Glas- 
gow University, the former of which was 
published posthumously in 1940 as Ideals 
of Religion. In 1929 he published his 
Miscellany, from which, in spite of one 
brilliant paper on Tennyson, the fire had 
noticeably departed. He died, unmarried, 
in London 2 September 1935. He received 
honorary degrees from the universities of 
Glasgow, Edinburgh, Liverpool, and 
Durham, and was elected a fellow of the 
British Academy in 1907. At BaUiol 
College, of which he was elected an hono- 
jrary fellow in 1912, he foimded by his will 
la research fellowship, the aim of which is 
characteristic of his wisdom and his 
humanity. Looking back at his own 
career, he determined to secure for at 
least a few young men, who might later 
have some contribution to make to English 
letters, two or three unhurried years 
immediately after graduation in which to 
Rnd themselves, and not be rushed by 
economic pressure into posts which might 
be unsuitable, and which, even if academic, 
were likely, through pressure of admini- 
strative and tutorial routine, to cramp 
their development. He took a prominent 
part in the creation in 1906 of the English 



Association, of which he was president in 
1911. 

Bradley was one of the greatest of the 
English critics of Shakespeare, possibly 
the greatest. Even those who disapprove 
alike of his aims and of his methods 
reluctantly admit his stature, and his 
position is secure, above the shifting cur- 
rents of critical fashion . But it was criticism 
of Shakespeare alone that showed him at 
his best. As a critic of other writers he 
was workmanlike, penetrating, and often 
illuminating. It needed an outstanding 
artist and a full man to elicit the deepest 
powers of his keen mind and human heart. 
It is significant that in Oxford Lectures on 
Poetry (1909), together with a number of 
other pieces of able criticism, there are 
three lectures on Shakespeare which are 
of a different calibre and temper from the 
rest. One of them indeed, that on Antony 
and Cleopatra, is perhaps his croAvning 
achievement. 

Bradley never forgot that Shakespeare 
was a brilliantly successful Ehzabethan 
playwright. But he also never forgot, as 
some modern criticism is apt to forget, 
that he was a man of the most compre- 
hensive soul who put into his plays far 
more than was needed for his 'fellows' 
and Burbage to make a resounding box- 
office success. To censure Bradley for 
'finding in Shakespeare what Shakespeare 
never meant' is to mistake the way in 
which a great creative artist works. Of 
course Shakespeare put into his greater 
plays more than was needed for the two 
hours' traffic of the stage and the suffrages 
of the contemporary public. He put it 
there because he was Shakespeare, creating 
men and women, not marionettes. And it 
was with this overplus that Bradley was 
largely concerned. In the perhaps un- 
expected company of Johnson he felt 
Shakespeare's characters to be human 
beings with an existence of their own, and 
was eager to show Hamlet or Macbeth or 
Othello in his habit as he lived, not merely 
as he postured for the groundlings. The 
test of Bradley's method is the purely 
pragmatical test that it works, as with a 
more mechanical artist than Shakespeare 
it would not work. Of all English critics 
of Shakespeare he is the surest expositor 
of the 'supererogatory' Shakespeare, of all 
that makes Shakespeare one of the supreme 
interpreters of the human soul. 

Bradley always based his criticism on a 
precise and exhaustive knowledge of the 
text, so that even when a reader disagrees 
with the conclusions he cannot deny the 



99 



Bradley 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



premisses. His method is the Socratic 
method, 'let us see where the logos leads 
us'. The manner in which he presented 
his conclusions was, it may be supposed, 
inherited from his father. Like his father's 
sermons, Bradley's lectures are marked by 
'singular simplicity and force, and sus- 
tained dignity and purity of language'. 
Every now and then he rises to greater 
heights. The last paragraph of his lecture 
on Antony and Cleopatra (even though it 
contains an odd geographical blunder) has 
a fire and a secure complication of cadence 
that should ensure its inclusion in any 
anthology of English prose. 

There is a portrait of Bradley, by George 
Henry, in Glasgow University. 

[The Times, 4 September 1935; J. W. 
Mackail, Andrew Cecil Bradley, 1851-1935 in 
Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. xxi, 
1935 ; J. W. Mackail in Oxford Magazine, 17 
October 1935 ; personal knowledge.] 

M. Roy Ridley. 

BRAMWELL, Sir BYROM (1847- 
1931), physician, was born at North 
Shields 18 December 1847, the eldest son 
of John Byrom Bramwell, M.D., by his 
wife, Mary Young. At the age of eleven 
he was sent to Cheltenham College, where 
he spent seven years. On leaving school in 
1865 he went to Edinburgh University, in 
order to study medicine, and there boarded 
for some time with William Stewart, the 
author of The Practical Angler, whose 
name has become even more familiar as 
the inventor of Stewart tackle . To Stewart, 
no doubt, he owed some of his skill as a 
fisherman. This hobby was destined to 
become his chief recreation during the busy 
years of his professional life. At Edinburgh 
he graduated with honours in 1869, and 
captained the university cricket eleven. 

After serving his time as house surgeon 
to James Spence [q.v.], in 1870 Bramwell 
refused the appointment of assistant to the 
professor of medicine as he felt it his duty 
to return to North Shields to assist his 
father, who was in poor health, in a busy 
general practice. 

When only twenty-five years of age 
Bramwell was appointed lecturer in medi- 
cal jurisprudence at University College, 
Durham, and in 1877 was awarded a gold 
medal for his thesis for the degree of M.D. 
In 1874 he went to live in Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, having been appointed physician and 
pathologist to the Newcastle Royal In- 
firmary, and having started practice as a 
consulting physician. Five years later he 
resigned his appointments in Newcastle 
on going to Edinburgh, where he was 



the first physician to start practice as a 
pure consultant. These early years in 
Edinburgh were an uphill struggle. Edin- 
burgh was then very conservative, and it 
was quite contrary to tradition for an 
Englishman to migrate and settle in prac- 
tice north of the Tweed. In his first twelve 
months his total income from consulting 
practice amounted to but five guineas, 
but this very fact was partly responsible 
for his subsequent success, since it gave 
him ample time for study and writing. In 
1879 he gave his first course of lectures on 
medicine at the Extra-mural School. In 
1882 he was appointed pathologist, in 
1885 assistant physician, and in 1897 
physician, to the Edinburgh Royal In- 
firmary, where his clinic became one of the 
most popular in the medical school. He re- 
tired in 1912. Amongst therapeutic experi- 
ments for which he was responsible were 
the use of arsenic in pernicious anaemia, 
massive doses of iron in anaemia, and thy- 
roid in psoriasis. 

During these strenuous years Bramwell's 
pen was never idle. In addition to some 
160 scientific papers he wrote several 
books on different branches of medicine, 
of which that on Diseases of the Spinal 
Cord (1881) was translated into German, 
French, and Russian, while several editions 
were published in the United States of 
America. His books on Diseases of the ji 
Heart and Thoracic Aorta {1884<), Intracran- 
ial Tumours (1888), and Anaemia and some 
of the Diseases of the Blood-forming Organs 
and Ductless Glands (1899) were widely' 
read at the time, and his Atlas of Clinical- 
Medicine (3 vols., 1892-1896) contains 
many beautiful coloured lithographic 
illustrations. Clinical Studies, published 
in eight volumes from 1903 to 1910, 
approached the subject from an original 
aspect, and their vitality gained for them 
a wide popularity throughout the English- 
speaking world. 

The universities of Edinburgh, St. 
Andrews, Birmingham, and Durham con- 
ferred honorary degrees upon Bramwell. 
He was elected F.R.S. (Edin.) in 1886. In 
1910 he was elected president of the Royal 
College of Physicians of Edinburgh, of 
which he had been a fellow since 1880, and , 
in 1923 president of the Association of 
Physicians of Great Britain and Ireland. 
He was elected F.R.C.P. (London) in 1923 
and was knighted in 1924 for his services 
to medicine. He was a foreign correspond- 
ing member of the Neurological Society of 
Paris and of the German and Philadelphia 
Neurological clubs. 



100 



D.N.B. 1981-1040 



Brentford 



Bramwell was a man of robust physique 
and boundless energy, a clear thinker with 
a flair for sifting evidence, picking out the 
important facts, and discarding those 
which were irrelevant. These gifts ren- 
dered him a born diagnostician and a 
brilliant clinical teacher, one who be- 
came outstanding even in the Edinburgh 
school. A keen athlete in his youth, and 
an expert trout fisherman, in the autumn 
of his life he enjoyed nothing better than 
watching cricket at Lords or an inter- 
national Rugby match at Murrayfield. 
Although he did not suffer fools gladly, he 
inspired admiration and affection in his 
subordinates, some of whom later attained 
considerable eminence in the profession. 
Their visits to his home in Edinburgh were 
always a joy to him. 

In 1872 Bramwell married his second 
cousin, Martha (died 1919), only child of 
Edwin Crighton, of North Shields, to 
whose lifelong unselfish devotion and able 
support he owed much of his success in 
the years to come. They had three sons 
and two daughters, the younger of whom 
predeceased her father. Clear in mind to 
the very end, the closing years of a full 
and happy life were absorbed by interest 
in his children and grandchildren, to whom 
he was intensely devoted. He died in 
Edinburgh 27 April 1931. 

Bramwell was presented in 1923 with 
his portrait, by David Alison, which hangs 
in the hall of the Royal College of 
Physicians of Edinburgh. 

[The Times, 28 April 1931 ; Proceedings of 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1930-1931, 
vol. 11, p. 224; British Medical Journal, 1931, 
vol. i, p. 823 (portrait) ; Lancet, 1931, vol. i, 
pp. 1057 and 1108 (portrait) ; private informa- 
tion ; personal knowledge.] 

J. Crighton Bramwell. 

BRENNAN, LOUIS (1852-1932), 
mechanical engineer, the son of Thomas 
Brennan, by his wife, Bridget McDonnell, 
was born (according to his own statement) 
at Castlebar, co. Mayo, 28 January 1852 
where he was christened Luis 2 April 
1852. While still a boy he was taken to 
Australia, and it was when he was living 
in Melbourne as a watchmaker that he 
devised the dirigible torpedo for coast de- 
fence for which his name is chiefly known. 

The invention was brought to the 
notice of the British government in 1880 
by Commodore J. C. Wilson, and Brennan 
was invited to come to England. He was 
provided with facilities on the Medway 
for the development of the weapon, re- 



ceiving an annual grant of £1,000 with a 
preliminary award of £5,000. In 1885 the 
torpedo was adopted by the government, 
which a year or two later purchased the 
exclusive rights for over £100,000. This 
figure was criticized as being excessive, 
but the commission which reconmiended 
the payment justified it on the groiuid 
that it was important not to allow the 
device to pass into the hands of other 
coimtries. In 1887 Brennan was appointed 
superintendent of the government factory 
at Gillingham, Kent, established for the 
manufacture of the torpedo, and held that 
position until 1896, subsequently acting, 
imtil 1907, as consulting engineer. His 
torpedo had two screws, revolving in 
opposite directions, and drums mounted 
on each propeller shaft were wound with 
wires the ends of which were connected 
with a high-speed engine on shore. Steering 
was effected by varying the rate at which 
the wires were unwound from one or other 
of the drums by the engine, so varying the 
relative speed of rotation of the screws. 

After the torpedo Brennan turned his 
attention to a monorail system of transport 
which depended on the use of self-propelled 
vehicles travelling on a single rail, or even 
a tightly stretched cable, and maintained 
upright by a high-speed gyrostat rotating 
in a vacuiun. He showed a model of this 
arrangement at a conversazione of the 
Royal Society in 1907 and later carried 
out trials with full-scale equipment, but 
the system did not come into practical use. 

During the war of 1914-1918 Brennan 
was employed in the munitions inventions 
department of the Ministry of Munitions, 
and from 1919 to 1926 he worked for the 
Air Ministry at the Royal Aircraft Estab- 
lishment, Farnborough, on the develop- 
ment of heUcopter flying machines. He 
was appointed C.B. in 1892 and elected an 
honorary member of the Royal Engineers ' 
Institute in 1906, and he was a foimder 
member of the National Academy of 
Ireland (1922). He married in 1892 Anna 
Mary (died 1931), daughter of Michael 
Quinn, of Castlebar, and had one son and 
two daughters. He died suddenly at 
Montreux 17 January 1932. 

[The Times, 21 and 26 January 1932; 
Engineering and Engineer, 29 January 1932 ; 
Nature, 13 February 1932; G. E. Armstrong, 
Torpedoes and Torpedo-Vessels, 2nded., 1901.] 

H. M. Ross. 

BRENTFORD, first Viscount (1865- 
1932), statesman. [See Hicks, William 

JOYNSON-.] 



101 



Bridges 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



BRIDGES, Sir (GEORGE) TOM 
(MOLESWORTH) (1871-1939), lieu- 
tenant-general, was born at Park Farm, 
Eltham, Kent, 20 August 1871, the third 
son of Major Thomas Walker Bridges, 
R.A., who was an elder brother of Robert 
Bridges, the poet laureate [q.v.]. His 
mother was Mary Anne, daughter of 
Frederick Theodore Philippi, of Belfield 
HaU, near Rochdale, Lancashire, a natura- 
lized Englishman whose family came from 
Usingen in Germany. Tom Bridges, as he 
was commonly called, was educated at 
Newton Abbot College and the Royal 
Military Academy, was gazetted second 
lieutenant in the Royal Artillery in 1892, 
and spent the early part of his service in 
India. In August 1898 he was posted to 
the new formation of the armed forces of 
Central Africa at Zomba, Nyasaland, where 
he was when the South African war broke 
out. Between 1899 and 1901 he served 
with the Imperial Light Horse, taking 
part in the relief of Ladysmith, and being 
severely wounded. He was promoted 
captain in April 1900. Between May and 
July 1901 he commanded the 5th and 6th 
West Australian Mounted Infantry. Sub- 
sequently he took part in the operations 
in the Orange River Colony, on the Zulu- 
land frontier of Natal, and in Cape Colony. 
He was twice mentioned in dispatches, 
and was given a brevet majority in 
August 1902. 

Between 1902 and 1904 Bridges served 
in East Africa and took part in operations 
in Somaliland, being in command of the 
Tribal Horse (which he raised), and being 
again severely wounded. He was again 
mentioned in dispatches and he received 
the D.S.O. During 1905 and 1906 he 
passed through the Staff College and was 
employed in the Military Intelligence 
Directorate at the War Office in 1907 and 
subsequently as chief instructor at the 
Cavalry School at Netheravon. In 1908 he 
transferred to the 4th Dragoon Guards as 
a major. Between 1910 and 1914 he was 
military attache at Brussels, The Hague, 
Copenhagen, and Christiania. 

In August 1914 Bridges went out to 
France with the British Expeditionary 
Force in command of a squadron of his 
regiment. On 22 August his squadron was 
the first unit of the British Expeditionary 
Force to meet the Germans, near the 
village of Soignies. On 27 August there 
occurred at St. Quentin the incident for 
which he is perhaps best known. He found 
in the town two British battalions the 
commanding officers of which had given 



written assurances to the mayor that they 
would surrender with their units in order 
to save the town from bombardment. 
Bridges rallied the men of these battalions 
with a tin whistle and a toy drum purchased 
at the local toy-shop and led them back 
into contact with the remainder of the 
British forces. 

On 3 September Bridges was given 
command of the 4th Hussars, but a month 
later was appointed head of the British 
military mission at the headquarters of 
the Belgian army, where he remained until 
December 1915, being wounded on the 
Yser. He then commanded the 19th 
division until April 1917, when he was 
sent on a mission to the United States of 
America for two months, after which he 
resumed command of the 19th division 
until he lost a leg at Passchendaele in 
September 1917. He had been promoted 
major-general in the previous January. 

In the spring of 1918 Bridges headed 
another mission to the United States. 
Between January and November 1919 he 
was employed, with the rank of temporary 
lieutenant-general, as chief of the British 
military mission to the army of the Orient 
with headquarters at Salonika and sub- 
sequently at Constantinople. In 1920 he 
was sent to Novorossisk, where he arranged 
the evacuation of the remnants of General 
Denikin's White Russian army. Sub- 
sequently he was at Smyrna with the 
Greeks when they were driven out of 
Asia Minor by the Turks. He retired from 
the army in 1922, with the rank of hono- 
rary lieutenant-general, and was governor 
of South Australia from that year until 
1927. From 1920 to the time of his death 
he was colonel of the 5th Inniskilling 
Dragoon Guards and was also colonel of 
the 9th Australian Light Horse and the 
43rd Australian Infantry. 

During the war of 1914-1918 Bridges 
was nine times mentioned in dispatches, 
and was appointed C.M.G. (1915), C.B. 
(1918), and K.C.M.G. (1919), besides re- 
ceiving numerous foreign decorations. In 
1925 he was appointed K.C.B. He received 
honorary degrees from the imiversities of 
McGill and Adelaide. 

In 1907 Bridges married Janet Florence 
(died 1937), second daughter of Graham 
Menzies, of Hallyburton House, Cupar 
Angus, Forfarshire, and widow of Major 
Wilfred George Howard Marshall, Grena- 
dier Guards. There was one daughter of 
the marriage. In 1938 he published a book 
of reminiscences entitled Alarms and 
Excursions. In 1939 he was compiling, for 



102 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Brooke 



the use of the fighting forces, an anthology 
entitled Word from England, which was 
published posthumously in 1940. In 1939, 
also, some of his paintings were exhibited 
in London. He died at Brighton 26 
November 1939. 

[The Times, 27 November 1939 ; Sir G.T.M. 
Bridges, Alarms and Excursions, 1938; 
Official records ; private information.] 

E. H. Wyndham. 

BRIGHTMAN, FRANK EDWARD 

(1856-1932), liturgiologist, was born at 
Bristol 18 June 1856, the second of the 
three sons of Charles Brightman, a Bristol 
business man, by his wife, Emma, daughter 
of Isaac Brown. From Bristol Grammar 
School he obtained a scholarship at Univer- 
sity College, Oxford, in 1875, and after 
being awarded a first class in mathematical 
moderations (1876) and a second class 
in classical moderations (1877), liierae 
humaniores (1879), and theology (1880), 
he won in 1882 both a Denyer and John- 
son theological scholarship and the Hall- 
Houghton Senior Septuagint prize. He was 
ordained deacon in 1884, and priest in 
1885, after having been admitted in 1884 
an original librarian of Pusey House, 
Oxford, an office which he held until the 
year after his election to a fellowship at 
Magdalen in 1902. There he continued to 
live luitil his sudden death in college 31 
March 1932. He was immarried. 

Brightman was one of the most learned 
of the band of liturgical scholars who 
flourished in England at the turn of the 
century ; but whereas the majority devoted 
themselves to the study of Latin liturgies, 
Brightman' s name was generally associated 
among them with oriental rites, and it is 
significant that his amplification of C. E. 
Hammond's Liturgies, Eastern and Western 
did not go beyond the first volume on 
Eastern liturgies (1896). But his know- 
ledge was extremely wide and, if his output 
was disappointingly small, one cause was 
the unboimded generosity with which he 
gave help to students, and another the 
exactness and labour which he devoted to 
nearly thirty years' (1904-1932) joint edit- 
ing of the Journal of Theological Studies. 
His learning did not go tmrecognized, for he 
was an adviser to the leaders of the Church 
of England, and in the controversy over 
Anglican orders he was consulted in the 
compilation (1897) of the reply to the 
bull Apostolicae Curae. On a kindred 
subject, but away from mere controversy, 
his essay on 'The Terms of Communion 
and the Ministration of the Sacraments in 



Early Times' (published in Essays on the 
Early History of the Church and the Ministry, 
edited by H. B. Swete, 1918) was such as 
no other liturgical scholar then alive could 
have written. In the narrower sphere of 
the Church of England, Brightman's con- 
tributions to learning were his editions of 
the Preces Privatae (1903) and the Manual 
of the Sick (1909) of Lancelot Andrewes 
[q.v.] and a monumental work in two 
volumes, The English Rite (1915), a 
synopsis in which he set out the sources 
of the Book of Conunon Prayer and the 
changes made from 1549 to 1662. On the 
question of the revision of the Prayer 
Book in 1927 a devastating article from 
his pen in the Church Quarterly Review 
influenced church opinion against the new 
book. 

Brightman was little of stature and 
walked with his head bent as if avoiding 
notice ; but his finely domed head, ascetic 
face, and grave but kind eyes marked him 
out from other men. He was very shrewd, 
and his rare sermons were made deeply 
arresting by their moral earnestness. He 
detested publicity, but honours came to 
him nevertheless. Bishop Edward King 
[q.v.] collated him in 1902 to a prebend 
in Lincoln Minster; the university of 
Louvain conferred upon him the honorary 
degree of Doct. Phil, in 1909, and the 
university of Durham that of D.D. in 1914. 
In 1926 he was elected a fellow of the 
British Academy. Shy and reticent with 
strangers, he attracted undergraduates of 
the most varied types, who soon forgot 
in his rooms the disorder of the books as 
they listened to his conversation with its 
touches of irony and keen sense of humour. 

[The Times, 1 April 1932 ; H. N. Bate, Frank 
Edward Brightman, 1856-1932 in Proceedings 
of the British Academy, vol. xix, 1933 ; 
Journal of Theological Studies, July 1932; 
Oxford Magazine, 5 May 1932; personal 
knowledge.] S. L. Ollard. 

BRISE, SiB EVELYN (JOHN) RUG- 
GLES- (1857-1935), prison reformer. [See 
Ruggues-Bbise .] 

BROOKE, ALAN ENGLAND (1863- 
1939), biblical scholar and provost of King's 
College, Cambridge, was born at Spring 
Grove, Middlesex, 1 September 1863, the 
youngest of the four sons of Richard 
England Brooke, perpetual curate of St. 
Mary's church, Spring Grove, and honorary 
canon of Manchester Cathedral, afterwards 
successively vicar of Hull and rector of 
Bath, by his wife, Harriet, daughter of 



103 



Brooke 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



William Bonner Hopkins, of Limber 
Grange, Lincolnshire. A scholar first of 
Eton and then of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, Alan Brooke was awarded a first 
class in part i of the classical tripos of 
1885, a second class in pari; ii (1886), a 
first class in part ii of the theological 
tripos of 1888, and several university 
prizes. In 1889 he was elected a fellow of 
his college, at a time when Brooke Foss 
Westcott [q.v.] was at the height of his 
influence at Cambridge. It was Westcott's 
influence, with that of Joseph Armitage 
Robinson [q.v.], which largely determined 
the direction of his life's work. Ordained 
deacon in 1891 he served for a few months 
as curate at Gayton, Northamptonshire; 
his scholarly interests, however, soon drew 
him back to Cambridge. His first pub- 
lished work was an edition of The Frag- 
ments of Heracleon (1891), which was 
followed by an edition of The Commentary 
of Origen on St. John's Gospel (2 vols., 
1896). But he had already been chosen, 
with (Dr.) Norman M'Lean, to edit the 
larger Cambridge edition of the Septua- 
gint, and this vast and self-denying task, 
calling for discriminating judgement and 
close attention to detail, occupied him for 
the rest of his life, and remained unfinished 
at his death. The first volume of The Old 
Testament in Greek, of which the first part 
was published in 1906, was completed in 
1917 ; the second in 1935 ; the final volume, 
of which the first part appeared in 1940, 
shortly after Brooke's death, is still in- 
complete, although much work had been 
done upon it. 

Meanwhile Brooke was for twenty -four 
years (1894-1918) dean of his college and 
lecturer in divinity. The claims of the 
Septuagint precluded much independent 
authorship, but his Critical and Exegetical 
Commentary on the Johannine Epistles 
(1912) is a distinguished work which illu- 
strates not only his thoroughness and fine 
critical judgement but something too of 
his spiritual insight which appears also in 
his sermons. He was ordained priest in 
1904. In 1916 he was elected Ely professor 
of divinity at Cambridge. This meant also 
a stall in Ely Cathedral, and he valued the 
opportunity which his canonry afforded 
of taking part in the wider life of the 
Church, especially of visiting the village 
churches in the Fens. He was appointed 
a chaplain to the king in 1918. In 1926 he 
was elected provost of King's (whereupon 
he became an honorary canon of Ely) and 
for seven years during the transitional 
period after the royal commission on the 



university he was head of the college, 
which owed much to his wise counsel and 
shrewd judgement, as also to his gene- 
rosity. After his retirement in 1933 he 
continued to work at the Septuagint vmtil 
his death at Cambridge 29 October 1939. 
Elected a fellow of the British Academy 
in 1934, he was in 1939 awarded the 
Burkitt medal for biblical studies. His 
marriage in 1901 to Frances Rachel 
(died 1919), daughter of Nicholas John 
Dunn, J.P., D.L., of St. Florence, near 
Tenby, Pembrokeshire, brought him much 
happiness. There was one son. Rupert 
Brooke [q.v.] was his nephew. 

There is a portrait of Brooke, by Henry 
Lamb, at King's College, Cambridge. 

[The Times, 31 October 1939; Cambridge 
Review, 18 November 1939; J. F. Bethune- 
Baker, Alan England Brooke, 1863-1939 in 
Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. xxvi, 
1940 (portrait) ; private information.] 

A. R. Graham-Campbell. 



BROWN, ERNEST WILLIAM (1866- 
1938), mathematician and astronomer, 
was born at Hull 29 November 1866, the 
second child and elder son of William 
Brown, farmer, and later a lumber mer- 
chant of Hull, by his wife, Emma Martin. 
Educated at the Hull and East Riding 
College, he entered Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, as a scholar in 1884. He was sixth 
wrangler in the mathematical tripos of 
1887 and was elected a fellow of Christ's 
in 1889. At the suggestion of (Sir) George 
Darwin [q.v.], he took up in 1888 the 
study of G. W. Hill's papers on the lunar 
theory. 

This led Brown to what was to prove 
his lifework : for the next twenty years he 
gave little thought to other research and 
during the thirty years that followed it 
remained his favourite subject. In 1891 
he went to the United States of America 
as professor of applied mathematics at 
Haverford College, Pennsylvania ; in 1907 
he was appointed professor of mathe- 
matics at Yale University, retiring in 1932, 
on account of ill health, with the title of 
emeritus professor. But he retained his 
connexion with Cambridge and with 
Christ's College, spending a part of almost 
every summer there. He was elected an 
honorary fellow of Christ's in 1911. 

In 1896 Brown published An Intro- 
ductory Treatise on the Lunar Theory, con- 
taining a critical examination of the various 
methods. His own theory of the motion 
of the moon was a development of Hill's 



104 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Brown, G. B. 



method. The main results were published 
in five parts in the Memoirs of the Royal 
Astronomical Society between 1897 and 
1908. For an essay on the direct planetary 
perturbations of the moon he was awarded 
in 1907 the Adams prize in the university 
of Cambridge. The heavy task of reducing 
the theory to tables was begun in 1908, 
the numerical values of the constants used 
in the tables being obtained from com- 
parison of the theory with the Greenwich 
observations of the moon (some 20,000 in 
number) from 1750 to 1900. His monu- 
mental Tables of the Motion of the Moon 
in three volumes were published in 1919. 
These tables have been used for the 
calculation of the moon's place in the 
Nautical Almanac since 1923. 

The completeness and accuracy of 
Brown's theory enabled one of the most 
pressing problems in graAdtational astro- 
nomy to be decided. Comparison between 
the moon's observed positions and the 
earlier theory of Petrus Andreas Hansen 
had shown large fluctuations, which could 
not be explained by any known gravita- 
tional cause but which might have arisen 
from errors or incompleteness in the 
theory. Comparison with Brown's Tables 
soon showed that the moon's observed 
positions were not accurately represented 
by the theory. Brown suggested that the 
cause was a variable rate of rotation of 
the earth and obtained evidence in support 
of this view, which has since been con- 
clusively established. In order to improve 
the observed positions of the moon, he 
organized a world-wide programme for the 
observation [and reduction of occupations 
of stars by the moon. In his later years 
he made significant contributions to 
various problems in celestial mechanics, 
mainly concerned with planetary theory. 

Brown was elected F.R.S. in 1897. He 
was awarded the gold medal of the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1907 ; the Ponte- 
coulant prize of the Paris Academy of 
Sciences inl909 ; a Royal medal of the Roy- 
al Society in 1914 ; the Bruce medal of the 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 
1920 ; and the Watson medal of the Nation- 
al Academy of Sciences, Washington, in 
1937. He received honorary degrees from 
the universities of Adelaide (1914), Yale 
1933), Columbia (1 934) , and McGiU ( 1 936) . 
He was never married. He died at New 
Haven, Connecticut, 22 July 1938. 

[Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal 
Society, No. 8, January 1940 (portrait) ; 
)rivate information ; personal knowledge.] 
H. Spencer Jones. 



BROWN, GERARD BALDWIN (1849- 
1932), historian of art, was bom in London 
31 October 1849, the only son of James 
Baldwin Brown, a leading nonconformist 
divine, who was at the time minister of 
Brixton Independent chapel, by his wife, 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Gerard 
Leif child, of Moorgate Street and Wan- 
stead, and a sister of the sculptor H. S. 
Leifchild [q.v.]. Gerard was educated at 
Uppingham under Edward Thring [q.v.] 
and at Oriel College, Oxford, where he 
graduated in 1873 with a first class in 
literae humaniores. In 1874 he was 
awarded the chancellor's prize for an 
English essay and was elected to a fellow- 
ship, which he held until 1877, at Brase- 
nose. In his thirty-first year (1880) he 
went to Edinburgh University to fill the 
newly established Watson Gordon chair 
of fine art. He held it for fifty years, 
resigning in 1930, two years before his 
death at Edinburgh 12 July 1932. In 1882 
he married Maude Annie (died 1931), 
daughter of Robert Hull Terrell, of Exeter ; 
they had no children. 

Although his earliest lectures at Edin- 
burgh had Greek art as their main topic, 
and although, throughout his career, 
Baldwin Brown maintained a close associa- 
tion with the school of classical studies, 
his first book. From Schola to Cathedral 
(1886), deals with a subject which was 
subsequently to serve as the theme for his 
main life's work. Its sub-title, A Study of 
Early Christian Architecture and its Rela- 
tion to the Life of the Church, indicates the 
line of his approach, in which art is con- 
sidered as a manifestation of the life and 
culture of its age, and where great impor- 
tance is always given to the connexion 
between art and its social background. 
The same method of approach charac- 
terizes a later book, The Arts and Crafts of 
Our Teutonic Forefathers (1910), wherein 
Baldwin Brown made public studies which 
must have formed the basis for parts of 
his great work on the dark ages in this 
country. The Arts in Early England, the 
first volume of which appeared in 1903 
and the second part of the sixth and last, 
completed by Eric Hyde Lord Sexton, in 
1937. Some of Baldwin Brown's opinions 
as expressed in this, his most important, 
work wiU no doubt be questioned as 
knowledge advances, but the groimd 
covered is so extensive and the research so 
thorough that the book should always 
retain its place as the standard work on 
the subject. It may be supplemented by 
articles and monographs, but it can 



105 



Brown, G. B. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



hardly be replaced by a similar general 
study. 

Other of Baldwin Brown's publications, 
The Fine Arts (1891, 4th ed. 1916), 
William Hogarth (1905), Rembrandt (1907), 
and The Art of the Cave Dweller (1928), all 
bear witness to his method of approach. 
But, more than that, they illustrate the 
author's habit of making himself familiar 
at first hand with the subjects of his study, 
whether pots, pictures, or buildings. His 
abiUties as a draughtsman and photo- 
grapher helped him in this, and his imder- 
standing of the nature and value of 
craftsmanship, learnt in his uncle's studio 
and at the South Kensington School of 
Art before going to Edinburgh, enabled 
him to maintain a contact with the object, 
the absence of which often constitutes a 
serious blemish in the more purely theore- 
tical studies of the fashionable modern 
German school of historians of art. 

From his appointment to the Watson 
Gordon chair until his death, Baldwin 
Brown made Edinburgh his home, but he 
travelled extensively in Great Britain and 
western Europe and attended numerous 
congresses at home and abroad. Personal 
memories and written records attest the 
enhanced value that his presence lent to 
such gatherings . It was , however, probably 
as professor that the fullest scope was 
given for the expression of his shy though 
deUghtful personality. His energy, en- 
thusiasm, and kindliness were proverbial ; 
he was always ready to make his wide 
knowledge available to others. 

The titles of Baldwin Brown's publica- 
tions, which also include The Care of 
Ancient Monuments (1905) and The Glas- 
gow School of Painters (1908), denote the 
catholic nature of his interests and the 
titles of the books in his library, which he 
bequeathed to the department of fine art 
at Edinburgh University, further illustrate 
the breadth and freshness of his tastes. 
This breadth of outlook influenced the lives 
of many generations of Edinburgh gradu- 
ates, and, through them and similar 
contacts, did much to encourage the 
spread of liberal tastes in the city. 

Baldwin Brown contributed a number 
of papers to learned journals: 'The Origin 
of Roman Imperial Architecture', read 
before the Royal Institute of British 
Architects in 1889, is among the more 
important of them. He was elected a 
corresponding fellow of a large number of 
learned societies, and received honours 
from numerous bodies both at home and 
abroad, including two honorary degrees 



from Edinburgh University. These honours 
were crowned by his election to an hono- 
rary fellowship at Oriel College, Oxford, in 
1923 and to a fellowship of the British 
Academy in 1924. 

A bronze bust of Baldwin Brown, by 
C. d'O. Pilkington Jackson, presented to 
him in 1930, belongs to Edinburgh 
University. 

[The Times, 14 July 1932 ; Sir George Mac- 
donald, Gerard Baldwin Brown, 1849-1932 in 
Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. xxi, 
1935; private information; personal know- 
ledge.] D. Talbot Rice. 

BROWNE, Sir JAMES CRICHTON- 
(1840-1938), physician and psychologist, 
was born in Edinburgh 29 November 1840, 
the eldest son of William Alexander Francis 
Browne, the first medical superintendent 
of the Crichton Royal Institute at Dum- 
fries, by his wife, Magdalene Howden, 
daughter of Andrew Balfour, a highly 
cultured woman and a Shakespearian 
scholar. James's second Christian name, 
which he afterwards adopted as part of 
his surname, was derived from Dr. James 
Crichton, of Crichtons' Carse, who left a 
sum of about £100,000 for the foundation 
of the institute. Like David Skae [q.v.], 
of the celebrated Edinburgh asylum at 
Morningside, Dr. Crichton was one of the 
pioneers of the early treatment of mental 
breakdown. 

Crichton-Browne was educated at Dum- 
fries Academy, Trinity College, Glenal- 
mond, and Edinburgh University where 
his teachers were Joseph (later Lord) 
Lister, Lyon (later Lord) Playfair, Sir 
Robert Christison, James Syme, John 
Goodsir, and Thomas Laycock [qq.v.]. 
From an early stage of his career he 
showed an interest in medical psychology. 
In his third year of student life he pre- 
sented a paper to the Royal Medical 
Society of Edinburgh on 'The Psychical 
Diseases of Early Life', and in his fourth 
year delivered his valedictory address to 
the society on 'The Clinical Teaching of 
Psychology'. He qualified L.R.C.S. (Edin- 
burgh) in 1861 and graduated M.D. with 
a thesis on ' Hallucinations ' in the following 
year. He began practice in 1865 by serving 
as assistant medical officer of the Devon, 
Derby, and Warwick county asylums, 
and subsequently was appointed medical 
superintendent at Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
City Asylum, where he lectured on mental 
disease at the Newcastle College of Science. 
In 1866 he became medical director of the 
West Riding Asylum at Wakefield and 



106 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Bruce, C. G. 



gave a similar course of lectures at the 
Leeds School of Medicine and also founded 
and edited the annual West Riding Lunatic 
Asylum Medical Reports. These reports, 
which were the first of their kind in this 
country, contain contributions from 
J. Hughlings Jackson, (Sir) T. C. Allbutt, 
(Sir) T. L. Brunton [qq.v.], and Crichton- 
Browne himself among others. He was also 
co-editor of Brain from 1878 to 1885. 

In 1875 Crichton-Browne was appointed 
lord chancellor's visitor in Ivmacy and held 
that post until he retired in 1922. During 
these years he was concerned with the 
supervision of the wards and the proper 
administration of their estates. In 1883 he 
was elected F.R.S., and six years later he 
became treasurer of the Royal Institution. 

Crichton-Browne was one of the first to 
emphasize the importance of the recogni- 
tion of the prodromal symptoms of mental 
disease. Besides work of this kind he was 
particularly interested in public health 
and education, and published a large 
number of addresses, reports, and letters 
to the press on these subjects, of which 
the most interesting is a parliamentary 
paper on 'Elementary Schools'. Subse- 
quently he supported the campaign for the 
open-air treatment of tuberculosis, the 
control of venereal disease, and the better 
housing of the working classes. During 
his last years he published a number of 
popular and humorous reminiscences such 
as Victorian Jottings (1926), What the 
Doctor Thought (1930), The Doctor's Second 
Thoughts (1931), The Doctor's Afterthoughts 
(1932). 

Crichton-Browne received many dis- 
tinctions at home and abroad. He was 
knighted in 1886 and received honorary 
degrees from the universities of Aberdeen, 
St. Andrews, Edinburgh, and Leeds, as 
well as being president of the following 
learned societies: the Medico -Psychologi- 
cal Association, the Neurological Society, 
the Medical Society of London, and the 
National Health Society. He was also a 
fellow of the New York Academy of 
Medicine. He was granted the freedom of 
Dumfries. Apart from considerable deaf- 
ness and gi'adual impairment of vision, he 
retained his faculties until his death at 
Dumfries 31 January 1938. 

Crichton-Browne was twice married: 
first, in 1865 to Emily (died 1903), youngest 
daughter of John Halliday, surgeon, of 
Seacombe, Cheshire, and had a son, who 
predeceased him, and a daughter ; secondly, 
in 1912 to Audrey Emily, eldest daughter 
of General Sir Edward Bulwer [q.v.] and 



great-niece of Edward Bulwer-Lytton 
[q.v.]; there were no children of the 
second marriage. 

[The Times, 1 February 1938; Obituary 
Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society, No. 7, 
January 1939 ; British Medical Journal, 1938, 
vol. i, p. 331 ; Lancet, 1938, vol. i, p. 906.] 
J. D. ROLLESTON. 

BRUCE, CHARLES GRANVILLE 

(1866-1939), soldier, mountaineer, and 
traveller, was bom in London 7 April 
1866, the younger son of Henry Austin 
Bruce, afterwards first Baron Aberdare 
[q.v.], by his second wife, Norah Creina 
Blanche, youngest daughter of Lieu- 
tenant-General Sir William Napier [q.v.]. 
He was educated at Harrow and Repton, 
and was commissioned, through the 
militia, in the Oxfordshire and Bucking- 
hamshire Light Infantry in 1887. He first 
saw active service with the Military Police 
in Burma and in 1889 transferred to 
the 5th Gurkha Rifles, the regiment with 
which he served for most of his career. 
Stationed with it at Abbottabad, he saw 
much service on the North-West Frontier 
of India: in Black Mountain (Hazara), 
1891, Miranzai, 1 891 , Chitral, 1893, Waziri- 
stan, 1894^1895, and Tirah, 1897-1898, 
receiving in all six clasps to his two 
frontier medals, three mentions in dis- 
patches, and a brevet-majority in 1898. 
After being adjutant and second-in-com- 
mand of the 5th Gurkha Rifles he was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel in May 1913, 
and appointed in May 1914 to command 
the 6th, the friendly rivals of his old 
regiment ; it was with the 6th that he went 
to Egypt for the defence of the Suez Canal 
on the outbreak of war in 1914. For his 
services there and later in Gallipoli, where 
he commanded the depleted battalions of 
the 29th Indian brigade, including the 5th 
and 6th Gtu"khas at Gurkha Bluff, he was 
thrice mentioned in dispatches and pro- 
moted brevet-colonel in November 1915. 
Severely woimded in the leg, he was evacu- 
ated before the withdrawal, and on dis- 
charge from hospital was appointed general 
officer commanding the Independent 
Frontier brigade at Bannu (1916-1919). 
He commanded the North Waziristan 
Field Force in 1917, and served in the 
Afghan war of 1919. In these operations 
he was mentioned twice in dispatches. No 
longer young, his health was at last under- 
mined by strenuous work during these hot- 
weather seasons on the frontier, and he 
was invalided out of the sei^ce with the 
honorary rank of brigadier-general in 



107 



Bruce, C. G. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



I 



1920,afterthirty -two yearsof distinguished 
service. 

Bruce had all the qualities of a great 
traveller and fine soldier. From the 
moment he joined the Gurkhas he studied 
their language and became the foremost 
authority on their customs and ways of 
life. Having learnt to get behind their 
thoughts, he taught them how to make 
the best of their qualities and personally 
evolved their system of training for moun- 
tain warfare. It was Bruce who originated 
and trained the Frontier Scouts, and 
incidentally it was largely due to him 
that 'shorts' were introduced into the 
Indian army, after he had tried them and 
proved them useful with the Scouts. 
Bruce's mountaineering travels covered 
the whole extent of the Himalaya from 
end to end. On all his journeys he took 
and trained Gurkhas from his own regi- 
ment, and on all he studied and made 
friends with the natives of the districts 
through which he travelled. He was on 
the expedition of Martin Conway (later 
Lord Conway of Allington, q.v.) to the 
Hispar and Biafo glaciers in the Kara- 
koram in 1892, and with A. F. Mummery 
[q.v.] and John Norman Collie on the first 
ill-fated attempt to climb Nanga Parbat 
in 1895 when Mummery was killed. He 
explored and climbed many lesser known 
summits in Khagan, Kashmir, Kulu, and 
Lahoul, and prepared plans for the explora- 
tion of Mount Everest in both 1907 and 
1910, although both projects had to be 
abandoned for poUtical reasons. It was 
not until after the war of 1914-1918, when 
he had been invalided out of the army, 
that, at the age of nearly fifty-six, he was 
able to carry out this ambition. He was 
the organizer and leader of both the 1922 
and 1924 Mount Everest expeditions, and 
although he was then too old to attempt 
the final assaults, his remarkable know- 
ledge of Gurkhas, Sherpas, and Tibetans, 
and his own qualities of cheerfulness and 
joviality, were assets that contributed 
much to the success of these expeditions. 
This love of adventure and fun and his 
command of Himalayan lore were the 
secret of his success among Himalayan 
folk, for his hearty laugh was known and 
mimicked in many parts. Many stories 
will be handed down of his phenomenal 
strength and endurance, and of the vast 
appetite of his early days ; not all will be 
far from the truth. It is, for instance, a 
fact that he often wrestled with two 
Indian wrestlers at a time and on one 
occasion threw three opponents simul- 



taneously ; it is also true that in his early 
days, in order to keep fit, he would daily 
carry his orderly up the hills of the Khyber 
on his back. 

Bruce married in 1894 Finetta Madeline 
Julia (died 1932), third daughter of 
Colonel Sir Edward Fitzgerald Campbell, 
second baronet; their only child, a son, 
died in infancy. Mrs. Bruce accompanied 
her husband on his mountain expeditions 
and was the author of Kashmir (1911). 
Bruce was appointed M.V.O. in 1903, and 
C.B. in 1918. The Royal Geographical 
Society awarded him the Gill memorial 
prize in 1915 and the Founder's gold 
medal in 1925. He was president of the 
Alpine Club in 1923, an honorary member 
of the leading continental climbing clubs, 
and an enthusiastic founder member of 
the Himalayan Club. He was the author 
of four books relating his Himalayan ex- 
periences : Twenty Years in the Himalaya 
(1910); Kulu and Lahoul (1914); The 
Assault on Mount Everest, 1922 (1923); 
and Himalayan Wanderer (1934). He 
received the honorary degree of D.Sc. 
from the universities of Oxford and Wales, 
of D.C.L. from Edinburgh, and of LL.D. 
from St. Andrews. In 1931 he was ap- 
pointed colonel of the 5th Gurkha Rifles, 
to the delight of all ranks of his old 
regiment. Thereafter, almost until his 
death in London 12 July 1939, he regu- 
larly revisited India and his regiment 
and was always greeted with enthusiasm. 

A portrait of Bruce, by G. P. Jacomb- 
Hood, belongs to the Hon. Alice Bruce. 

[The Times, 13 July 1939; C. G. Bruce, 
Himalayan Wanderer, 1934; Geographical 
Journal, October 1940 ; Alpine Journal, May 
1940 ; personal knowledge.] 

Kenneth Mason. 



BRUCE, Sir DAVID (1855-1931), dis- 
coverer of the causes of Malta fever and 
sleeping sickness, was born in Melbourne, 
Australia, 29 May 1855, the only son of 
David Bruce, who came from Edinburgh, 
by his wife, Jane, daughter of Alexander 
Hamilton, of Stirhng. The father was 
presumably an engineer as he went to 
Australia during the gold-rush in order to 
instal a crushing plant in a gold-field near 
Sandhurst, some hundred miles distant 
from Melbourne. When he was five years 
old David's parents returned to Scotland 
and settled in Stirling, David being sent 
to the Stirling High School where he con- 
tinued until he was fourteen. As a boy 
and young man he was a keen naturalist. 



108 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Bruce, D. 



roaming the country of the Scottish High- 
lands and being especially interested in 
observing the habits of wild birds. On 
leaving school he was placed with a busi- 
ness firm in Manchester, but in 1876, at 
the age of twenty-one, he entered the 
university of Edinburgh with the intention 
of studying zoology. However, on the 
advice of a friend, he decided to read 
medicine and he graduated M.B., CM. in 
1881. After qualifying he became assistant 
to Dr. Herbert Stanley Stone, a practi- 
tioner in Reigate. It was here that he met 
his wife, Mary Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Sisson Steele, M.R.C.S.,Stone'spredecessor 
in the Reigate practice, and he married 
her in 1883. 

Shortly after his marriage Bruce obtained 
a commission in the Army Medical Service, 
being first on the passing-out list. In the 
following year he was ordered to Malta. 
At this time the naval and military hospi- 
tals at Malta contained large numbers of 
cases of an obscure continued fever with 
a high mortality rate and even in the 
milder cases associated with prolonged 
ill health and disability. So seriously was 
the incidence of this disease regarded that 
the naval and military medical officers 
were at the time engaged in collecting all 
available information on the clinical 
nature and epidemiology of the disease. 
Bruce worked on the pathological and 
bacteriological aspects. Bacteriology was 
then in its infancy and the introduction 
by Robert Koch in 1880 of solid media 
and other technical methods of isolating 
organisms and the recent discoveries of 
the organisms of enteric fever, tubercle, 
and cholera had stimulated Bruce to attack 
the problem of Malta fever by these new 
methods. Within two years he had found 
in the spleen of fatal cases an organism to 
which he gave the name of Micrococcus 
melitensis now known as Brucella meliten- 
sis. Bruce proved conclusively as a result 
of his researches that this organism was 
the cause of Malta fever. 
I In 1888 Bruce left Malta on leave which 
he spent working with his wife in Koch's 
laboratory in Berlin. On his return to 
England he was appointed assistant pro- 
fessor of pathology in the Army Medical 
School at Netley. In this post, which he 
held from 1889 to 1894, he did much to 
introduce modern methods in pathology. 
In 1894, again in the ordinary course of 
military duty, Bruce received orders to 
proceed abroad, this time to South Africa, 
where he was posted to the garrison at 
Pietermaritzburg in Natal. In Zululand 



at this time a fatal disease was devastating 
the domestic animals of the native popula- 
tion and settlers, and the governor of the 
Colony, Sir Walter Hely -Hutchinson, who 
had been lieutenant-governor of Malta at 
the time of Bruce's successful researches 
on Malta fever, requested that Bruce 
might be seconded to investigate the cause 
of the mortality. Two months later Bruce 
was able to report the discovery of an 
organism, later named Trypanosoma brucei, 
in the blood of infected animals and that 
this was the cause of both tsetse-fly disease 
and nagana, then thought to be two dis- 
tinct diseases. This led to Bruce being 
seconded in December 1896 for a further 
period, and he and his wife returned for 
two years to a wild and isolated camp life 
in the bush in Zululand, where they lived 
like pioneers in wattle and daub huts and 
on wild game which they themselves shot. 
The result was the complete working out 
of the main facts as they are now known 
regarding trypanosomiasis in domestic 
and wild animals and the tsetse-fly which 
transmits the organism. Bruce's reputa- 
tion as a scientific worker of remarkable 
capacity was now established and whilst 
still absent in South Africa he was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society (1899). In 
the South African war in 1899 the Bruces 
were shut up in Ladysmith where Bruce, 
among other experiences in active service, 
was in command of a large military hos- 
pital and acted as an operating surgeon, 
whilst his wife was sister-in-charge of the 
operating theatre. 

In 1901 Bruce returned to England, but 
in February 1903 he was seconded by the 
War Office at the request of the Royal 
Society to undertake the supervision and 
control of the commission which the 
society in 1902 had dispatched to Uganda 
to investigate a serious outbreak of sleep- 
ing sickness that was decimating the lake 
shore population. Success in determining 
the nature and cause of this disease 
quickly followed. 

As so often happens, the actual dis- 
covery of the cause of sleeping sickness 
was not wholly attributable to any one 
individual, although it was Bruce who, 
with his extraordinary power of systematic 
research, first established the nature and 
cause of this deadly disease. Trypanoso- 
miasis due to T. brucei very fortimately did 
not affect man. But while J. E. Dutton 
[q.v.] was working in West Africa he was 
shown by Dr. Robert Michael Forde para- 
sites in the blood of a case of sleeping sick- 
ness which he recognized as a trypanosome 



109 



Bruce, D. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



I 



and which in 1902 he named T. gambiense. 
In 1903 Aldo Castellani, a member of the 
commission originally sent out by the 
Royal Society to Uganda in 1902, had 
found shortly before Bruce's arrival from 
England trypanosomes in the cerebro- 
spinal fluid of five out of fifteen cases of 
sleeping sickness. Castellani informed 
Bruce of this fact and in the three weeks 
before leaving for England found these 
organisms in twenty out of twenty-nine 
further cases. Bruce at once recognized 
the implications of Castellani's observa- 
tions and grasping the resemblance of the 
conditions to those with which he was so 
familiar in Zululand, immediately began 
collecting all available information about 
the distribution of the disease and of 
tsetse-fly and setting up, as in Zululand, 
fly -feeding experiments. By August 1903, 
when Bruce and his wife returned to 
England, he had proved that sleeping 
sickness was a trypanosome disease carried 
by tsetse and that it could be transmitted 
from sick to healthy individuals by the 
bite of this insect. 

Bruce, assisted always by his wife, made 
other successful investigations. In 1904 
he revisited Malta as head of the Royal 
Society's Malta Fever Commission, proving 
this time that the source of infection in 
Malta fever was the goat, infection in man 
being contracted by drinking goat's milk. 
In 1908 Bruce again visited Uganda and 
in 1911 carried out investigations on 
trypanosomal disease in Nyasaland. He 
was specially promoted surgeon-general 
in 1912 for his eminent scientific services. 
During the war of 1914-1918 he was 
commandant of the Royal Army Medical 
College, Millbank, and rendered great 
service to the army by directing research 
on the aetiology and control of trench fever 
and tetanus. Bruce retired in 1919 and for 
reasons of health spent the winters in 
Madeira. He continued, however, to keep 
in touch with research at home and to 
give to workers the benefit of his experi- 
ence and advice. 

In all his work Bruce was assisted by 
his wife who accompanied him throughout 
his foreign service, working in the labora- 
tory and taldng charge of camp arrange- 
ments and much else. Bruce on his 
deathbed laid stress on the great service 
which she had rendered him and expressed 
the wish that her part in his scientific work 
should be recognized. She received the 
Royal Red Cross for her work with the 
wounded in the siege of Ladysmith, and 
was appointed O.B.E. for her work for the 



committees on trench fever and tetanus 
during the war of 1914-1918. 

Of the many honours which Bruce B 
received only some can be mentioned here. " 
In 1904 he was awarded by the Royal 
Society a Royal medal and in 1922 the 
Buchanan medal. He was the recipient of 
the Mary Kingsley medal of the Liverpool 
School of Tropical Medicine in 1905, of 
the Leeuwenhoek medal of the Dutch 
Academy of Sciences in 1915, of the 
Manson medal of the Royal Society of 
Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (of which 
he was president from 1917 to 1919), and 
of the Albert medal of the Royal Society 
of Arts in 1923, besides honorary degrees 
from four universities and honorary 
memberships of several foreign academies 
and societies. He was Croonian lecturer 
of the Royal College of Physicians in 1915 
and president of the British Association 
in 1924. He was appointed C.B. in 1905, 
and, having been knighted in 1908, K.C.B. 
in 1918. He died in London 27 November 
1931 during the funeral of Lady Bruce 
four days after her death. He had no 
children. 

Bruce was a man of strong physique 
and forceful mind. He was one of the 
great pioneers in medical research, a 
highly trained investigator exploring new 
fields in the causation of disease. Few 
investigators have had such a record of 
successes to their name. His approach to 
the problems which he undertook to solve 
was extraordinarily simple, logical, vigor- 
ous, and direct, and this was backed by a 
remarkable, seemingly intuitive, perception 
of the essential point for attack. In his 
personal relations, whilst he is said to have 
been somewhat reserved and self-con- 
tained, aU agree as to his loyalty and in- 
tegrity of mind and purpose. 

[The Times, 28 November 1931 ; Transac- 
tions ofthe Royal Society of Tropical Medicine 
and Hygiene, vol. xxv, 1931— 1932 (portrait); 
Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society, 
No. 1, December 1932 (portrait).] 

S. R. Christophers. 

BUCHAN, JOHN, first Baron Tweeds- 
MUiR (1875-1940), author, and governor- 
general of Canada, born at Perth 26 
August 1875, came of mainly Border 
lowland stock, being the eldest child in 
the family of four sons and one surviving 
daughter (the novelist 'O. Douglas') of 
John Buchan, minister of the Free Church 
of Scotland, by his wife, Helen, daughter 
of John Masterton, farmer, at Broughton 
Green, Peebles-shire. Buchan's father, who 



110 



D.N.B. 1031-1940 



Buchan 



lad been brought up in the atmosphere of 
;he Disruption, served congregations at 
Xirkcaldy and at John Knox's church, in 
;he Gorbals district of Glasgow, and the 
mpression made by these rather different 
)laces can be easily traced in his son's 
vritings . Perhaps an even greater influence 
)n Buchan was wielded by his mother, a 
Yoman sentimental yet shrewd, contem- 
jlative but alert, able to hold her own in 
my company, who lived to see her son 
iurrounded by the pomp of Holyrood and 
;he splendour of Ottawa. In 1895, after 
attendance at Hutcheson's Boys' Gram- 
nar School at Glasgow and at lectures at 
Glasgow University, he was awarded a 
scholarship at Brasenose College, Oxford, 
md thenceforth his life was bound up with 
England, South Africa, and Canada. 
Mevertheless, Scotland always 'haunted 
tiim like a passion', and he never lost the 
impress of his home and native land ; he re- 
mained throughout his life a Christian who 
said his prayers, read his Bible, and knew 
the Pilgrim's Progress almost by heart. 

At Oxford, Buchan won in 1897 the 
Stanhope historical essay prize on the 
subject of 'Sir Walter Raleigh' and in 1898 
the Newdigate prize for English verse with 
the 'Pilgrim Fathers' as its theme. He was 
president of the Union in 1899 and was 
awarded a first class in literae hiimaniores 
that same year. Having one or two books 
already to his credit, he was commissioned 
by his college to write its history for the 
Robinson series of 'College Histories'. It 
appeared in 1898 while he was yet an 
undergraduate, and called forth severe 
criticism from antiquarian reviewers un- 
accustomed to so unconventional a style 
of historical writing. Disappointed of a 
prize fellowship, Buchan went to London, 
where he widened the large circle of his 
friends and was called to the bar by the 
Middle Temple in 1901, earning his living 
by journalism, and reading with J. A. 
Hamilton (later Lord Sumner, q.v.) and 
(Sir) Sidney Rowlatt. But his legal career 
was cut short when, after his call to the 
bar. Lord Milner [q.v.] summoned him to 
South Africa as one of his assistant private 
secretaries. 

Although Buchan spent only two years 
(1901-1903) in South Africa, the appoint- 
ment was the most important step in his 
career. He gained enormously from daily 
association with Milner and from his 
modest tasks in the resettlement of the 
country, where his warm human desire to 
make friends with the Boers and bury the 
hatchet gave him horizon and a sense of 



size, and his imperialism, cleansed of 
vulgar jingoism, became elevated above 
the patronizing 'trust' conception into an 
association of free peoples in loyalty to 
a common throne. So Pieter Pienaar, re- 
sourceful and true, becomes one of the 
heroes of his adventure novels. Indeed he 
was eager for a career in Egypt under 
Lord Cromer [q.v.] when his work in 
South Africa was over. For the second 
time and again for the good he was dis- 
appointed. Yet it may be affirmed with 
confidence that, without apprenticeship 
in Africa, there would have been no 
governor-generalship of Canada, for 
Buchan had there learned to think as 
statesmen tliink. 

In 1903 Buchan returned to the bar in 
London, 'devilling' for Rowlatt and 'not- 
ing' for Sir R. B. (later Viscount) Finlay 
[q.v.] who, while assessing his mind as not 
exact enough for supremacy at the bar, 
admired his abilities and character. He 
wrote 'opinions', one, for instance, on the 
legality of Chinese labour (after the liberal 
victory of 1906) in which his seniors were 
Arthur Cohen, Finlay, and Rufus Isaacs 
(later Marquess of Reading) [qq.v.]. But 
this episode was a backwater. In 1907 T. A. 
Nelson the publisher, a friend from Oxford 
days, invited him to j oin the firm as ' Uterary 
adviser ' and as a limited partner. He was 
to reside in London and superintend the 
issue of, inter alia, the sevenpenny edition 
of The Best Literature. He accepted and 
was in his element. He could never have 
mortified the flesh as he describes Milner 
doing, nor could he have given himself 
body and soul to the bar. His admirable, 
but ephemeral, Law relating to the Taxa- 
tion of Foreign Income (1905), written at 
the instance of R. B. (later Viscoimt) 
Haldane [q.v.], remains as his testament 
to the Middle Temple, w^hich elected him 
a bencher in 1935. He was also engaged 
to be married to one of that world which 
had fascinated him since his Oxford days 
by its ease and grace. With her he enjoyed 
tmclouded happiness for thirty -three years . 
Being free from drudgery he could, as a 
man of letters, give scope to the dominat- 
ing activity of his life. Hitherto his books, 
some written before he ever came to 
Oxford {Sir Quixote of the Moors, 1895, 
Scholar Gipsies, 1896, Grey Weather, 1899, 
The Half -Hearted, 1900, and The Watcher 
by the Threshold, 1902), had contained the 
freshness of youth and were charming 
harbingers of even better to come. These 
had been followed by the African books, 
The African Colony (1903) and A Lodge in 



111 



Buchan 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



the Wilderness (1906), more interesting 
perhaps as autobiography than as litera- 
ture, while Prester John (1910) begins the 
long series of his books of adventure. 
Except for the Stanhope essay, Sir Walter 
Raleigh in dramatic form (1911) is the 
first sign of his turn towards history, and 
then, after two more adventure stories, 
came The Marquis of Montrose (1913), now 
out of print and not included in his 
collected works. This was Buchan's first 
serious attempt at writing history and a 
good deal of it was history, and very good 
history, the most impressive feature being 
the power which he exhibited of describing 
marches and battles and their wild natural 
settings. But zeal for his idolized 'dis- 
covery' (although the tragedy of the 
'great Marquess' had pointed many a 
moral and adorned many a tale) led him 
to commit so many elementary blunders, 
all of which invariably told in favour of 
Montrose and against Argyle and the 
Estates, tinged with a certain 'acerbity' 
and an air of omniscience, that he was 
severely taken to task by D. H. Fleming 
[q.v.] in a review printed in The British 
Weekly of 12 February 1914. No reply 
was or could be made. Montrose (1928) is 
the sequel: the blemishes complained of 
are gone, but whether we have the final 
Marquess 'in his faults and failings, in his 
virtues and valour' (Hay Fleming) is open 
to question among those for whom historic 
truth is all in all, and brilliant writing no 
more than decoration. 

The outbreak of war in 1914 found 
Buchan, on the eve of his thirty-ninth 
birthday, seriously ill for the first time 
since his childhood, when at the age of 
five he had fallen out of a carriage and a 
wheel passing over the side of his skull had 
left its mark for life. He had then lain for 
a year in bed and had to learn once more 
how to walk. He grew to be about 5 feet 
8 inches in height, lean, sinewy, well knit, 
and active as a chamois. A daring and 
expert cragsman, he had sampled many 
rock climbs in Skye and Austria, and he 
had literally climbed into the Alpine Club. 
He was a keen fisherman but an indifferent 
shot, and his riding was purely utilitarian, 
preferring as he did Shanks 's mare, a 
nimble, sure steed which never tired. 
Games, accomplishments, and parlour 
tricks were outside his activities. 

Compelled to keep his bed, Buchan 
wrote. He made a start with his well- 
known History of the Great War, which 
occupied twenty-four volumes of the 
'Nelson Library' series; but he also wrote 



The Thirty-Nine Steps (1915) which fairly 
stormed the reading world with its com- 
bination of excitement and sensation, 
written as only a master of English can 
write. He was well enough by 1915 to be 
on the staff of The Times on the western 
front, and by 1916 he had joined the army 
as a major in the Intelligence Corps and 
enjoyed confidential innominate duties at 
general headquarters at Montreuil-sur- 
Mer, which brought him into personal 
touch with another Borderer by extraction, 
Sir Douglas Haig, whom he admired as a 
great man and soldier. Summoned to 
London in 1917, he made such a personal 
success of the new Department of In- 
formation that it became a ministry with 
Buchan as subordinate director until the 
armistice. With renewed successes his pen 
consoled him for irritating drudgery and 
unreasonable people: GreenmanUe (1916) 
and Mr. Standfast (1919) completed the 
trilogy on the war opened by The Thirty- 
Nine Steps. In Poems, Scots and English 
(1917) some of the poems are topical of 
the front, but the book is at once a monu- 
ment of detachment from ugly actuality 
and a source of regret that he did not 
write more verse. Buchan loved poetry 
and had it in his bones. 

Private life resulted in settlement at 
Elsfield Manor, near Oxford, purchased in 
1919 after deliberation of several years. 
That 'ivory tower' was so unlike Buchan's 
native land that nostalgia was not aroused, 
and in this phase of his life there was a 
copious output of books. The History 
of the South African Forces in France 
and the memoir of Francis and Riversdale 
Grenfell (1920) were the aftermath of the 
war, together with the History of the Great 
War which was revised, compressed, and 
republished in 1921-1922 and the complete 
regimental History of the Royal Scots 
Fusiliers (1925), a valuable tribute to the 
memory of his youngest brother, Alastair, 
killed in 1917. 

The excellence of the tribute to the 
Grenfells may have led to his life of Lord 
Minto (1924) which proved to be the fore- 
runner of the historical biographies, on 
which he imdoubtedly intended that his 
future fame should rest. By an interesting 
chance it familiarized him with a stage on 
which, as a successor to Minto, he was 
destined to play his part. Meantime novel 
after novel poured from his pen. Hunting- 
tower (1922) opened a new series based on 
Glasgow memories and the scout move- 
ment, with a coy candidature of Peebles- 
shire. Midwinter (1923) was an historical 



112 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Buchan 



lovel linking Elsfield with Samuel Johnson 
ust as Elsfield and Henry VIII were 
Irawn together in The Blanket of the Dark 
1931). Witch Wood (1927) links Tweed- 
iale with Montrose and PhOiphaugh and 
3 a by-product of the preparation for 
yiontrose. But the majority were the 
arns (as he called them) spun easily for 
is own and an eager public's enjoyment. 

It is remarkable that he went on writing 
a the last phase of his life, when he was a 
(ublic man. The almost inspired literary 
riticism of his Sir Walter Scott (1932) and 
he sympathetic understanding of the 
piritual side of the Protector in Oliver 
Cromwell (1934) show Buchan at his best, 
^t a by-election in 1927 he was elected 
lonservative member of parliament for the 
Scottish Universities, and held the seat 
mtil his elevation to the peerage in 1935. 
le fitted the constituency like a glove. He 
oved the House of Commons and the 
louse listened to him. Moreover he had 
ichieved fame in America chiefly as an 
listorian and a novelist. He was a 
nember of the Pilgrim Trust and in that 
sapacity he did good service to Oxford 
;)ity and Oxford University. And then, 
n 1933 and 1934 the elder of St. Columba's 
ihurch at Oxford was appointed lord high 
somniissioner to the General Assembly of 
ihe Church of Scotland. In that illustrious 
)ffice, eloquent of the history of the 
itruggles between church and state since 
;he Reformation, Buchan was supremely 
lappy both in his manner and in his 
itterances, as befitted the joint author 
with Sir George Adam Smith) of the 
nasterly little treatise The Kirk in Scot- 
and, 1560-1929 (1930). And it was again 
ilamsay MacDonald who in 1935 advised 
;he appointment of Buchan to the gover- 
lor-generalship of Canada, the supreme 
)pportunity of Buchan's life, to show of 
vhat mettle he was made. 

That Lord Tweedsmuir (the appropriate 
itle conferred upon Buchan) had qualities 
vhich fitted him in no common degree 
or the office was shown by The King's 
irace: 1910-1935 (1935). The auspices, 
ave in the matter of his health, were good. 
le was a Scot, a Presbyterian, and his 
(rife was descended from the two noble 
lOuses of Grosvenor and Stuart-Wortley, 
nd in her ancestry she could count more 
tatesmen than most people. His vigour 
ras undiminished and in 1937 Augustics 
rought to a close his studies in ancient 
istory and the humanities. 

As governor-general Tweedsmuir had to 
ice the change in the position of the 



representative of the crown made by the 
Statute of Westminster (1931). He there- 
fore requited a warm welcome with un- 
wearied devotion to duty on ceremonial 
occasions, courts, reviews, the delivery of 
addresses and lectures, not only in English 
but in French, for he took a special in- 
terest in Lower Canada and the French- 
Canadian culture. Moreover, he was 
discreet and tactful, and he possessed 
charm in both its forms, sympathy with 
the interlocutor or audience, and sympathy 
of bearing. He was made a Red Indian 
chief. The author of The Last Secrets 
(1923) never neglected a chance of explora- 
tion and he travelled to visit all sorts 
and conditions of men throughout the 
Dominion. 

But Tweedsmuir overtaxed his strength, 
and the anxiety inseparable from the visit 
of the King and Queen in 1939 strained it 
in spite of the excellence of the arrange- 
ments. Any chance of a needed rest was 
lost by the outbreak of war in September. 
His death, which took place at Montreal 
11 February 1940, was followed by a 
spontaneous outburst of sorrow from all 
quarters of the free world. It was felt in 
Canada that his pubUc services in voicing 
the spirit of Canadian loyalty, in promot- 
ing recruiting, and showing a gallant 
front had, as Cardinal Villeneuve said, 
been a factor in cementing national unity 
in Canada. Nor was his influence confined 
to Canada. Since 1937 at least he had been 
on terms of real friendship with President 
Roosevelt, and, with Lord Lothian [q.v.] 
at Washington, another member of 
Milner's South African 'kindergarten', he 
played his part in maintaining relations 
with the United States on the right plane. 

Tweedsmuir married in 1907 Susan 
Charlotte, elder daughter of Captain Nor- 
man de r Aigle Grosvenor, third son of the 
first Lord Ebury [q.v.], and had three sons 
and one daughter. He was succeeded as 
second baron by his eldest son, John 
Norman Stuart (born 1911). His honours, 
pubUc and academic, came freely. He was 
sworn of the Privy Council in 1937, and 
was appointed C.H. in 1932, G.C.M.G. in 
1935, and G.C.V.O. in 1939. He was 
elected chancellor of Edinburgh University 
in 1937 and an honorary fellow of Brase- 
nose College in 1934, and he received 
honorary degrees from three of the four 
Scottish universities, and from Oxford, 
Harvard, Yale, and most of the Canadian 
universities. 

A portrait of Lord Tweedsmuir, by 
Shoito Johnstone-Douglas (1900), is in 



113 



Buchan 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



the possession of Mr, J. W. Buchan, Bank 
House, Peebles, who also owns a bust by 
T. J. Clapperton. A posthumous portrait, 
by Alphonse Jongers, was presented to 
Lady Tweedsmuir by the women of 
Canada. 

[Manchester Guardian, 12 February 1940; 
The Times, 12 and 15 February 1940; John 
Buchan, A Lost Lady of Old Years, 1899, and 
Memory Hold-the-Door, 1940; Hon. A, C. 
Murray, Master and Brother, 1945; Anna 
Buchan (O. Douglas), Ann and her Mother, 
1922; Unforgettable: Unforgotten (1945); John 
Buchan, by his wife and friends, 1947 ; personal 
knowledge.] 

S. A. GlLLON. 

BUCHANAN, Sir GEORGE CUN- 
NINGHAM (1865-1940), civil engineer, 
was born at Islington 20 April 1865, the 
eldest son of George Buchanan, of West- 
minster, also a civil engineer, by his wife, 
Emily, youngest daughter of Thomas 
Boosey , of London. He was trained on the 
Tyne from 1882 until 1886, first under 
J. Watt Sandeman and then under P. J. 
Messent, chief engineer to the Tyne 
Improvement Commission. From 1886 he 
was associated for ten years with railway 
and other works in many parts of the 
world, Venezuela, Nova Scotia, Argentina, 
Spain, and Jamaica. On his return to 
England in 1895 he became resident 
engineer for the construction of a graving 
dock at Blyth, and in the following year 
he was appointed chief engineer to the 
Dundee Harbour Trust. 

In 1901 Buchanan left Dundee to become 
chairman and chief engineer of the Ran- 
goon Port Trust, and during the fourteen 
years for which he held that position 
designed new port works and carried out 
extensive training works on the river (for 
which he received the Watt gold medal 
from the Institution of Civil Engineers 
in 1916). At the end of 1915 he went to 
Basra as adviser to Sir John Nixon [q.v.], 
the commander-in-chief of the Mesopota- 
mian campaign, on all matters connected 
with the port, its administration, engineer- 
ing works, and river conservancy, and in 
1917 attained the rank of brigadier-general. 
For his work at Basra, which he described 
in his book The Tragedy of Mesopotamia 
(1988), he was twice mentioned in dis- 
patches, and his services and powers of 
organization were acknowledged by the 
government of India to have 'sensibly 
promoted' the ultimate success of British 
arms in Mesopotamia. His war services 
also included membership of the Indian 
Munitions Board (1917-1919). 



After the war Buchanan entered into 
partnership with C. S. Meik and was 
appointed consulting engineer for the Back 
Bay reclamation scheme at Bombay, 
which provided for the reclamation of over 
1,100 acres of land by the construction of a 
sea wall four miles long, the area within it 
being filled with silt dredged from the sea 
bed outside. In this undertaking he had 
less than his usual success, for his estimates 
proved faulty and his plans miscarried. 

In 1922 Buchanan visited South Africa 
at the request of the Union government 
to report on the transport problems of the 
country, particularly in connexion with 
ports and harbours, and in 1925 he under- 
took a similar mission in Australia for the 
Commonwealth government, preparing a 
report on the development and administra- 
tion of Northern Australia. 

Buchanan was appointed CLE. in 1911, 
and after having been knighted in 1915, 
K.C.I.E. in 1917. He was twice married: 
first, in 1894 to Elizabeth Isabelle (died 
1926), younger daughter of WiUiam Mead, 
of Plymouth, and had a son and a daughter ; 
secondly, in 1930 to Joan, second daughter 
of Lieutenant John George Haggard, R.N., 
later consul at Malaga. He died at 
Ditchingham, Norfolk, 14 April 1940. 

[The Times, 15 April 1940; Engineer and 
Engineering, 19 April 1940.] 

H. M. Ross. 



BUCHANAN, Sm GEORGE SEATON 
(1869-1936), expert in public health, was 
born in London 19 February 1869, the 
elder son of Sir George Buchanan [q.v.], 
by his second wife, Alice Mary Asmar, 
daughter of E. C. Seaton, M.D. [q.v.]. He 
was educated at University College School, 
University College, London, and St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, graduating M.B., 
with a gold medal in 1891 and proceeding 
to M.D. in 1893. 

After holding hospital appointments, 
Buchanan became in 1895 a medical 
inspector of the Local Government Board 
where his early work was directed to the 
investigation of food-poisoning epidemics. 
He was chief inspector of foods from 1906 
until 1911 and chief assistant medical 
officer from 1911 until 1919. During the 
war of 1914-1918 he was attached to the 
Army Sanitary Committee with the hono- 
rary rank of lieutenant-colonel and was a 
member of the Medical Advisory Com- 
mittee, both to the British Mediterranean 
Expeditionary Force (1915-1916) and to 
the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force 



114 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Buchanan, J. 



(1916-1917). This work entailed a con- 
siderable amount of service abroad. He 
was appointed C.B. in 1918. 

Buchanan became a senior medical 
officer of the new Ministry of Health in 
1919. He dedicated the rest of his active 
life to the promotion of co-operation in 
international health, and in 1934 he gave 
the Milroy lectures on International Co- 
operation in Public Health, Its Achievement 
and Prospects (published in the same year) 
to the Royal College of Physicians, He 
was vice-president of the international 
health organization of the League of 
Nations, president of the League's cancer 
commission, and in 1929 a member of the 
commission for the reorganization of the 
public health services of Greece. In 1932 he 
received the signal honour of being elected 
president of the Office International 
d'Hygiene Publique, of which he had been 
a member since 1914. 

Buchanan was knighted in 1922, elected 
F.R.C.P. in 1925, and was master of the 
j Society of Apothecaries in 1934f-1935. He 
married in 1896 Rhoda Agnes, fifth 
daughter of Thomas Atkinson, of Plum- 
garths, Westmorland, and had one son, 
who predeceased him, and one daughter. 
He retired from office in 1934 and died in 
London 11 October 1936. 

Buchanan was an indefatigable worker 
and had few interests outside his official 
duties. He effected much abroad through 
the respect evoked by his high qualities 
lud personality, and he had considerable 
50cial gifts which aided him in making 
?Iear the British point of view on inter- 
lational health matters to foreign col- 
eagues. His minutes and reports in their 
inished form were models of clarity and 
excellence. 

Buchanan had been brought up in the 
itmosphere of public health and learned 
nuch from his father. His mind, therefore, 
vas a storehouse of precedents and epi- 
lemiological knowledge. He asked much 
rom those who worked under him, but 
vas ever ready to acknowledge their 
ontributions, to promote their interests, 
nd to delight them by his wit and 
ovirtesy. 

Save for the Milroy lectures and certain 
pecial reports and addresses, Buchanan 
lade few contributions to medical litera- 
Lire. His vast knowledge and administra- 
ive ability are either buried in office files 
r are to be found in blue-books and in the 
feports of the health organization of the 
league of Nations. Inheriting and main- 
iiining great traditions, Buchanan was 



the last of a famous generation of public 
servants. 

[The Times, 12 October 1936 ; British Medi- 
cal Journal, 1936, vol. ii, p. 788 ; Lancet, 1934, 
vol. i, p. 142, and 1936, vol. ii, p. 947 (por- 
trait) ; personal knowledge.] 

Arthur S. MacNalty. 

BUCHANAN, JAMES, Baron Woolav- 
INGTON (1849-1935), philanthropist and 
racehorse owner, was the youngest son of 
Alexander Buchanan, of Glasgow, by his 
wife, Catharine, daughter of William 
Mclean. He was born at Brockville, West 
Canada, 16 August 1849 and was brought 
to Scotland when he was a year old. Of 
delicate health, he was educated privately, 
and he was still quite a young man when 
he went to London to sell whisky for a 
Scottish firm of distillers. The turning- 
point in his life came when a friend, struck 
by his grit and perseverance, offered him 
some capital to open business on his own 
accoxmt, and in 1880 he established the 
firm of James Buchanan «fe company in 
a small office in Bucklersbury. After a 
hard struggle he managed to repay all that 
had been lent to him, and, as soon as he 
was master of his own business, he arranged 
various combinations and amalgamations 
which assisted him to build up a consider- 
able fortune. An unusual feature of his 
career was that, although he lived to a 
great age, he was always a delicate man, 
constantly obliged to nurse his health. He 
made many friends wherever he went, and 
not one had anjrthing but good to say of 
him. They described him as never having 
taken an unfair advantage of anybody, 
and as always ready to help those in 
trouble or difficulty. 

Buchanan's experiences on the turf 
covered nearly forty years. He began to 
race about the end of the nineteenth 
century, and owned horses that won him 
many good races. His first classic victory 
was in the St. Leger of 1916, when, owing 
to the war, the race was run at Newmarket 
instead of at Doncaster. Buchanan was 
training with F. Darling at Beckhampton 
at the time, and it was to him that he sent 
Hurry On, a yearling which he had bought 
for 500 guineas. As a two-year-old Hurry 
On could not be trained owing to unsound- 
ness, but as a three-year-old he ran in six 
races and won them all. Not only was he 
Buchanan's first classic winner, but he 
sired for him the Derby winners of 1922 
and 1926, Captain Cuttle and Coronach. 
The last-named was probably the best 
horse that Lord Woolavington, as he had 



115 



Buchanan, J. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



then become, ever owned. Although his 
debut as a two-year-old was only modest, 
the trimnphs of Coronach as a three-year- 
old in the Derby, the Eclipse Stakes, and 
the St. Leger were resounding. In 1927 
Woolavington was elected a member of 
the Jockey Club, and the last time that his 
colours were carried to victory was in a 
race at Worcester a few days before his 
death. 

Much of the wealth which he derived 
from his business was devoted by Woolav- 
ington to philanthropy. He gave away 
large sums both to public objects and to 
charity. He bought the log-book of the 
Victory, written in the sailingmaster's own 
hand, and presented it to the British 
Museum, and when an appeal was made 
for funds to fit out the old Implacable as a 
training ship, he sent a cheque for the 
£4,000 needed for the purpose. He showed 
his love of animals when, in 1926, he gave 
£10,000 to Edinburgh University for its 
animal breeding research department : the 
university conferred upon him the honor- 
ary degree of LL.D. In 1928 he gave 
£125,000 to the Middlesex Hospital in 
memory of his wife, and at the same time 
placed £50,000 at the disposal of the King 
for the restoration of the nave of St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor. Not only did 
he give many other sums to good causes, 
but his private life was full of kind and 
generous actions known only to those who 
benefited by them. 

Buchanan was created a baronet in 
1920, was raised to the peerage as Baron 
Woolavington, of Lavington, Sussex, in 
1922, and was appointed G.C.V.O. in 1931. 
In 1891 he married Annie Eliza Bardolph, 
widow, daughter of Thomas Povmder, 
upholsterer. She was a hospital nurse, 
and he met her on one of the voyages 
undertaken for the sake of his health. Her 
sudden death in 1918 was due perhaps to 
overwork in nursing the wounded in 
London hospitals. The only child of the 
marriage was a daughter. Woolavington 
died at Lavington Park, Petworth, Sussex, 
9 August 1935. 

A portrait of Woolavington, by (Sir) J.J. 
Shannon, was exhibited at the Royal Acad- 
emy in 1918. A cartoon of him, by ' Spy ', 
appeared in Vanity Fair 20 November 1907. 

[The Times, 10 August 1935.] 

Alfred Cochrane. 

BUCKLE, GEORGE EARLE (1854^ 
1935), editor of The Times newspaper and 
man of letters, was born at Twerton-on- 
Avon, near Bath, 10 June 1854, the eldest 



of the four sons of George Buckle, suc- 
cessively fellow of Oriel College, Oxford,] 
vicar of Twerton-on-Avon, rector of] 
Weston-super-Mare, and canon and pre- 
centor of Wells Cathedral, by his wife, 
Mary Hamlyn Earle, sister of the philolo- 
gist John Earle [q.v.]. He was educated 
at Honiton Grammar School, whence he 
gained a scholarship at Winchester and 
afterwards was elected a scholar of New 
College, Oxford. There he read classical 
and mathematical moderations, won the 
Newdigate prize (1875), and was awarded 
a first class in literae humaniores (1876) 
and in modern history (1877). From 1877 
to 1885 he was a fellow of All Souls. At 
Lincoln's Inn he read in the chambers of 
(Sir) John Rigby [q.v.]. Jom-nalism, how- 
ever, to which he was no stranger, in that^ 
his father had been a regular contributor] 
to the Guardian, offered him an oppor- 
tunity almost at once, for he was recom- 
mended for the post of assistant editor tol 
the Manchester Guardian by Mandell] 
Creighton [q.v.], but the offer was de- 
clined. Five months before being called 1 
to the bar in November 1880, his name 
had been put before John Walter III 
[q.v.] by Sir William Anson [q.v.] for the^ 
post of assistant to the editor of The TimeSt 
Thomas Chenery [q.v.], on whose death^ 
in February 1884, Buckle, still under 
thirty, was appointed editor. 

Buckle's predominant interest was ii 
home politics, and he carried on readilj 
the tradition of The Times to give support J 
general but critical, to the government of 
the day ; but this tradition was soon broken] 
by the home rule controversy, which led up] 
to the Parnell commission. The responsi- 
bility for accepting the forged letters layj 
with the proprietor and the manager, anc 
the true source of the letters was not 
known to Buckle imtil shortly before the 
appearance of Richard Pigott [q.v.] in the 
witness-box. After the proceedings he 
offered to assume responsibility for the 
publication and tendered his resignation^ 
This was declined; and Buckle, whose 
instincts lay in carrying on the paper oi 
the lines on which he had found it, ws 
confronted with the necessity of man5 
administrative changes. His general atti- 
tude towards innovations was that they_ 
were probably dangerous; but he wa 
prompt and generous in adopting anj 
innovation (except the telephone) when he 
saw that it would work. But the prosperitj 
of the paper had to be restored, and^ 
the establishment of a foreign department 
tended to withdraw a large portion of the 



116 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Buckle 



paper from his immediate supervision, 
though not from his control. In other 
directions also the increasing size of the 
daily paper made for decentralization; 
and so when the change in proprietorship 
came (1908), with the new ideas of separate 
departments under separate directors and 
of the editor being limited to leading 
articles and general political direction. 
Buckle, who considered himself personally 
responsible for all that appeared in the 
paper, found his position increasingly 
difficult. Nevertheless he loyally set him- 
self to make new arrangements work, 
until, to his surprise, it was informally 
conveyed to him that his resignation 
would be welcomed. He accordingly re- 
signed at once (August 1912). To his 
efforts to hold to the inherited idea of 
general support for the government of the 
day and keeping open the correspondence 
columns to both sides of controversy, many 
tributes reached Buckle from political 
opponents and notably from Haldane, 
Grey, and Morley. 

What might then have seemed to be the 
end of a career proved to be the prelude to 
two others. On the death in 1912 of W. 
F. Monypenny [q.v.] the Beaconsfield 
trustees commissioned Buckle to continue 
the Life of Benjamin Disraeli ; and the 
labours of the next eight years were 
devoted to the last four of its six volumes 
(pubhshed 1914-1920). For one who 
followed the vicissitudes of home politics 
and public life with something of a sports- 
man's zest, the career of Disraeli could not 
but be engrossing ; and the book has be- 
come a classic, and a quarry. Many years 
later Lord Morley wrote to him : ' We have 
each of us done his best to keep public life 
and public opinion on a wholesome and 
self-respecting level: and we have done 
our best to make the two great political 
rivals immortal.' 

A few months after the completion of 
the Life of Disraeli, King George V chose 
Buckle to continue the selection and edit- 
ing of the Letters of Queen Victoria which 
liad been carried to 1861 by A. C. Benson 
and Viscount Esher [qq.v.] in 1907. Two 
series, each of three volumes, appeared 
between 1926 and 1932. Of the first series 
(1862-1885) perhaps the most salutary 
(effect was the dispelling of legends and 
misunderstandings that had grown up 
during the years of the Queen's self- 
imposed seclusion, and the tracing of the 
gradual recovery of public trust, culminat- 
ing in the jubilees of 1887 and 1897. 
I Buckle showed in this work a reassuring 



quietness of judgement combined with a 
spirit of discriminating hero-worship. He 
did not shrink from revealing the limita- 
tions of the Queen, her cloistered upbring- 
ing, her self-centredness and vehemence, 
but he brought out clearly her shrewd 
political interest, devotion to duty, and 
wide sympathy with all classes. Buckle's 
editing was a triumph of self-suppression, 
and an eminent judge declared the six 
volumes to be 'a masterpiece by a dumb 
historian'. But the editor's guidance to 
the reader is always there. 

The remaining three years of Buckle's 
life were passed quietly in London with 
occasional visits to his former haunts 
where he helped in the preparation of the 
first volume of the History of The Times 
(1935). He died in London, after a very 
short illness, 13 March 1935. 

When Buckle retired from the editor- 
ship of The Times, a journal politically 
opposed to it used words that might well 
have come from any member of his large 
and devoted staff. ' In appearance he is a 
typical Englishman of the upper classes, 
intellectualized and refined. In character, 
too, he is thoroughly English, sound and 
wholesome to the core, not too idealistic, 
inflexibly just, moderate and judicious in 
his views and spirit, honest as the day, and 
with serious and lofty views of life and 
duty.' With these qualities were combined 
a robust body, a robust voice, a hearty 
boyish manner (concealing a certain shy- 
ness), and a natural buoyancy which 
carried him through laborious nighti^ and 
days. An enduring taste for an Eiiglish 
holiday (golf or exploratory walks) enabled 
him to pass at once from work to complete 
relaxation and, in middle life, to treat a 
serious operation almost with contumely. 
His tastes were those naturally formed by 
a boy of his upbringing, and they remained 
those of the man: a preference for the 
well-established and a cautious welcome 
to the new. 

Buckle was offered a baronetcy by A. J. 
Balfour, but declined it : he received honor- 
ary degrees from the universities of St. 
Andrews (1899) and Oxford (1932). He 
was twice married: first, in 1885 to Alicia 
Isobel (died 1898), third daughter of the 
novelist James Payn [q.v.] ; secondly, in 
1905 to his first cousin Beatrice Anne 
(died 1938), second daughter of John 
Earle. A son and a daughter were born 
of the first marriage. 

[The Times, 13 March 1935 ; private in- 
formation ; personal knowledge.] 

Bruce L. Richmond. 



117 



Buckley 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



BUCKLEY, HENRY BURTON, first 
Baron Wrenbuby (1845-1935), judge, 
was born in London 15 September 1845, 
the fourth of the six sons of John Wall 
Buckley, vicar of St. Mary's church, Pad- 
dington Green, by his wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Burton. He went in 
1854 to Merchant Taylors School, from 
which he obtained a scholarship at Christ's 
College, Cambridge. He was ninth wrangler 
in the mathematical tripos of 1868, having 
won, in 1866, the Tancred law studentship 
at Lincoln's Inn. From 1868 to 1882 he 
was a fellow of Christ's. He was called to 
the bar by Lincoln's Inn in 1869, and 
became a bencher in 1891. He took silk in 
1886, and in 1900 was appointed a judge 
of the Chancery division. In 1906 he was 
promoted to the Court of Appeal, where 
he sat assiduously until his retirement, and 
was sworn of the Privy Council. On his 
retirement in 1915 he was raised to the 
peerage as Baron Wrenbury, of Old Castle, 
Surrey. He soon showed that he by no 
means intended to retire from the active 
life of the law, for he continued for many 
years to sit, as a peer who had held high 
judicial office, on appeals before both the 
House of Lords and the Judicial Committee 
of the Privy Council. He was elected an 
honorary fellow of his college in 1901. 

Some years before he obtained forensic 
success, he had become well known to the 
legal profession as the author of the classic 
' Buckley on Companies '. The first edition 
of The Law and Practice under the Com- 
panies Acts appeared in 1873, and the most 
recent (eleventh) edition, the compilation 
of which was necessitated by the passage 
of the Act of 1929, in 1930. Although (Sir) 
Francis Beaufort Palmer's work on Com- 
pany Law, which first appeared in 1898, 
was to prove a formidable and more 
popular rival, nevertheless Wrenbury's 
book has retained its authority undimmed. 
Its character differs from that of Palmer's 
in that it takes the form of a commentary 
on the Act, section by section, and in 
showing continuity of authorship through- 
out the editions it has one definite ad- 
vantage over the later work, for in the 
preparation even of the eleventh edition 
Wrenbury himself, then in his eighty- 
fifth year, was able to render personal 
assistance. 

Although his forte naturally lay in 
company law, Wrenbury had a very firm 
grasp of every side of equity. In the field 
of Common Law, with which in the higher 
courts he was not infrequently called upon 
to deal, he was perhaps less generally 



happy, but here too his alert mind, his 
sound common sense, and his capacity for 
the absorption of the details of a problem, 
were great assets, both to himself and to 
his colleagues on the bench. 

In the course of a thirty-five years' 
tenure of judicial office, Wrenbury's output 
of judgements was of course enormous, 
and the choice of a few for especial mention 
is a task of more than ordinary difficulty. 
In 1915 he was one of the majority of 
a divided Court of Appeal which decided 
Hurst V. Picture Theatres, the case which 
has perhaps given rise to more comment 
and controversy than has fallen to the 
lot of any other decision of this century. The 
court laid down that one who has paid for 
his seat and taken it in a theatre, and has 
been ejected from it although his behaviour 
has in no way called for blame, is, as the 
result of the Judicature Act (1873), en- 
titled, not only to nominal damages for 
breach of contract, but to substantial 
damages for assault. Opinion, both pro- 
fessional and academic, has on the whole 
been unfavourable to the decision in that, 
by a spurious use of equitable principle, it 
in effect elevates a mere licence to the 
status of a licence coupled with interest, or 
of an easement. But Buckley's judgement, 
although it has failed to command agree- 
ment, is everywhere recognized as a 
monument of learning. When he went to 
the House of Lords it was noticeable that 
Lord Wrenbury showed an independence 
of judgement that had hardly been a 
characteristic of Lord Justice Buckley. 
Although no man was ever less cantanker- 
ous or less prone to dissent for the mere 
sake of dissent, he was never reluctant to 
utter a strong dissenting speech when he 
was convinced that his colleagues were 
in the wrong. Perhaps the two most 
famous cases in which he was in a minority 
of one were Bourne v. Keane (1919) and 
Stopes V. Sutherland (1925). The former 
laid down that bequests for masses for the 
souls of the dead are not now void as 
directed to superstitious uses. The latter 
was an action for libel, brought by Dr. 
Marie Stopes against the defendant, who 
had published strong disapproval of her 
campaign for instruction in birth control. 
The jury negatived fair comment, and the 
Court of Appeal upheld that verdict. 
In the House of Lords Wrenbury took the 
isolated view that the order of the Court 
of Appeal should be upheld or, alterna- 
tively, that there should be a new trial. 

Wrenbury interested himself not only 
in the judicial but also in the legislative 



118 



D.N.B. 1081-1940 



Buckmaster 



work of the House of Lords. He was a 
very valuable member of the Joint Com- 
mittee of Lords and Commons on the bill 
for consolidating the various statutory 
provisions relating to income tax, which 
ultimately passed into law as the Income 
Tax Act (1918). He was greatly interested 
in political economy, and in 1904 founded 
a scholarship in that subject, tenable at 
Cambridge. The same interest led him to 
contribute in April 1924 an article to The 
Times on the important subject of trade 
unions, in which he advanced the eminently 
practical proposition that every class 
should be educated to understand the 
difficulties of every other class. His was 
a life packed throughout its long duration 
with painstaking and useful work for 
humanity. 

Wrenbury married in 1887 Bertha 
Margaretta, third daughter of Charles 
Edward Jones, of South Kensington, and 
had four sons, the second of whom died in 
infancy, and four daughters. He died in 
London 27 October 1935, at the age of 
ninety, and was succeeded as second baron 
by his eldest son, Bryan Burton (1890- 
1940). 

Two portraits of Wrenbury, by John 
Collier (1897 and 1907), are in the posses- 
sion of his widow. 

[The Times, 28 October 1935.] 

H. G. Hanbury. 

BUCKMASTER, STANLEY OWEN, 

first Viscount Buckiviaster (1861-1934), 
lord chancellor and statesman, was born 
at Slapton, Cheddington, Buckingham- 
shire, 9 January 1861, the third of the 
four sons of John Charles Buckmaster, of 
Slapton, afterwards of Wandsworth, by 
his wife, Emily Anne, eldest daughter of 
George Goodliffe, of Trumpington, near 
Cambridge. John Buckmaster was a 
remarkable man who, beginning life as an 
agricultural labourer, became successively 
a joiner, a well-known platform speaker in 
the cause of free trade, and, under the 
patronage of the Prince Consort whom he 
had advised and helped in the matter of 
the Great Exhibition of 1851, an inspector 
in the Department of Science and Art at 
South Kensington, which has since de- 
veloped into the Imperial College of 
Science and Technology. 

Stanley Buckmaster was sent to Alden- 
ham School where he remained until 1879, 
living a life so hard that he never forgot 
its hardships. He then went, with a jiuiior 
studentship, to Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he obtained a second class in 



mathematical moderations (1881) and in 
the final mathematical school (1882). 

Buckmaster was a devoted liberal and, 
as his father had been, an ardent free 
trader. In 1906 he was returned to parlia- 
ment for the borough of Cambridge: in 
.January 1910 he lost that seat, which, 
in the following December, he again un- 
successfully contested ; but at a by-election 
in October 1911 he was returned for the 
Keighley division of the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. Under the leadership first 
of Campbell-Bannerman and afterwards of 
Asquith, Buckmaster was a supporter 
of the government. But often he would 
speak, albeit from the government benches, 
from the experience of a practising lawyer 
rather than as a party man, and such 
speeches as the defence of Sir William 
Grantham [q.v.], a strong conservative, in 
connexion with a petition in respect of the 
election at Yarmouth in 1906, and his 
criticisms of the criminal appeal bill 
(1907) came from him as a lawyer's 
guidance of the House. 

It was not, however, until he reached 
the House of Lords in 1915 that Buck- 
master's powers as a parliamentary 
debater, and as a parliamentary orator, 
reached their height and that he became a 
leader of debate. While he was on the 
woolsack he took the ordinary part of a 
lord chancellor in debate and was some- 
times the most prominent speaker for the 
government; and afterwards he often 
availed himself of the benefit of the custom 
by which an ex-lord chancellor, as distinct 
from the other law lords, is granted by the 
House full liberty to take part, and even 
a leading part, in general political debate. 
He spoke thus on many subjects, including 
finance, industrial unrest, disarmament, 
the treatment of Germans after the war of 
1914-1918, the government's Irish policy, 
the reform of the House of Lords, many 
times on the reform of the divorce laws 
(a subject always much in his mind), birth 
control, and women's suffrage: what he 
said always compelled the respect of the 
House and the manner of his saying it its 
admiration. During the same years he 
made many important speeches outside 
parliament, a number of which, especially 
the speeches which he made in 1925 to 
lawyers in Canada and the United States 
of America, will be remembered. As a 
platform orator he was regarded by many 
as supreme in his time. 

In 1884 Buckmaster was called to the 
bar by the Inner Temple and in 1902 
became a member of Lincoln's Inn. He 



119 



Buckmaster 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



was made a bencher of Lincoln's Inn in 
1910 and was treasurer in 1934. He 
practised first on the Common Law side, 
largely on the Oxford circuit and in 
county courts, and it was because he did 
there, as a young man, so much litigation 
work, unled, that he learnt to lean on his 
own judgement about a case as a whole, 
and so, when he went over into Chancery 
and as a junior was soon engaged in cases 
involving different questions and more 
important amounts, he was competent 
from experience, and bold from having 
known responsibility, to determine, and 
to advise without waiting for a leader, not 
only on the law and the form of the 
pleadings, but on the merits of the case 
and the strategy and tactics for the court. 
On the Chancery side he had a large 
practice as a junior and in 1902 he took 
silk. In those days the King's Counsel 
practising on the Chancery side were 
'attached' to the courts of particular 
judges of that division and he went to 
Sir H. B. Buckley (afterwards Lord Wren- 
bury, q.v.). In 1907 he 'went special' and 
so for a special fee could, and did, practise 
before any Chancery judge. Like every 
great success at the bar, Buckmaster's was 
gained by hard work and thoroughness: 
he was by nature and training a good 
lawyer; he learnt and understood what 
equity might be necessary ; he was quick 
enough and industrious enough to scruti- 
nize the facts put before him, and had 
skill and judgement in the selection and 
presentation of what among those facts 
was material. He never sought to evade 
a difficulty by pretending that it was not 
there ; it was a precept of his that before 
you put together the stones of which a 
house is to be built you must look aU 
round each stone to see whether there is 
a beetle underneath it. 

In 1913 Buckmaster was appointed 
solicitor-general in succession to Sir John 
Simon. His work as a law oflRcer earned 
much commendation from the bench, the 
bar, and the departments, but soon after 
the outbreak of war he was given addi- 
tional duties as director of the Press 
Bureau. To a press accustomed to free- 
dom and a public whose curiosity was insa- 
tiable, his methods appeared too drastic, 
nor did his explanations always command 
satisfaction in the House of Commons or 
in the coimtry. 

On the reconstruction of Asquith's 
government into a coalition ministry in 
May 1915, and the retirement of Haldane 
as lord chancellor, the great seal was 



given to Buckmaster, who the same day 
was sworn of the Privy Council. He took 
the title of Baron Buckmaster, of Ched- 
dington, in Buckinghamshire. When the 
coalition ministry fell in December 1916, 
Buckmaster, who had been lord chancellor 
for only eighteen months, was succeeded by 
R . B . , Lord Finlay [q.v.] With the exception 
of some time passed in the City, in 1925- 
1926, in a crusade against what he re- 
garded as an injustice (for which time he 
relinquished his pension) he spent the rest 
of his life as an appellate judge in the 
House of Lords and the Judicial Committee 
of the Privy Council and often presided 
in those tribunals. 

Buckmaster was probably best known 
as an orator, but the work which he did as 
a judge is the work that will be remembered 
longest. It was not the work which he 
most enjoyed, but it was done under the 
compulsion of a stern sense of duty and 
the recognition, when sitting as a judge 
in the highest tribunals of the Empire, 
that justice, which had always been the 
ruling motive of his life, was now best 
served by statement of the law as it was. 
Any temptation to find a construction of 
the law which would 'right a wrong' in 
the particular case or would mitigate a 
hardship caused by the law itself was 
resolutely resisted. No one ever saw more 
clearly that hard cases make bad law, 
and that the cure in such cases was for 
parliament. Lord Birkenhead said of him 
that he was 'a consummately equipped 
judge'; and when Lord Dunedin was 
asked: 'Whom do you regard as the 
greatest colleague you have had?', he 
answered: 'You will be surprised when I 
tell you — Buckmaster; I have not and 
I never have had any sympathy with 
Buckmaster's political ideas and perfor- 
mances and I think him to be a senti- 
mentalist — unless he is sitting on his arse 
on the bench ; there he is one of the most 
learned, one of the most acute, and the 
fairest judge I ever sat with ; and he will 
leave much in the books.' 

Buckmaster was appointed G.C.V.O. in 
1930 and advanced to a viscountcy in 
1933: the step in the peerage was made, 
certainly in the opinion of the profession, 
particularly in order to enable him, after 
he had ceased to be lord chancellor, to 
preside in appeals in which some other law 
lord or member of the Judicial Committee, 
junior to him but a viscount, might be 
sitting: it was a legal, not a political, nor 
a social, advancement. He was counsel to 
Oxford University from 1910 to 1913 ; was 



120 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Budge 



elected an honorary student of Christ 
Church in 1917; and received honorary 
degrees from the vmiversities of Toronto 
(1925) and Oxford and Edinburgh (1933). 
He held a very special position in regard 
to the boot and shoe trade as umpire for 
determining wages and disputes about 
conditions. He had held this position for 
three years before his appointment as a 
law officer, and in 1925 was re-appointed 
and held the office until his death. In 1923 
he became chairman of the governing body 
of the Imperial College of Science and 
Technology, an appointment of which, for 
the sake of his father's memory, he was 
most proud. 

Buckmaster was much beloved by his 
friends and particularly at the Garrick 
Club of which he was a member from 1909 
until his death. He seldom said a witty 
thing and seldom told a good story, but 
his speeches at the famous Svmday dinners 
of the club were delightful in their always 
kindly humour. Perhaps the best of his 
talk was when, on a fishing holiday beside 
the Spey, he would be lying on the bank 
with a friend, often his faithful and much- 
loved gillie, waiting for the sun to go off 
the pool. 

Buckmaster married in 1889 Edith 
Augusta (died 1935), fourth daughter of 
Spencer Robert Lewin, of Widford, Hert- 
fordshire; they had one son and two 
daughters, the elder of whom predeceased 
her father. He died in London 5 December 
1934, and was succeeded as second viscount 
by his son, Owen Stanley (bom 1890). 

A portrait of Buckmaster, by Thomas 
McKegger, is in the possession of Dr. 
Dorothy Tasker. Another (posthumous) 
portrait, in his lord chancellor's robes, by 
Reginald Eves, hangs in the hall of Christ 
Church, Oxford. 

[The Times, 6 and 7 December 1934; A 
Village Politician. The Life-Story of John 
Buckley (edited by J. C. Buckmaster whose 
autobiography it is), 1897 ; James Johnston, 
An Orator of Justice. A Speech Biography of 
Viscount Buckmaster, 1932; private informa- 
tion ; personal knowledge.] 

Geoffrey Russell. 



BUDGE, Sir (ERNEST ALFRED 
THOMPSON) WALLIS (1857-1934), As- 
syriologist and Egyptologist, came of 
Cornish Quaker stock engaged in Indian 
and Chinese trade. He was born 27 July 
1857. While still a child at an elementary 
school run by a relative, he became in- 
terested in Hebrew ; employed at an early 
age by W. H. Smith & Son, in his scanty 



leisure he studied Hebrew and Syriac 
with Charles Seager [q.v.]. The intense 
interest aroused by the Assyrian dis- 
coveries of George Smith [q.v.] led to 
an introduction to Samuel Birch [q.v.] at 
the British Museum, and to opportunities 
for study which he generously provided. 
Gladstone, appealed to by Seager in 1874, 
arranged for funds to send the boy to 
Cambridge as a non-collegiate student 
under William Wright [q.v.] in 1878. In 
1879, following John Peile's sugges- 
tion, Budge won the Otway exhibition 
at Christ's College where he was elected 
scholar in 1881. Wright, an unsparing 
critic of decipherers of cimeiform, was 
much incensed by the appearance of two 
books on Assyrian texts, destined to 
remain useful for forty years, from the 
pen of an undergraduate, but later he 
became a firm friend, whose counsel was 
sought and followed until his death in 
1889. After taking the Semitic languages 
tripos in 1882, Budge won the Tyrwhitt 
Hebrew scholarship, and a year later 
(1883), in accordance with Gladstone's 
desire, accepted appointment as assistant 
in Birch's department (oriental antiqui- 
ties) at the British Museum. 

This appointment led to Budge's aban- 
donment of Assyxiology owing to the 
jealousy of a colleague. This was a bitter 
blow, but his training proved constantly 
useful. At the request of Sir H. C. Rawlin- 
son [q.v.] the trustees sent Budge on three 
missions to Mesopotamia, partly to con- 
duct excavations strictly limited in scope, 
but chiefly to clear up unsatisfactory 
arrangements made by Hormuzd Rassam 
[q.v.], involving payment of guards on 
sites where pillage was rife. Budge's 
reports, leading to the dismissal of the 
guards, were displeasing to Sir A. H. 
Layard [q.v.], who had recommended 
Rassam, and two interviews led to an 
action for slander by Rassam against 
Budge, tried before Mr. Justice Cave in 
1893. The award of £50 damages and the 
consequent costs were only met with the 
assistance of colleagues, indignant that 
official reports should ultimately have 
become the subject of a private action. In 
1897, when in Egypt, Budge had an 
opportunity to purchase tablets from 
Amarna, and his knowledge enabled him 
to form a more correct opinion of this 
surprising find than did others. His long 
acquaintance with Assyriologists is re- 
corded in The Rise and Progress of 
Assyriology (1925). 

Before Birch's death in 1885 Budge was 



121 



Budge 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



competent to read Egyptian texts. In 
1886 he dug at Assuan, and between 1897 
and 1905 he went five times for short 
periods to examine sites in the Sudan. It 
was there that he contracted glaucoma; 
one eye was rendered useless for reading. 
In sixteen official visits to Egypt, from 
1886, his purchases greatly extended the 
range and representative character of the 
collections not only of his own, but also of 
other departments of the Museum ; among 
them were 'celebrated Greek papyri, the 
* AOiqvaiwv TToXneia, the mimes of Herodas, 
and the odes of Bacchylides. In 1892, 
while still an assistant. Budge was put in 
charge of the department, now re-named 
Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, and in 
1894 he was appointed keeper, remaining 
so until his retirement in 1924, Owing to 
structural alterations and the war of 1914- 
1918, the heavy task of rearranging the 
collections had to be carried out three 
times. The toil of introducing order into 
chaotic disorder, and of maintaining it in 
spite of such adverse conditions, and of 
extensive acquisitions, not easily appre- 
ciated by those not concerned, did not 
prevent necessary and extensive publica- 
tion. Catalogue-guides, essential for 
students and visitors, came from Budge's 
own pen. Official publications of copies of 
cuneiform and hieroglyphic texts were 
devised by him as a result of his practical 
knowledge of printing. He himself edited 
two volumes of reproductions of hieratic 
papyri with explanatory introductions and 
translations, and numerous ancient copies 
of the Book of the Dead. He created a 
thoroughly efficient department and left it 
in good working order. 

Wright had impressed upon Budge the 
duty of speedy publication of texts, and 
the desirability of publishing translations 
with the texts, even if imperfect, to assist 
others, and Budge accomplished a remark- 
able voliune of work in following these 
precepts. In Syriac a long series begins 
with the Book of the Bee in 1886 and ends 
with the Syrian Chronicle of Bar Hebraeus 
in 1932. The first Coptic text which he 
published was the History of Isaac of 
Tiphre (1884) ; the last were the Miscel- 
laneous Texts (1915). His work in Ethiopic 
began with the Contendings of the Apostles 
(1898) and ended with the Bandlet of 
Righteousness (1929). There were also 
translations for the first time into English 
of texts published by others. Time and 
trouble were freely spent in finding money ; 
during his later years he paid for publica- 
tion himself. Editions and translations 



produced under such pressure called for, 
and received, considerable criticism ; in so 
far as the criticism promoted knowledge 
more quickly than would otherwise have 
been possible. Budge's purpose was served. 

Among Egyptologists Budge was the 
best Semitic scholar of his generation. He 
sturdily refused to accept two theories 
which became fashionable, namely, the 
grammatical interpretation of certain 
forms of the Egyptian verb by analogy 
with the Semitic verb, and transliteration 
based upon the unprovable phonetic 
theory that the hieroglyphic writing repre- 
sents always only consonants as in Semitic 
languages. His work accordingly found 
no favour in contemporary academic 
schools, but it has been of great assistance 
to the self-taught. His most important 
original work lay in the deciphering of the 
hieratic papyri in the Museum, above all 
the remarkable Teaching of Amenemapt 
(1924), and in the edition of a standard text 
of the Book of the Dead (1898). His reading 
books, devised to enable private students 
to read, were the best introductions to 
hieroglyphs inEnglishforthirty years. The 
Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary (1920), 
a remarkable achievement for one man, is 
still useful, even after the appearance of 
the Berlin Worterbuch. His ephemeral 
books, intended to place general informa- 
tion on his subjects before the reading 
public, were numerous and useful in their 
time; some still retain their value, for 
instance The Mummy (edition of 1925), 
The Egyptian Sudan, Its History and 
Monuments (1907), A History of Ethiopia, 
Nubia, and Abyssinia (1928). 

Budge had great physical energy and 
zest for life. He was a notable raconteur, 
and his company was appreciated by 
excellent judges. Impatient of idleness, 
pretentiousness, and humbug, he made 
many enemies and rejoiced in sincere 
friendships, sympathizing rather with the 
soldier than with the diplomat. A man of 
wide learning, he was critical of most of 
the 'critical' methods of modern scholar- 
ship ; intensely interested in the main lines 
of development in his subjects, he was less 
impressed by insistence on accuracy in 
minutiae than by sound judgement and 
real discoveries due to pioneer work. His 
private life was exceptionally happy; he 
married in 1888 Dora Helen, daughter 
of Titus Emerson, rector of Allendale, 
Northumberland, and he tended and 
obeyed her with great gentleness until her 
death in 1926. They had no children. On 
his death his estate provided for a memorial 



122 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Bulfin 



to her in the form of two foundations for 
the encouragement of Egyptology, the one 
at his own college, the other at University 
College, Oxford, to which he belonged 
owing to the friendship of Reginald 
Walter Macan. He was knighted in 1920. 
He died in London 23 November 1934. 

[Autobiographical material in By Nile and 
Tigris, 1920 ; bibliography in Who was Who, 
1929-1940, 1941 ; private information ; per- 
sonal knowledge.] Sidney Smith. 

I BULFIN, Sib EDWARD STANIS- 
LAUS (1862-1939), general, was born in 
Dublin 6 November 1862, the second son 
of Patrick Bulfin, of Woodtown Park, 
Rathfarnham, co. Dublin, by his wife, 
Teresa Clare, daughter of John Carroll, of 
Dublin. He was educated at Stony hurst 
and Trinity College, Dublin, and entered 
the army through the militia in which he 
served in the 3rd battalion, the Royal 
Irish Fusiliers. In 1884 he joined the 
Yorkshire Regiment (the Green Howards). 
He was promoted captain in 1895 and held 
the appointment of assistant military 
secretary and aide-de-camp to the general 
officer commanding in South Africa from 
November 1898 until November 1899. 
The South African war broke out in 
October 1899 and he continued to serve on 
the staff until 1901, taking part in the 
advance on Kimberley and the battles at 
Belmont, Enslin, Modder River, and 
Magersfontein. In December 1901 he was 
given command of a mobile column with 
which he served until the conclusion of 
the campaign in 1902. He was three times 
mentioned in dispatches, and received the 
brevets of major and lieutenant-colonel, 
the Queen's medal with four clasps, and 
the King's medal with two clasps. 

In November 1903 Bulfin was given a 
majority in the Manchester Regiment, but 
he never served with that regiment as he 
held the appointment of deputy-assistant- 
adjutant-general, the I Army Corps, from 
October 1902 until October 1904, when he 
transferred to the Royal Welch Fusiliers. 
In 1906 he returned to South Africa as 
assistant-adjutant and quartermaster- 
general, Cape Colony district. In this same 
year he was made a brevet colonel, reach- 
ing the substantive rank in 1908, He 
remained in South Africa until 1910. 
Between 1911 and the outbreak of war in 
1914 he commanded successively the 
Essex Infantry brigade of the Territorial 
Force and the 2nd brigade at Aldershot, 
which he took out with the British Expe- 
ditionary Force to France. On 14 Sep- 



tember, during the battle of the Aisne, he 
fought a successful action with his brigade 
near Troy on. On 26 October he was 
promoted major-general and, in command 
of a number of units temporarily put 
together under the title of 'Bulfin's force', 
he played a prominent part in repelling 
the German attacks during the first battle 
of Ypres, being wounded on 1 November. 

In December Bulfin was given command 
of the 28th division, which he took out to 
France in January 1915. His division was 
on the flank of the Canadian division when 
the latter met the full force of the first 
German gas attack at Ypres in April. 
Under Bulfin's resolute leadership the 28th 
division bore a very heavy burden through- 
out the second battle of Ypres and 
suffered very heavily. He remained in 
command of this division until October 
1915, when he took over the 60th division 
and served with it in France, at Salonika, 
and with the Egyptian Expeditionary 
Force imtil August 1917, when he received 
command of the XXI Army Corps, which 
also formed part of the Egyptian Expedi- 
tionary Force. He thus took part as 
a corps commander in the successful 
campaign in Palestine of Sir Edmund 
(later Viscount) AUenby [q.v.], whereby 
Turkey was put out of the war. He 
retained command of the XXI Army 
Corps until November 1919 and was 
subsequently employed as commissioner 
for the disposal of surplus stores in India 
and Iraq from the end of 1921 until August 
1923. He was promoted lieutenant- 
general in 1919 and full general in 1925. 
He retired in 1926. 

During the war of 1914-1918 Bulfin was 
seven times mentioned in dispatches and 
was promoted both to major-general and 
to lieutenant-general for distinguished 
conduct in the field. He was appointed 
C.V.O. in 1910, K.C.B. in 1918, and 
received numerous foreign decorations, 
and the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1920. He was 
colonel of the Green Howards from 1914 
until his death. 

Bulfin married in 1898 Frances Mary 
(died 1947), only daughter of Francis 
William Lonergan, of London, and had 
one son and one daughter; his son. 
Captain James Joseph Bulfin, M.C., died 
in Palestine in 1929 while serving with the 
2nd battalion, the Green Howards. Bul- 
fin died at Boscombe, Bournemouth, 20 
August 1939. 

A portrait of Bulfin, by St. Helen 
Lauder, is in the officers' mess of the 



123 



Bulfin 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



depot of the Green Howards at Richmond, 
Yorkshire. 

[The Times, 22 August 1939; Official 
records ; private information.] 

E. H. Wyndham. 

BUNSEN, SiK MAURICE WILLIAM 
ERNEST DE, baronet (1852-1932), diplo- 
matist. [See DK BuNSEN.] 

BURKITT, FRANCIS CRAWFORD 

(1864-1935), professor of divinity, was 
born in London 3 September 1864, the 
only child of Crawford Burkitt, who was 
in business there. Francis Burkitt's grand- 
father had migrated to London from 
Sudbury in Suffolk, and founded the 
business which his father carried on so 
successfully that the son had no need 
to make a living for himself. This grand- 
father married a sister of the philanthropist 
William Crawford [q.v.] whose unworldli- 
ness and reforming spirit were seen again 
in some measure in his great-nephew. His 
mother was Fanny Elizabeth Coward, of a 
Somerset family connected with Chil- 
compton. 

Being supposed to need special care 
Burkitt was sent to a day school near his 
home. In 1878 he went to Harrow, on the 
modern side, and in 1883 entered Trinity 
College, Cambridge, of which he was 
elected a scholar in 1885. He graduated 
as a wrangler in part i of the mathema- 
tical tripos of 1886, but he turned at once 
from mathematics to the study of Hebrew. 
The natural way of doing this in the 
Cambridge of that time was to read for 
the theological tripos. This involved a 
course of scientific study of the Old and 
the New Testament and the early history 
of Christian thought and institutions, 
which gave him a good foundation for his 
later work in the domain of the beginnings 
of Christianity. He won several university 
prizes and the second Tyrwhitt scholar- 
ship (1889) and was placed in the first class 
in part ii of the tripos of 1888. 

In the last-named year Burkitt married 
Amy Persis, daughter of William Parry, 
rector of Fitz, Shropshire, and grand- 
daughter of Sir Edward Barnes [q.v.]. 
They settled down in Cambridge and had 
one son, the archaeologist, Mr. Miles Bur- 
kitt. It was not until 1903 that he held any 
academic oifice — a vmiversity lecturership 
in palaeography previously held by James 
Rendel Harris — and not until after the 
promulgation of the vmiversity statutes of 
1926 that he was elected a fellow of his 
college, although he had been Norrisian 



professor of divinity (combined with the 
Hulsean professorship in 1934) since 1905. 
So he had his whole time at his own dis- 
posal and he set to work to study other 
oriental languages, Syriac in particular. 
It was as a Syriac scholar that he first 
became widely known, especially in con- 
nexion with the textual criticism of the 
Gospels. He was the first to recognize the 
importance of the Syriac palimpsest of 
the four Gospels in the convent of St. 
Catherine on Mount Sinai and was one of 
the party that transcribed it in 1893 [see 
Lewis, Agnes]. The two-volume edition 
of the old Syriac Gospels which he pub- 
lished in 1904 with the title Evangelion 
da-Mepharreshe : the Curetonian Version 
of the Four Gospels, with the Readings of the 
Sinai Palimpsest and the Early Syriac 
Patristic Evidence edited, collected and 
arranged will always be indispensable to 
the student of the Syriac versions of the 
New Testament. 

Similarly as regards the Old Testament, 
although the conditions are different, 
Burkitt's article 'Text and Versions' in 
the Encyclopaedia Biblica (1903) is a 
masterly survey which remains without an 
equal. He lived through the years when 
the new literary and historical criticism 
of the Old Testament was fighting its way, 
and he took an active part in expounding 
its main results. But it was in the field of 
critical study of the New Testament that his 
own chief contributions were made . In this 
sphere Burkitt was, for English students 
at least, one of the pioneers, especially by 
his book The Gospel History and its Trans- 
mission (1906), but scarcely less so by his 
acceptance of the teaching of Johannes 
Weiss as to the meaning of 'the kingdom 
of God' in the message of Jesus. Burkitt 
made himself at once the champion in 
England of the 'eschatological', 'apoca- 
lyptic', interpretation of the aims and 
teaching of Jesus. It was mainly at his 
instigation also that Albert Schweitzer's 
great book Von Reimarus zu Wrede (1906) 
was translated by William Montgomery 
and made known to English readers under 
the title The Quest of the Historical Jesus 
(1910). It must be counted as one of his 
chief services to the history of Christianity 
that he took a lead in showing the in- 
adequacy of the Liberal Protestant ideas 
of the nineteenth century as regards Jesus 
and His Gospel and recalled students to 
the fact that Jesus shared the apocalyptic 
conceptions current in some circles of 
religious Jews of His time and in His 
teaching never envisaged a future for 



124 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Burnet 



human society in the world as it has 
actually been. Burkitt's mastery of the 
conditions of the transition from the re- 
formed religion of Israel to the Jewish- 
Christian conditions of the first century 
A.D. was shown in his Schweich lectures 
for 1913, Jezvish and Christian Apocalypses 
(1914). 

In common with other students Burkitt 
held that the Christ of the Catholic creeds 
and institutions was the product of epi- 
genesis, in the course of which the histori- 
cal Figure had been transformed. But 
he was convinced that really scientific 
criticism applied to the Gospels revealed 
an historical Person with a substratum of 
His actual doings and sayings adequate to 
account for the origin and the later 
developments of the Christian Church. So 
he found the new school of formgeschicht- 
lich criticism unacceptable as leaving one 
of the greatest of historical phenomena — 
the rise of Christianity — in the air, without 
foundation in events and happenings in 
actual human experience (Jesus Christ: an 
Historical Outline, 1932). He made 
valuable contributions also to Franciscan 
studies (notably in an essay on ' The Study 
of the Sources of the Life of St. Francis' 
in the volume St. Francis of Assisi edited 
by Walter Seton in 1926), and to the 
history and significance of Christian wor- 
ship in Eucharist and Sacrifice (1921) and 
in vol. iii (1930) of The Christian Religion: 
its Origin and Progress, edited by J. F. 
Bethune-Baker, as well as in numerous 
articles on special points. His books on 
Manichaeism and Gnosticism, The Religion 
of the Manichees (1925) and Church and 
Gnosis (1932), are fresh and original 
surveys of well-worn themes. 

A list of Burkitt's published writings 
(books and pamphlets and articles in 
various magazines) occupies ten pages of 
small print in the Journal of Theological 
Studies for October 1935, arranged under 
the headings Syriac Studies, Textual 
Criticism, The Latin Bible (Old Latin and 
The Latin Vulgate), Hebrew and Old 
Testament Studies , New Testament Studies 
(The Gospels and Acts and Epistles), 
Early Christian Literature and Life, On 
Gnosticism, On Mandaeism, on Mani- 
chaeism, Liturgical Studies {General and 
Hymns), Franciscan Studies, Archaeologi- 
cal Studies, Philological, The Past and The 
Present, Biographical. 

Such a list shows the wide range of 
Burkitt's learning. All his writings bear 
the mark of a mind of vmusual acumen as 
well as equipment. He was a vivid and 



attractive personality, full of interests 
other than those of the mere scholar — an 
eager fisherman and occasional gardener, 
a skilled pianist and musician (with Bach 
as his standard of perfection), a player of 
patience and other such games, a rapid 
solver of the crossword puzzles in The 
Times (he 'knew the way the man's mind 
worked') — no great reader of poetry or 
novels. Poetry and philosophy were 
scarcely in his orbit, although he could 
make truly poetical versions (Ecclesiastes. 
Rendered into English Verse, 1922, The 
Song of Brother Sun in English Rime, 
1926) and he sometimes threw light on 
philosophical 'questions' by reference to 
facts which had escaped the philosophers' 
attention. 'Facts' always came first with 
him and he had an vmfailing memory for 
detail. 

A practising member of the Church of 
England of the modernist school (regularly 
reading the lessons at a church of the 
'liberal evangelical' type near his home) 
he had members of most of the great 
Christian denominations, and Jews and 
other non- Christians, among his intimate 
friends, and would take endless pains with 
students — younger or older — who con- 
sulted him. He conducted a seminar of 
his own and was a constant attendant and 
speaker at congresses and meetings of 
various kinds. 

Always on the track of something, 
always alert, Burkitt's gifts of spirit and 
mind were kept in fruitful exercise all his 
life. While he was still apparently as 
alert and active as ever, in his seventy- 
first year, after a full day's work, as he 
was about to go to sleep, at his home at 
Cambridge, a blood vessel in the brain 
gave way and without recovering con- 
sciousness he died in the early morning of 
11 May 1935. 

Burkitt received honorary degrees from 
the universities of Edinburgh and Dublin 
(1907), St. Andrews and Breslau (1911), 
Oxford (1927), and Durham (1934). He 
was elected a fellow of the British Academy 
in 1905. 

A portrait of Burkitt, by Mrs. Proffit, is 
in the possession of his son. 

[J. F. Bethune-Baker, Francis Crawford 
Burkitt, 1864r-1935, in Proceedings of the 
British Academy, vol. xxii, 1936 ; Journal of 
Theological Studies, July and October 1935; 
personal knowledge.] 

J. F. Bethxjne-Baker. 

BURNET, Sib JOHN JAMES (1857- 
1938), architect, was born at Glasgow 31 
May 1857, the yoimgest son of John 



125 



Burnet 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Burnet, architect, of Glasgow, by his wife, 
Eliza Hay Bennet. He was educated at the 
Western Academy, Glasgow. In his 
eighteenth year he went to Paris to study 
architecture at the ficole des Beaux Arts, 
joining the atelier of Jean Louis Pascal 
where he qualified for the dipldme du 
gouvernement in the unusually short period 
of three years. On his return his father 
took him into partnership and he im- 
mediately distinguished himself by win- 
ning the competition for the galleries of 
the (Royal) Glasgow Institute of Fine 
Arts. In this design Burnet, at the early 
age of twenty-one, showed the mastery in 
handling plan, elevation, material, and 
detail as a coherent whole which was to 
characterize all his subsequent work. 
Commissions came to him quickly, in 
great number and variety. Public build- 
ings (Glasgow Athenaeum and Edinburgh 
International Exhibition, 1886), business 
premises (Clyde Navigation Trust, Glas- 
gow, 1883-1886, and many others in 
GlasgowandEdinburgh),churches(Barony 
church, Glasgow, 1886-1889, Arbroath 
parish church, 1894-1896, etc.), hospitals, 
railway stations, and private houses en- 
gaged him during his thirty years' practice 
in Glasgow and gained him his immense 
reputation in Scotland. He had succeeded 
in investing commercial architecture with 
a new vigour and rationale and in hospital 
planning he laid the foundation for the 
modern advance that has revolutionized 
hospital design. Burnet's strongly de- 
veloped sense of composition explains his 
lifelong interest in sculpture, and in the 
Glasgow Savings Bank (1895) he gave 
(Sir) George Frampton [q.v.] his first 
important architectural commission. 

In 1904 the trustees of the British 
Museum commissioned Burnet to erect 
the King Edward VII galleries in Monta- 
gue Place. The result is by common 
consent one of the most important con- 
tributions to the architecture of this 
century. The great single order of twenty 
Ionic columns, between their flanking 
pylons, achieves the maximum of dignity 
and repose. The composition is much 
more than a brilliant exercise on a classic 
theme ; every subtlety of varying diameter, 
intercolumniation, and inclination of 
verticals was employed to secure grace and 
homogeneity and it is justly acclaimed 
for its modern vigour and originality. On 
its completion in 1914 Burnet was knighted 
and the Paris Salon conferred upon him 
its bronze medal. The gold medal fol- 
lowed in 1922 and the Royal Institute of 



British Architects, of which he had been 
elected a fellow in 1897, awarded him its 
Royal gold medal in 1923. He was 
elected A.R.A. in 1921 and R.A. in 1925. 
In 1910 the university of Glasgow con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of 
LL.D. 

After 1905 Burnet moved to London, 
the Glasgow office being carried on sepa- 
rately in partnership with Mr. Norman 
Dick. Important commissions multiplied 
in England and Scotland and notable works 
in London were the offices of the General 
Accident Fire and Life Assurance Company 
in Aldwych (sculptor, Albert Hodge), the 
Institute of Chemistry, Russell Square, and 
(in association with Mr. T. S. Tait) the 
Kodak building, Kingsway, Adelaide 
House, London Bridge, Vigo House, 
Regent Street, and Unilever House, Black- 
friars. He assisted the War Graves Com- 
mission, Palestine, and designed the Indian 
war memorials (Gulf of Suez and Cape 
Helles), the Cavalry War Memorial, Hyde 
Park, and the Glasgow cenotaph. 

Burnet married in 1886 Jean Watt, 
daughter of the legal and historical writer 
(Sir) James David Marwick [q.v.], and died 
without issue, at Colinton, Edinburgh, 2 
July 1938. A portrait bust by Sir William 
Reid Dick is in the possession of Lady 
Burnet. 

[The Times, 4 July 1938 ; Journal of the 
Royal Institute of British Architects, 18 July 
and 15 August 1938 ; personal knowledge.] 
Waltek H. Godfrey. 

BURNHAM, first Viscount (1862- 
1933), newspaper proprietor. [See Law- 
son, Sir Hakry Lawson Webster Levy-.] 

BUTLER, EDWARD JOSEPH 
ALOYSIUS (in religion Dom Cuthbert) 
(1858-1934), Benedictine abbot and, 
scholar, was born in Dublin 6 May 1858, 
the only child of Edward Butler, barris- 
ter, by his wife, Mary, sister of the well- 
known Dublin physician Sir Francis 
Cruise. His father was professor of 
mathematics in the recently established 
Roman Catholic university in Dublin of 
which Cardinal Newman was rector from 
1854 to 1858. Educated at Downside 
from 1869 to 1875, Butler entered the 
Benedictine novitiate at Belmont Priory, 
Hereford, in 1876, taking in religion the 
name of Cuthbert. Returning in 1880 to 
Downside, where the young Dom Aidan 
Gasquet [q.vrj was prior, and the scholar 
Edmund Bishop [q.v.] a frequent visitor, 
he was ordained priest in 1884 and taught 



126 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Butler, E. S. 



in the school, of which he was first prefect 
from 1888 to 1892. But his principal in- 
terest was the contemporary movement 
to win for Downside and the other monas- 
teries of the English Benedictine Congrega- 
tion autonomy and full monastic discipline 
and observance. This end was in large 
part achieved in 1900, when DoAvnside 
became an abbey and the Congregation was 
organized on traditional Benedictine lines. 

Meanwhile, Butler was sent in 1896 to 
Cambridge as superior of Benet House, 
where he edited the Lausiac History of 
Palladius (1898, 1904) ; during these years 
he owed much in different ways to friend- 
ships with J. A. Robinson [q.v.] and 
Friedrich von Hiigel [q.v.]. Returning to 
Downside as subprior in 1904, he was 
elected abbot in 1906, and was re-elected 
in 1914. He did much to develop the 
monastic life of the house, and was abbot 
president of the English Benedictine 
Congregation from 1914 to 1921. While 
in office at Downside he published a 
critical edition of the Rule of St. Benedict 
(1912), and wrote Benedictine Monachism 
(1919), the fruit of a life's experience and 
thought, and Western Mysticism (1922). 
In this last year he resigned the abbacy, 
and thenceforward lived at Ealing Priory, 
writing The Life and Times of Bishop 
Ullathorne (2 vols., 1926), The Vatican 
Council (1930), and other books. He died 
suddenly of heart failure at Clapham on 
Easter Day, 1 April 1934, and was buried 
at Downside. 

TaU and of striking appearance, Butler 
conveyed an instantaneous impression, 
which further acquaintance did not belie, 
of intellectual distinction and unaffected 
benevolence. By temperament a scholar 
rather than a ruler, he failed on occasion 
both in judgement and in decision, without 
ever forfeiting the respect which his 
sincerity and genuine piety inspired. 
Towards the end of his life his work won 
wide recognition as that of a candid and 
judicious scholar; his real monument, 
however, must be sought in the liturgical 
and intellectual life of Downside in his day. 

Butler received the honorary degree of 
doctor of letters from Trinity CoUege, 
Dublin, in 1908. A portrait of him, by 
W. C. Symons, is at Downside. 

[Datenside Review, July 1934; private 
information ; personal knowledge.] 

M. D. Knowles. 

BUTLER, ELIZABETH SOUTHER- 
DEN, Lady (1846-1933), painter, was 
born at the Villa Claremont, Lausanne, 



3 November 1846, the elder daughter of 
Thomas James Thompson, by his second 
wife, Christiana, daughter of Thomas 
Edward Weller. The younger daughter 
was Alice Meynell, the poet and essayist 
[q.v.]. Thompson undertook entirely the 
early education of these two daughters ; 
and as he believed that travel and lan- 
guages are the sovereign means for 
acquiring an historical sense, the family 
lived at that time nearly as much abroad, 
particularly in Italy, as in England. The 
daughters derived their sensitive response 
to beauty not only from him but also from 
their mother, an accompUshed pianist and 
a sketcher in water-colour. Between the 
ages of nineteen and twenty-one Elizabeth 
Thompson studied at the South Kensing- 
ton School of Art, which she entered early 
in 1866, distinguishing herself in water- 
colour. In 1869 she became a pupil of 
Giuseppe BeUucci in Florence, and she 
also studied in Rome. On her return to 
England she continued zealously painting 
in oils and in 1872 made an inspiring 
contact with the army through watching 
some mancEuvres. About 1873 she was 
received into the Roman Catholic Church 
whither her mother and her sister Alice 
had preceded her. In 1874 fame came to 
her suddenly when she exhibited 'The 
Roll Call' at the Royal Academy. The 
picture had to be specially protected from 
the pressure of the 'sight-seeing' crowds and 
it was reproduced in numberless engrav- 
ings. It was bought from the original 
purchaser by Queen Victoria and is now 
in St. James's Palace. Thenceforward the 
painter of 'The Roll Call' was held, some- 
times against her will, almost exclusively 
to military subjects. Among her best- 
known pictures may be mentioned ' Quatre 
Bras' (1875, now in the National Gallery, 
Melbourne), 'The Remnants of an Army 
(1879, Tate Gallery), 'The Defence of 
Rorke's Drift' (1880, Windsor Castle), 
'Scotland for Ever!' (1881, Leeds Art 
GaUery), 'The Dawn of Waterloo' (1896, 
in private hands), and 'Steady the 
Drums and Fifes' (1896, Depot of the 
Middlesex Regiment). Ruskin described 
'Quatre Bras' as 'Amazon's work' and as 
'the first fine pre-Raphaelite picture of 
battle that we have had'. The precision 
of her painting was prized by the army for 
its faithful recording of regimental deeds 
and dress, but a later generation has pre- 
ferred to find her real merit in her masterly 
draughtsmanship with its unfailing sense 
of movement. Few artists have equalled 
her drawing of horses. Her water-colours 



127 



Butler, E. S. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



have a softness that suggests a reaction 
from the clash of arms. 

In 1877 EHzabeth Thompson married 
Major (afterwards Lieutenant-General Sir) 
William Francis Butler [q.v.]. They had 
three sons and three daughters, the eldest 
of whom died in infancy. In person Lady 
Butler was notable for a combination of 
dignity and humility ; she was always re- 
ticent in the presence of public curiosity. 
Her friends were gratefully familiar with 
the droll inventiveness of her conversation. 
After her husband's death in 1910 she 
continued to live for a time at Bansha, co. 
Tipperary, where they had settled on his 
retirement, but her last years were spent 
at Gormanston Castle, co. Meath, the home 
of her yoimgest daughter, where she died 
2 October 1933. 

There is a portrait of Lady Butler, by 
Louis Desanges, in the possession of her 
eldest son. 

[Lady Butler, Letters from the Holy Land, 
1903, From Sketch-book and Diary, 1909, and 
An Autobiography, 1922 ; Viola Meynell, Alice 
Meynell, 1929 ; Wilfrid Meynell, The Life and 
Work of Lady Butler (Christmas number of 
the Art Journal), 1898 ; private information.] 

J. B. Atkins. 

BUTLER, Sir RICHARD HARTE 
KEATINGE (1870-1935), lieutenant- 
general, was born, possibly abroad, 28 
August 1870, the son of Colonel E. R. 
Butler, Army Medical Service. He was 
educated at Harrow and the Royal Mili- 
tary College, Sandhurst. He was com- 
missioned in the Dorsetshire Regiment in 
1890, becoming lieutenant in 1892 and 
captain in 1894. He became adjutant of 
the 2nd battalion in 1896 and held that 
post most efficiently during the operations 
of January and February 1900 for the 
relief of Lady smith. During the with- 
drawal from Spion Kop he went back 
across the Tugela to rescue a wounded 
man and was actually the last man to 
recross the river. He again distinguished 
himself the following June when the Boers 
were cleared out of northern Natal, the 
2nd Dorsets storming the key of the 
Boer position at Alleman's Nek. Trans- 
ferrmg in August to the 5th division's 
Moxmted Infantry, he saw much service 
in Natal, the south-east Transvaal, and 
the Zululand border. He played a promi- 
nent part in the successful defence of 
Fort Itala (September 1901) against Louis 
Botha [q.v.], being severely wounded. His 
services brought him a brevet as major 
(1900) and two mentions in dispatches. 



After passing the Staff College in 1906, 
Butler was a brigade-major at Aldershot, 
obtaining his regimental majority in 1910 ; 
a year later he returned to Aldershot as 
G.S.O. 2 and received a brevet as lieu- 
tenant-colonel in 1913. He was selected 
in Jime 1914 for the command of the 2nd 
Lancashire Fusiliers but was to be retained 
at Aldershot until the end of the training 
season. He therefore did not take his 
battalion to France, only joining it in 
September 1914 for the fighting on the 
Lys in October and November, where he 
acquitted himself so well that he was 
given the 3rd brigade (1st division) in 
November. Here again he made his mark 
as a fighting soldier in the winter opera- 
tions round Givenchy but was appointed 
in February 1915 to succeed Brigadier- 
General J. E. Gough [q.v.] as brigadier- 
general. General Staff, I Corps, becoming 
in June major-general. General Staff, 
First Army. This brought him again under 
Sir Douglas Haig [q.v.], who had known 
him at Aldershot and wished to have him 
as chief of staff when he himself succeeded 
Sir John French (later Earl of Ypres, q.v.) 
in December. Butler was considered too 
junior for this post but was appointed 
deputy chief of the staff in 1915, a post 
which he retained until February 1918. 
His long tenure of this important post 
testified to Haig's confidence in him, but 
the qualities of vigour, resolution, and 
drive which made him so successful in 
command of troops and in fighting were 
less calculated to ensure his success at 
general headquarters. His energy made 
him apt to be impatient and not always 
very helpful with subordinates and their 
problems. He himself would have gladly 
relinquished his post for an active com- 
mand, but Haig would not part with him 
and wished him to become chief of staff 
when Lieutenant-General Sir Launcelot 
Kiggell relinquished that post. However, 
in 1918 Butler was at last given a corps, 
the III Corps. 

In the attack of March 1918 the III 
Corps (on the right of the Fifth Army's 
long hne and astride the Oise, south of 
St. Quentin) had a longer front than any 
other, 31,000 yards to hold with only 
thirty battalions, but it was not on this 
front that the chief German successes 
were achieved. Thanks largely to Butler's 
dispositions and handling of his forces the 
III Corps did remarkably well, and though 
events on its left forced it back over the 
Crozat canal and towards Noyon, still 
more groimd was lost after the French 



128 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Butler, S. H. 



had replaced the depleted units. After- 
wards Butler and his staff temporarily 
relieved that of the XIX Corps (5 April) 
and he was in command in front of 
Amiens when the final German offensive 
in this quarter was checked at Villers- 
Bretonneux (24-25 April). Reverting to 
liis own corps but continuing in this area, 
Butler took part in the opening of Haig's 
offensive on 8 August, his corps attacking 
north of the Somme and playing a big 
part in the advance past Peronne to Epehy 
and Vendhuile: before it was relieved at 
the end of September it had sustained 
30,000 casualties and taken 10,000 
prisoners. It was then transferred to the 
Fifth Army in the Douai region. During 
the war of 1914-1918 he was mentioned 
in dispatches nine times, received a brevet 
as colonel, and special promotion to 
major-general (June 1916). He was ap- 
pointed C.B. in 1917, K.C.M.G. in 1918, 
and K.C.B. in 1919. 

Butler subsequently commanded the 
Lowland division on the Rhine and the 
1st division at Aldershot (November 1919 
-February 1923). He was promoted 
lieutenant-general in 1923 and was general 
officer commander-in-chief, Western Com- 
mand, from June 1 924 to June 1 928 , retiring 
at his own request in 1929. He married in 
1894 Helen Frances, second daughter of 
Major William Benjamin Battiscombe, 
of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, 
and had a son and a daughter. He died at 
Shrewsbury 22 April 1935. 

[The Times, 23 April 1935 ; Army Quarterly, 
July 1935 ; Sir J. F. Maurice and M. H. Grant, 
(Official) History of the War in South Africa, 
1899-1902, 1906-1910; Sir J. E. Edmonds 
(Official) History of the Great War. Military 
Operations. France and Belgium, 1914r-1918, 
1922-1940; regimental information.] 

C. T. Atkinson. 

BUTLER, Sir (SPENCER) HAR- 
COURT (1869-1938), Indian administra- 
tor, born in London 1 August 1869, was 
the second of the nine sons of Spencer 
Perceval Butler, barrister, of Lincoln's 
Inn, conveyancing counsel to the .Office of 
Works, by his wife, Mary, only child of the 
Kev. Nicholas Kendall, of Bodmin. He 
was elder brother of Sir G. G. G. Butler 
[q.v.]. Butler was educated at Harrow, 
then under the headmastership of his 
uncle, H. M. Butler [q.v.], and after 
passing the Indian civil service examina- 
tion of 1888 spent his probation at BaUiol 
College, Oxford. In October 1890 he 
entered upon his Indian career in the 



North-West Provinces (renahied in 1902 
the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh). 
He first came into notice as secretary in 
1901 of the famine commission presided 
over by Sir Antony (afterwards Lord) 
MacDonnell [q.v.]. The report which he 
drafted remains the standard authority on 
Indian famine prevention and relief. For 
this work he was appointed CLE., and 
later C.S.I. (1909), K.C.S.I. (1911), 
G.C.I.E. (1923), and G.C.S.I. (1928). 

As deputy commissioner of Lucknow 
district (1906-1908) Butler enhanced the 
beauty and amenities of the capital of 
Oudh. At the close of 1907 the viceroy, 
Lord Minto [q.v.], took him from this post 
to be secretary of the Foreign Department, 
which then had charge both of external 
relations and those with the Indian states. 
Three years later (1910) he was appointed 
to the viceroy's executive coiuicil in 
charge of the new department of educa- 
tion, which included within its scope public 
health, local self-government, archaeology, 
and several minor branches. In 1913 he 
formulated a memorable government 
resolution which reviewed and reshaped 
educational policy. 

In 1915 Butler went to Rangoon as 
heutenant-governor of Burma. By his 
development for the use of the Allies of 
the output of wolfram concentrates from 
the Tavoy fields he broke the virtual 
monopoly which the Germans had ac- 
quired in the manufacture of tungsten, a 
valuable agent in the production of 
munitions. Butler also did much to 
awaken a new spirit in Burma, notably 
by raising a large sum by public subscrip- 
tion for the foundation of the teaching 
Rangoon University, thereby ending the 
inconvenient and unsatisfactory affiliation 
of the colleges of Burma to the Calcutta 
University, across the Bay of Bengal. 

Early in 1918, when his term in Burma 
had run only half its course, Butler went 
as heutenant-governor to that part of 
India where he was best known and most 
highly esteemed — ^the United Provinces. 
Serious agrarian unrest in Oudh was 
allayed by his abihty to reconcile the 
landowning taliiqdars to a policy of tenancy 
reform. The Montagu-Chelmsford reforms, 
coming into force under the 1919 Govern- 
ment of India Act on 1 January 1921, ini- 
tiated the system of provincial 'dyarchy ', 
and the heads of provinces became gover- 
nors. Like Lord WiUingdon in IM&dras, 
Butler encouraged joint consultations be- 
tween the two halves of his government — 
the 'reserved', with executive councillors, 



129 



Butler, S. H. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



and the 'transferred', with ministers 
responsible to the legislature. 

Butler had the unique experience of 
introducing the 'dyarchical' system into 
two great provinces. The second of these 
was Burma, where the reforms took effect 
two years later than in peninsular India. 
As governor from the beginning of 1923, 
he nursed the country into a measure of 
adolescence, but never concealed from 
higher authority the dangers of instability 
and the need for less exiguous defence 
measures. He took prompt steps to bring 
to an end slavery and human sacrifice 
practised by the Nagas in the wild un- 
administered territory bordering on the 
Hukwang Valley, which he himself visited 
in 1925. 

On leaving Rangoon at the end of 1927 
Butler accepted the chairmanship of the 
Indian States Committee. Reporting in 
1929 it reaffirmed the doctrine of para- 
mountcy, but laid down guiding principles 
on its application and on equitable finan- 
cial relations. In 1931 he accepted the 
chairmanship of the governing body of the 
School of Oriental and African Studies, 
London University. He joined the boards 
of the Peninsular and Oriental Steamship 
Company, the National Provincial Bank, 
and other concerns. His occasional writ- 
ings include his concise and fascinating 
description of India Insistent (1931). 

Butler married in 1894 Florence, 
daughter of Francis Nelson Wright, I.C.S., 
and had one son. He died in London 2 
March 1938. There are statues of him 
raised by public subscription at Lucknow 
and Rangoon, the former equestrian, both 
by George Harvard Thomas. 

Butler's gifted personality was well 
summed up by Sir John Hewett, one of 
the most distinguished of his predecessors 
in the headship of the United Provinces : 
'He had a brilliant intellect, boundless 
energy, and wonderful capacity for getting 
at the root of a matter, ability to express 
his conclusions so as to be clear to all, and 
a very practical head in carrying them out. 
Butler was a wonderful host. His fondness 
for music added greatly to the charm of 
his entertainments.' 

[The Times, 3 and 7 March 1938 ; Journal of 
the Royal Central Asian Society, April 1938 ; 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 
F. H. Brown. 

BUTT, Dame CLARA (1873-1936), 
singer, whose married name was Claka 
Ellen Kennerley Rumford, was born 
at Southwick, near Brighton, 1 February 



1873, the eldest daughter and eldest sur- 
viving child of Henry Butt, a captain in 
the Mercantile Marine, by his wife, Clara 
Hook, great-granddaughter of Theodore 
Hook [q.v.]. Both her parents sang, and 
Clara, beginning with piano lessons, was 
encouraged by them also to take advan- 
tage of some minor opportunities to 
cultivate her voice, which was soon 
discovered to be of remarkable richness 
and great compass. Miss Cook, the head- 
mistress of the South Bristol High School 
at which Clara was educated (her parents 
having settled in Bristol in 1880), acciden- 
tally hearing some of Clara's already 
splendid low notes, got Daniel Rootham, 
a fine bass singer, conductor of the Bristol 
Festival Choir, to hear her, and he began 
her training, although she was still in her 
early 'teens. Soon she was singing in the 
Bristol Festival Choir and hearing famous 
soloists. In January 1890, when sixteen 
years old, she won a valuable scholarship, 
which was also open to instrumentalists, 
at the Royal CoUege of Music, but she had 
to wait until she had attained the regula- 
tion age of seventeen before she could 
take up residence and begin her studies, 
which were directed by John Henry 
Blower. The college authorities extended 
her scholarship for a fourth year and then 
sent her for a three months' course to 
Duvernoy in Paris, Queen Victoria de- 
fraying the cost. Later in her career Clara 
Butt studied with Bouhy in Paris, and 
with Etelka Gerster in Berlin, and in Italy. 
She made her debut at the Royal Albert 
Hall in the comparatively small contralto 
part of Ursula in Sir Arthur Sullivan's 
cantata The Golden Legend on 7 December 
1892, and three days later sang the name 
part in Gluck's Orfeo at a performance 
given by pupils of the Royal College of 
Music at the Lyceum Theatre, 

On both occasions Clara Butt's success 
was complete, her magnificent voice and 
splendid appearance (she was six feet two 
inches in height) laimching her on a career 
of almost unexampled popularity. Con- 
fining herself to the concert platform (with 
the exception of some appearances as 
Orfeo at Covent Garden under Sir Thomas 
Beecham in 1920), she sang at all the 
principal festivals in England and at 
concerts (many of them her own, with her 
husband, Robert Kennerley Rumford, 
baritone, whom she married in 1900) at 
home, all over the British Empire, and in 
America, with striking success . Sir Edward 
Elgar [q.v.] composed 'Sea Pictures', his 
cycle of five songs for contralto solo 



130 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Buxton 



with orchestral accompaniment, for Clara 
Butt, and she produced them at the 
Norwich festival in 1899. Elgar also wrote 
the music of the Angel in The Dream of 
Gerontius with Clara Butt in mind ; and it 
was a suggestion from her that brought 
from the future master of the king's 
musick the patriotic song 'Land of Hope 
and Glory'. What has become a classic 
of its kind, the setting of 'Abide with Me', 
was composed by Samuel Liddle, her 
fellow student at the Royal College of 
Music, for Clara Butt, who sang it with an 
appeal of great poignancy. Her singing 
was remarkable for its broad effect rather 
than for its artistic finesse, and there 
could not be a greater contrast in style than 
between her and Patti when they appeared 
on the same concert platform. Her 
activity and generosity in organizing and 
singing at concerts during the war of 
1914-1918 for charities — ^the Red Cross, 
Three Arts Club women's unemployment 
fund, etc. — ^knew no bounds: a week of 
Elgar's music at the Queen's Hall was 
notable as an artistic as well as a charitable 
achievement; and for these services she 
was appointed D.B.E. in 1920. She died 
at North Stoke, Oxfordshire, as the result 
of an accident in 1931, after a long and 
paihful illness, 23 January 1936. Both 
her sons predeceased her, but she was 
survived by her husband and her daughter. 

[Winifred Ponder, Clara Butt. Her Life- 
Story, 1928 ; Grovels Dictionary of Music and 
MuMcians, 4th ed., vol. i, edited by H. C. 
Colles; H. Saxe Wyndham and Geoffrey 
L'Epine, Who^s Who in Music, 1913 ; Musical 
Times, March 1936 ; personal knowledge.] 
J. Mewbukn Levien. 

BUXTON, SYDNEY CHARLES, Earl 
BxjxTON (1853-1934), statesman, was born 
in London 25 October 1853, the younger 
son of the liberal politician Charles Buxton 
[q.v.], by his wife, Emily Mary, eldest 
daughter of the physician Sir Henry 
Holland [q.v.]. He was grandson of the 
philanthropist Sir T. F. Buxton [q.v.]. He 
was educated at Clifton and Trinity 
College, Cambridge. He served on the 
London School Board from 1876 to 
1882, and after unsuccessfully contesting 
' Boston as a liberal in 1880 was returned 
for Peterborough at a by-election in 1883. 
He was defeated at the general election 
of 1885, but sat for the Poplar division of 
the Tower Hamlets from 1886 to 1914. In 
1880 he made his first mark in politics by 
publishing his Handbook to Political 
Questions of the Day which passed through 



eleven editions. He was under-secretary 
of state for the Colonies from 1892 to 1895 
and the first Matabele war brought him 
into contact with native problems in 
Africa. In 1905 he was appointed post- 
master-general, with a seat in the Cabinet, 
and sworn of the Privy Council. He 
introduced penny postage to the United 
States of America, the Canadian magazine 
post, and cheap postage for the blind. 
Appointed president of the Board of Trade 
in 1910, he introduced and passed the 
Copyright Act of 1911, the unemployment 
section of the National Insurance Act of 
1912, the Miners' Minimum Wage Act 
of 1912, and the Bankruptcy Act of 1913, 
and, in the last-named year, extended the 
Trade Boards Act to other trades. After 
the loss of the Titanic in 1912 he issued 
stringent regulations for the preservation 
of life at sea. 

In February 1914, on appointment as 
governor-general of the Union of South 
Africa, Buxton was appointed G.C.M.G., 
and in May was raised to the peerage as 
Viscount Buxton, of Newtimber, in Sussex. 
He arrived at the moment of the outbreak 
of war and was at once faced with the very 
serious crisis of the rebellion, which for a 
moment threatened to cut him off in 
Pretoria from the rest of the Union. But 
General Louis Botha [q.v.] had taken the 
momentous decision to side with Great 
Britain in the struggle. Buxton and Botha 
worked together most cordially. They 
saw harmony restored within the Union, 
carried through the campaign in South- 
west Africa, and supported both the long 
campaign in East Africa and the valuable 
contribution made by South Africa on the 
western front in France. Although Bux- 
ton's presence was needed at Cape Town 
and Pretoria, he travelled frequently and 
acquired great influence with the Dutch 
backveld farmers, who found him acces- 
sible and sympathetic, and appreciated 
his receptions of their synods and as- 
semblies; while Lady Buxton took an 
active part in the work of adapting social 
conditions, especially in Cape Town, to 
the conditions of war. Buxton's term of 
office was extended until 1920, and at his 
retirement there were striking demonstra- 
tions of the feeling of affection which he 
and Lady Buxton had inspired. The 
University of Cape Town conferred an 
honorary degree upon him, and on his 
return to England he was raised to an 
earldom. Of his work as governor-general, 
General Smuts has said : ' His close personal 
friendship with General Botha gave him 



181 



Buxton 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



a special position, and I know how much 
General Botha was influenced by his wise 
counsel and ripe experience. . . . Self- 
government in Rhodesia was largely due 
to his favourable report, and time has 
justified his wise advice.' After his return 
he continued to work for South Africa, 
largely through the Africa Society, of 
which he was president from 1920 to 1933 
and the gold medal of which was awarded 
to him in 1930. 

Although his sympathy with the work- 
ing classes led him to modify his earlier 
strictly Gladstonian views, Buxton sup- 
ported the liberal party, and remained in 
full sympathy with his old friend and 
colleague Lord Grey of Fallodon. In 1924 
he spoke against the labour scheme for 
nationalizing the Bank of England. His 
publications include Mr. Gladstone's Irish 
Bills (1886), Finance and Politics: an 
historical study 1783-1885 (2 vols., 1888), 
Mr. Gladstone as Chancellor of the Exchequer 
(1901), Fishing and Shooting (1902), The 
Arguments on either side of the Fiscal 
Question (1903), and General Botha (1924). 

Owing to an injury to his knee as a 
schoolboy, Buxton, at the age of seventy- 
seven, had to suffer the amputation of his 
leg. He died at Newtimber Place 15 
October 1934 and was buried at New- 
timber. He was twice married: first, in 
1882 to Constance Mary (died 1892), 
second daughter of John Lubbock, first 
Lord Avebury [q.v.], and had two sons, 
who both predeceased their father, the 
younger in childhood, and one daughter ; 
secondly, in 1896 to Mildred Anne, elder 
daughter of Hugh Colin Smith, governor 
of the Bank of England, of Mount Clare, 
Roehampton, and had one son, who was 
killed in action in 1917, and two daughters, 
the elder of whom predeceased her father. 

A portrait of Buxton, by Edward 
Roworth, is in the House of Assembly at 
Cape Town. A cartoon, by ' Spy ' , appeared 
in Vanity Fair 2 January 1907. 

[The Times, 16 and 17 October 1934; Lord 
Buxton, General Botha, 1924; private in- 
formation.] E. I. Carlyle. 

BYNG, JULIAN HEDWORTH 
GEORGE, Viscount Byng of Vimy 
(1862-1935), field-marshal, was born at 
Wrotham Park, Barnet, 11 September 
1862, the yoxmgest of the four sons of 
George Stevens Byng, second Earl of 
Strafford, by his second wife, Harriet 
Elizabeth, younger daughter of Charles 
Compton Cavendish, first Lord Chesham. 
His grandfather, John Byng, first Earl 



of Strafford [q.v.], had commanded a 
brigade at Waterloo and ended his career 
as a field-marshal. Julian Byng was 
educated at Eton, entered the army 
through the militia (7th battalion, the 
King's Royal Rifle Corps), and was 
gazetted to the 10th Hussars in January 
1883. The 10th Hussars was an expensive 
regiment, and Byng had a very small 
allowance, so that for many years he 
could afford no social gaieties. As, how- 
ever, he had no taste for them, this was 
not a deprivation, and, the regiment being 
stationed in India, he was able to enjoy 
aU the polo that he could desire. Being a 
good horseman and player, ponies bought 
cheaply became speedily of increased value 
after being acquired by him. Since he was 
extremely popular, he also had at his 
disposal good mounts lent by friends. The 
10th Hussars was on its way home in 1884 
when it was landed at Suakin for the 
campaign in the eastern Sudan against 
Osman Digna ; so that by unexpected good 
fortune Byng, at an early stage in his 
career, saw active service and took part 
both in the historic charge at El Teb (29 
February) and in the fierce struggle at 
Tamai (13 March). In 1886 he became 
adjutant to his regiment. In 1894 he 
passed the Staff College and in 1897 
was appointed deputy-assistant-adjutant- 
general at Aldershot. He was promoted 
captain in 1889 and major in 1898. 

On the outbreak of the South African 
war in 1899 Byng was sent out to serve 
in the first instance in a provost marshal's 
appointment. In November 1900 he 
raised the South African Light Horse 
which he commanded until April 1901. A 
strict disciplinarian by instinct and coming 
from a British regiment where discipline 
was of the strictest, he none the less 
readily adapted himself to the unconven- 
tional and free-and-easy atmosphere of his 
new command. He was soon on as good 
terms with it as he had been with his own 
regiment. His sense of humour helped 
him when he was confronted with eccen- 
tricities, and he became a leader of ir- 
regular light horse of the highest quality. 
He was employed in command of a 
column, and later on of more than one, 
throughout the period when this form of 
warfare was practised. At one period Mr. 
Winston Churchill acted as his galloper. 
Byng received successively the brevet 
rank of lieutenant-colonel and of colonel, 
and was on five occasions mentioned in 
dispatches. 

After the war had come to an end Byng 



182 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Byng 



was appointed to command his regiment, 
the 10th Hussars, and remained at its head 
for the next two years. In 1902 he married 
Marie Evelyn, only child of (Sir) Richard 
Charles Moreton, of Crookham House, 
near Fleet, Hampshire, ninth son of H. G. 
F. Moreton, second Earl of Ducie [q.v.], 
and thus gained an ideal partner who was 
to give him invaluable support in the 
years of his public life. From 1904 to 1905 
he was commandant of the Cavalry School 
at Netheravon. From 1905 to 1907 he 
commanded the 2nd Cavalry brigade in 
the Eastern Command, and was appointed 
C.B. in 1906. From 1907 to 1909 he com- 
manded the 1st Cavalry brigade at 
Aldershot, but in April of the last-named 
year he was promoted major-general and 
in October 1910 returned to the Eastern 
Command to command the Territorial 
East Anglian division. Now for the first 
time he had a home, near Dunmow, which 
was then something of a literary centre. 
Byng took pleasure in the society of the 
London editors and novelists who were 
his neighbours. He was an intense reader 
himself, but for the most part of utilitarian 
subjects connected with his profession. 

In October 1912 Byng was appointed 
to the command in Egypt, and was there 
when war broke out in August 1914. He 
was soon recalled, and late in September 
appointed to the command of the 3rd 
Cavalry division. In the first battle of 
Ypres he proved himself as sound and as 
determined a commander as the best 
judges had foretold, and this in adverse 
circumstances, the hardest test of a 
general. His division gave brilliant sup- 
port to the I Corps and was repeatedly 
called upon to restore ugly situations at 
the shortest notice and in the most 
unfavourable conditions. In March 1915 
he was appointed K.C.M.G. and in May 
took over command of the Cavalry Corps 
with the temporary rank of lieutenant- 
general. In the following August he was 
sent out to the Gallipoli Peninsula to 
command the IX Corps at Suvla, where 
the opportunities of a new landing had 
been frittered away. It was a thousand 
pities that General Sir Ian Hamilton's 
request for Byng's services to conduct 
that landing had been refused, since now 
he came too late. No senior officer was 
more strongly in favour of evacuation than 
he. He began, in fact, to study the problem 
almost immediately after his arrival, proof 
of remarkable detkchment in a commander 
who had been summoned in the hope that 
he would redeem a failure. He considered, 



too, contrary to the general belief, that 
withdrawal need not be costly, provided 
that it was carried out before more 
German forces and material arrived on the 
scene and before the weather broke. He 
drew up the plan, but left the detail to 
two reliable divisional commanders, Major- 
Generals (Sir) E. A. Fanshawe and (Sir) 
F. S. Maude [q.v.]. The withdrawal was 
completely successful, and Byng was 
appointed K.C.B. (1916). 

After a brief spell in Egypt in the Suez 
Canal defences and in command of the 
XVII Corps in France from February to 
May 1916, Byng took over command of 
the Canadian Corps in the latter month. 
This was a fine appointment, since, 
whereas other army corps were simply 
headquarters to which divisions were 
attached as required, the commander of 
the Canadian Corps could always count 
on having the Canadian divisions under 
his command. Within a week, on 2 June, 
he had to deal with an ugly situation, 
when the Germans attacked at Mount 
Sorrel, Hill 62, and Sanctuary Wood, in 
the Ypres sector, and captured some 
valuable groimd. Local counter-attacks 
failed, but on the 11th the situation was 
righted by a successful counter-offensive, 
which was, however, unpleasantly expen- 
sive. Byng had an extraordinary gift for 
impressing his gay and friendly personality 
upon the troops under his orders, and he 
gained not only the confidence but also 
the affection of the Canadian Corps. It is 
hardly too much to say that nowhere in 
the world at war was there a formation 
so large in which the links between the 
commander and the troops were so strong. 
The Canadian Corps distinguished itself 
on the Somme in the battle of Flers- 
Courcelette in mid-September, and again 
at the end of the month in the Thiepval 
ridge operations, but its greatest feat, 
which will ever be inseparably connected 
with its name, was the capture of Vimy 
ridge in April 1917. 

In Jvme of that year, Byng, although 
loth to leave his Canadians, was appointed 
to command the Third Army in succession 
to General Sir Edmund (later Viscount) 
Allenby [q.v.] who went to command the 
Egyptian Expeditionary Force. Byng 
passed straight to preparation for the 
most daring and original operation yet 
undertaken by the British on the western 
front, the Cambrai offensive. This de- 
pended on two factors, the use of tanks 
operating independently and in unprece- 
dented strength to open gaps in the 



183 



Byng 



D,N.B. 1931-1940 



enemy's wire without the need for a 
preliminary bombardment such as had 
hitherto rendered surprise impossible, and 
— as a further element in surprise — ^the 
employment of 'predicted' fire from the 
massed artillery, without preliminary 
registration. The objects were to capture 
the wooded height of Bourlon and to roU 
up the German front towards the Sensee 
marshes to the north, and at the same 
time to thrust eastwards, capture Cam- 
brai, and exploit in the direction of 
Valenciennes. The first stage of the 
assault, laimched on 20 November, was 
brilliantly successful; but serious hitches 
occurred, and the available reserves could 
not maintain the momentiun. At the end 
of the month the Germans counter- 
attacked the salient created by the 
British advance. On the north they were 
generally held, but they broke the southern 
flank, and the situation was not stabilized 
luitil after hard touch-and-go fighting. As 
an operation Cambrai was a disappoint- 
ment, but it pointed to the road to 
victory. 

That, however, was stiU some way ahead. 
The German offensive of March 1918 fell 
heavily upon the Third Army, though less 
heavily than upon the Fifth on its right. 
The Third put up a splendid resistance, 
lost relatively little ground, and smashed 
the offensive round Arras. Byng had, 
however, to make a rapid withdrawal, 
which got temporarily out of hand, from 
the remains of the Cambrai salient. That 
autumn the Third Army played a great 
part in the offensive which decided the 
issue of the war. Its first attack was 
launched on 21 August. By a series of 
heavy blows, in conjunction with the 
Fourth Army on its right and the First 
Army on its left, it drove the enemy back 
to the Hindenburg Line and on 27 
September broke that position. In the 
space of eighty days it advanced sixty 
miles — a fast pace for that war — and 
took 67,000 prisoners and 800 guns. 
Byng's qualities of leadership were un- 
questionably high, and the only two 
episodes which can possibly create con- 
troversy on this subject are his aims in the 
battle of Cambrai and his delay in 
evacuating the Cambrai salient in March 
1918. It has been suggested that in the 
former instance he was imduly optimistic, 
refusing to modify an ambitious plan when 
it was found impossible to put at his 
disposal resources as large as originally 
intended because they had been used up 
at Passchendaele and in Italy. It may be 



so, but it should be recalled that plans 
were carefully scrutinized by the com- 
mander-in-chief, Field-Marshal Sir Douglas 
Haig [q.v.], who was not the man to give 
army commanders their heads if he con- 
sidered them rash. It is probable that 
Byng's judgement was more questionable 
in the second case than in the first, but his 
conduct of the final offensive showed him 
to be as capable in command of a big army 
as he had been in command of a column, 
a division, and an army corps. 

In 1919 Byng, who had been gazetted to 
the full rank of general in 1917, was 
appointed G.C.B., raised to the peerage 
(October) as Baron Byng of Vimy, of 
Thorpe-le-Soken, in Essex, and received 
the thanks of parliament and a grant of 
£30,000. He received, on various occasions, 
a number of other honours, British and 
foreign, including honorary doctorates from 
Cambridge (1919) and Oxford (1931). In 
1919, also, he was offered the Southern 
Command, but asked leave to retire and 
make way for a younger man. While he 
was in Egypt before the war his wife had 
bought Thorpe Hall, Thorpe-le-Soken. 
This old house she restored and enlarged, 
making it into a beautiful home with a 
widely famed garden. There was good 
shooting, and shooting was now his 
favourite sport. But he was far from idle, 
and took over the trying and delicate task 
of administering the United Service Fund. 

In June 1921 Byng was appointed 
governor-general of Canada. Needless to 
say, the choice was largely dictated by his 
prestige and popularity in the Dominion, 
where his name was known to everyone. 
Yet even those who had hoped most from 
it were astonished by the success which he 
made of his mission. Well supported by 
Lady Byng, he kept up the requisite state 
and entertained on a large scale, but was 
otherwise tmconventional, mixing with 
people as had none of his predecessors. He 
travelled widely and developed a talent 
for making brief and telling speeches which 
did not contain the platitudes too common 
on official occasions. The theme to which 
he constantly returned, in terms some- 
times approaching admonition, was the 
need for unity in the Dominion and for 
eliminating the bitterness of political 
strife. His popularity, great from the first, 
never ceased to grow. In his last year there 
was a widespread desire that he should 
serve a second term, but this he would not 
consider. 

Just before he was due to return to 
England, in June 1926, Byng became 



184 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Byng 



involved, by reason of his office, in a pain- 
ful political crisis. The prime minister, 
Mr. W. L. Mackenzie King, had in the 
])revious September sought and obtained 
from the governor-general a dissolution of 
|)arliament, with the stipulation that it 
could not again be granted in similar 
circumstances. The general election which 
followed had seriously worsened Mr. King's 
l)Osition, and he had since carried on the 
•Government with his own liberal party in 
a minority dependent on outside support. 
Now, having to face a vote of censure, 
certain to go against him, he asked for a 
second dissolution. Byng refused it, and 
called upon Mr. Arthur Meighen, the 
conservative leader, who believed that he 
could command a majority. Had he been 
right in this, the affair would not have 
created an inordinate stir, but he was 
defeated by a single vote, owing to the 
breaking of his 'pair' by a pledged sup- 
porter. Byng then granted him a dissolu- 
tion, and in the subsequent election the 
liberals were victorious. The affair was 
complicated by the fact that when Mr. 
Meighen took office there was an inter- 
regnum because the liberals had left their 
offices, so that there was no ministry. If 
the new ministers had now accepted offices 
of profit they would have had to vacate 
their seats and seek re-election. To avoid 
this until the session was ended, Mr. 
Aleighen decided that there should be no 
appointment to offices and no emoluments, 
l)ut that a small nvunber, who had already 
taken the oath of privy councillors, should 
carry on as ministers without portfolio. 
This procedure was strongly reprobated by 
the liberal party. Byng's last days in 
Canada were clouded by this episode, 
althougli Mr. King himself and all the 
more responsible of his adherents refrained 
from criticizing the governor-general's 
motives and expressed their appreciation 
of his sincerity. Yet it was with unfeigned 
affection and deep regret that the people 
of Canada said farewell to him. It has 
been asserted that the decision of the 
Imperial Conference which was held 
shortly after Byng's return proved that he 
had been in error in his handling of the 
crisis ; but this is an over-simplification of 
the problem. What the Imperial Confer- 
ence decided was that the governor- 
general is the representative of the king, 
not of the British government, and that 
the constitutional relationship between 
him and the prime minister of Canada is 
the same as that between the king and the 
British prime minister. Byng had, in fact. 



acted in accordance with this principle. 
He believed, as did Mr. Meighen, that, in 
similar circumstances, the king would have 
acted as had Byng. 

In Jvme 1928 Byng was asked by the 
home secretary. Sir William Joynson- 
Hicks [q.v.], to become chief-commissioner 
of the metropolitan police. He strove to 
excuse himself on the grounds of age and 
indifferent health, but strong pressure was 
put upon him, and he gave way. There 
was need at Scotland Yard for an able man 
with high prestige and a combination of 
tact and ruthlessness. The public was 
becoming disquieted about what appeared 
to be inefficiency and by certain unsavoury 
scandals. But Byng, the least politically 
minded of men, became once more the 
subject of a political controversy. The 
appointment was strongly resented by the 
labour opposition in the House of Com- 
mons, and a heavy attack was made upon 
it by one of the labour leaders, Philip 
Snowden [q.v.]. This agitation presently 
died down. Byng's reforms were wide- 
spread and fundamental. He retired a 
number of senior officers, not because he 
suspected them of complicity in the 
scandals but because he considered that 
the force was in need of fresh and vigorous 
blood. He reorganized the system of 
patrolling, abolishing the conventionality 
and clock-like regularity to which the 
malefactor had become accustomed. He 
instituted police telephone boxes and 
extended, if he cannot be said to have 
instituted, the use of police cars. He 
tightened up discipline. Yet his reforms 
were not resented, as had at first seemed 
possible, in the force, over which he 
established as strong a hold as he had done 
over every other body of men whom he 
had commanded. When the labour govern- 
ment took office in 1929, mindful of the 
criticism with which his appointment had 
been received, he went to the home 
secretary, Mr. John Robert Clynes, and 
told him that he was prepared to resign, 
although he would be glad to continue at 
his post if the government so desired. Mr. 
Clynes informed him that he possessed the 
confidence of the government and that 
he could rely upon its support. Byng's 
health deteriorated towards the end of his 
term of office, and he resigned in September 
1931. 

Byng had been appointed G.C.M.G. in 
1921 and advanced to a viscountcy in 
1928, but the highest honour of the career 
of arms had so far eluded him. Although 
not an ambitious man, his hopes had been 



135 



Byng 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



set upon the field-marshal's baton. A 
former secretary of state had decided that 
it should not be accorded to a retired 
officer, despite the fact that Byng would 
probably have had it had he remained two 
or three years longer on the active list and 
not retired voluntarily to make way for 
youth. To his great satisfaction, he re- 
ceived it in October 1932. He died 
suddenly at Thorpe Hall 6 June 1935, 
leaving no issue, and his peerage therefore 
became extinct. 

Byng had developed, through careful 
self-preparation and experience, from a 
somewhat shy young officer, avoiding 
when he could all society except that most 
congenial to him, to a public figure at 
home in any society and able to impress 
his personality upon multitudes. Yet he 
was to the end essentially simple-minded, 
and his greatest weakness was a guileless 
belief in the integrity of mankind. Since 
he never suspected an ulterior motive in 
any action, men less scrupulous than him- 
self could on occasion take advantage of 
his trustfulness. Yet the man who expects 
most from his fellow men generally gets 
more from them than does the suspicious 
man, and this was the case with Byng. 
He had a genius for friendship and many 
friends in all walks of life. As a soldier he 
was thoroughly competent as well as 
personally inspiring. He never held in- 
dependent command in the field, and it is 
doubtful whether he possessed the scope 
or the forcefulness of Haig. On the other 
hand, he did well what he was called upon 
to do, and the manner in which he first 
welcomed and then developed the draft 
scheme for the Cambrai offensive proves 
that as a commander he was lacking 
neither in open-mindedness nor in 
imagination. 

There is a portrait of Byng, by P. A. de 
Ldszlo, at 5 St. James's Square, and 
another, in field-marshal's imiform, by the 
same artist, at Thorpe Hall. A third 
portrait is included in J. S. Sargent's 
picture, 'Some General Officers of the 
Great War', painted in 1922, in the 
National Portrait Gallery. 

[Sir J. E. Edmonds, Cyril Falls, and Wilfred 
Miles, (Official) History of the Great War. 
Military Operations, France and Belgium, 
1914-1918, 1922-1940; C. F. Aspinall- 
Oglander, (Official) History of the Great War. 
Military Operations, Gallipoli, vol. ii, 1932; 
Lady Byng, Up the Stream of Time, 1945; 
E. A. Forsey, The Royal Power of Dissolution 
of Parliament in the British Commonwealth, 
1943 ; private information.] 

Cyril Falls. 



CAINE, Sir (THOMAS HENRY) 
HALL (1853-1931), novehst, was born at 
Runcorn, Cheshire, 14 May 1853, the 
eldest son of John Caine, a ship's smith, 
of Ballaugh, Isle of Man, by his wife, 
Sarah, daughter of Ralph Hall, of White- 
haven. John Caine had migrated to 
Liverpool from Ramsey in an attempt to 
better his fortunes, but much of Hall 
Caine's childhood was spent in the Isle of 
Man. 

Leaving an elementary school in Liver- 
pool at the age of fourteen. Hall Caine 
became the pupil of a local architect, but 
when he was about seventeen, owing to 
ill health, he abandoned work for a time 
and revisited the Isle of Man, where he 
succeeded his uncle as schoolmaster at 
Kirk Maughold Head. Returning to 
Liverpool after nearly a year, he con- 
tributed articles to the Builder and the 
Building News, and soon became assistant 
to a builder. These essays in architectural 
criticism won him the notice of John 
Ruskin [q.v.], whilst his membership of 
the 'Notes and Queries' Society brought 
him into touch with many famous men, 
including (Sir) Henry Irsang and the poet 
(Sir) William Watson [qq.v.]. Later in 
life he became an intimate friend of the 
Manx writer T. E. Brown [q.v.]. 

Hall Caine's most important literary 
contact was with Dante Gabriel Rossetti 
[q.v.]. In 1878 he delivered a lecture in 
Liverpool on Rossetti' s poetry which, on 
its publication the next year, was the 
beginning of a friendship described in his 
Recollections of Dante Gabriel Rossetti 
(1882; new and enlarged version 1928). 
When, in 1881, Hall Caine decided to 
devote himself entirely to writing, Ros- 
setti invited him to live at his house and 
he remained the poet's constant friend 
and companion until Rossetti's death in 
1882. In the latter year Hall Caine 
married Mary (died 1932), daughter of 
William Chandler, of Walthamstow. There 
were two sons of the marriage. 

Shortly after Rossetti's death Hall Caine 
was offered a post on the Liverpool 
Mercury and, whilst still living in London, 
he worked for a time as one of its leader- 
writers. His first novel. The Shadow of a 
Crime (1885), appeared as a serial in the 
Liverpool Weekly Mercury, but he soon 
abandoned journalism and settled in the 
Isle of Wight. The publication in 1887 
of The Deemster, a story set in the Isle 
of Man, which Rossetti had suggested as 
a good subject for fiction, marked the 
beginning of his extraordinary popularity. 



136 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Calthorpe 



His books were translated into many lan- 
guages and several, including The Bondman 
(1890), were adapted for the stage. His suc- 
cess helped to popularize the shorter one- 
volume format which he adopted in pre- 
ference to the traditional three volumes. 

In 1892-1893 Hall Caine visited Poland 
and the frontier towns of Russia at the 
request of the Russo- Jewish Committee in 
order to investigate the facts of the Jewish 
persecutions, and in 1895 he was sent on 
behalf of the Incorporated Society of 
Authors and the Colonial Office to Canada 
where he conducted successful negotia- 
tions with the Dominion government on 
the subject of Canadian copyright. From 
1901 to 1908 he was a member of the 
Manx House of Keys, associating himself 
with the reforming party. 

During the war of 1914-1918 Hall Caine 
devoted his energies to Allied propaganda 
in the United States of America. He also 
edited King AlberVs Book (1914), a service 
for which he was made an officer of 
the Belgian Order of Leopold. He was 
appointed K.B.E. in 1918 and C.H. in 1922. 
He died at his home, Greeba Castle, Isle 
of Man, 31 August 1931, leaving unfinished 
a Life of Christ which was published 
posthumously in 1938. 

Hall Caine' s novels are remembered 
chiefly for their astonishing popularity. 
Over a million copies were sold of The 
Eternal City (1901), and The Christian 
(1897) was hardly less popular, but the 
success of books such as these should not 
obscure the genuine merit of some of his 
Manx novels, notably The Manxman 
(1894). He had a real knowledge of the 
Manx people, their history and customs, 
and in the Isle of Man he found a setting, 
hitherto unknown to novelists, which ex- 
actly suited his romantic and picturesque 
stories. 

Two portraits of Hall Caine, one by 
Annie Louisa Swynnerton, the other by 
Alfred Jonniaux, are in the possession of 
the family. A bust, by Joseph William 
Swynnerton, is in the Douglas Free 
Library. A drawing by Sir Bernard Par- 
tridge appeared in Punch 27 October 1926. 

[Hall Caine, My Story, 1908, and Recollec- 
tions of Rossetti, 1928; Samuel Norris, Two 
Men of Manxland, 1947; C. F. Kenyon, Hall 
Caine: the Man and the Novelist, 1901 ; William 
Gaunt, The Pre-Raphaelite Tragedy, 1942 ; The 
Times, 1 September 1931 ; private informa- 
tion.] Georgina Battiscombe. 



CALTHORPE, Sir SOMERSET 
ARTHUR GOUGH- (1864^1937), admiral 



of the fleet, the younger son of Somerset 
Frederick, seventh Lord Calthorpe, by his 
wife, Eliza Maria, only child of Captain 
Frederick Chamier, R.N. [q.v.], and 
widow of Captain Frederick Crewe, was 
born in London 23 December 1864. 

Calthorpe entered the Royal Navy from 
the training-ship Britannia in 1878. He 
soon made his mark, gaining special 
promotion to lieutenant in 1886 for meri- 
torious examinations. In 1887 he was 
posted to the Vernon in order to qualify in 
torpedo. He was promoted to commander 
in 1896 for active service on the Africa 
station; he served in the latter rank for 
six years, five of which were spent at sea, 
and was promoted post-captain in 1902. 
As a captain he was for three years naval 
attache to Russia, Sweden, and Norway, 
after which he commanded the cruiser 
Roxburgh, the battleship Hindustan, and 
was captain of the fleet (commodore 1st 
class) of the Home Fleet until his promo- 
tion to rear-admiral in 1911. He was 
rear-admiral of the first battle squadron 
(1912-1913) with his flag in the St. Vincent, 
rear- and vice-admiral in command of the 
second cruiser squadron (1914-1916) (flag 
in the Shannon), second sea lord and 
admiral commanding coastguard and 
reserves (1916-1917), and British com- 
mander-in-chief, Mediterranean (1917- 
1919) (flag in the Egmont, Superb, and 
Iron Duke). He was promoted to admiral 
in 1919 and was commander-in-chief, 
Portsmouth, from 1920 to 1923. In July 
1924 he became first and principal naval 
aide-de-camp to King George V and held 
this, his last service appointment, until 
his promotion to admiral of the fleet in 
May 1925. This was an exceptional record 
of continuous service and testifies to the 
esteem in which he was held by his supe- 
rior officers afloat and at the Admiralty. 
As a lieutenant he was perhaps fortimate 
in seeing active service when such oppor- 
tunities were rare. As commander he was 
a highly successful executive officer, and 
as captain he was noted for handling his 
ships well and for getting the best results 
from his officers and men. 

Having spent part of his boyhood in 
France Calthorpe spoke French fluently 
and was a student of French history. This 
was to prove a great asset to him when 
naval attache in Russia and in the high 
appointments which he held later. When 
captain of the fleet to Sir W. H. May 
[q.v.], who initiated great advances in the 
battle tactics of a modern fleet, he was an 
invaluable adviser and assistant to his 



137 



Calthorpe 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



chief, who made handsome acknowledge- 
ment of the fact. In 1912, as a result of 
the Titanic disaster, a Board of Trade 
committee was appointed to make re- 
commendations for the increased safety 
of life at sea. J. C. Bigham, Viscount 
Mersey [q.v.], was president and Calthorpe 
was the Admiralty's representative. Their 
conclusions were of great practical value 
and were adopted and passed into law 
without delay or amendment. 

In the battle squadron and cruiser 
squadron commands that Calthorpe held 
as a rear-admiral no signal opportunities 
of distinction presented themselves, but 
in August 1917 he was given command of 
all the British naval forces in the Mediter- 
ranean. Supreme command was vested in 
the Allied (French) commander-in-chief, 
Admiral Gauchet, but this officer was 
never active in direction or guidance and 
Calthorpe, as president of a mixed com- 
mission at Malta of French, Italian, and 
Japanese admirals, bCrre the main re- 
sponsibility for the defence of Allied trade 
throughout the Mediterranean, and the 
operations against Turkey. He controlled, 
in addition to vessels of those nations 
and of the United States of America and 
Greece, over a thousand ships, large and 
small, flying the white ensign. His 
measures were successful, and as the 
climax of the war approached the pro- 
bability of a Turkish capitulation became 
evident. 

On 22 October 1918 Calthorpe was 
empowered by the Admiralty to conclude 
an armistice with Turkey, acting as sole 
negotiator on behalf of all the Allies. His 
position in so doing was a delicate one. 
French agreement to this procedure was 
apparently lacking and expostulations 
were immediately forthcoming from the 
French government and, what made mat- 
ters still more difficult, from his nominal 
superior officer, Gauchet. Prescience had, 
however, already taken Calthorpe to 
Mudros, the Turkish plenipotentiaries 
were fetched by a British cruiser, the 
discussions were expedited by his skilful 
and rapid diplomacy, and the armistice 
was signed on 30 October. The fait 
accompli was perforce accepted, and it is not 
surprising that the Allied fleet, British, 
French, Italian, and Greek, which passed 
the Dardanelles and anchored off Con- 
stantinople on 13 November was led by 
the British flagship and commanded by 
the British commander-in-chief. He was 
at once also nominated British high com- 
missioner in Turkey and fulfilled the 



duties of both appointments with striking 
success, in the face of Turkish intrigues. 
Allied dissensions, a French naval mutiny, 
and a spasmodic state of war with 
Bolshevist Russia until his relief a year 
later. 

Calthorpe's subsequent service as com- 
mander-in-chief, Portsmouth, and as 
Admiralty representative on the arma- 
ment commission of the League of Nations, 
although less momentous, . was in the 
highest traditions of the naval service, and 
his promotion to admiral of the fleet was 
a fitting recognition of all that he had 
accomplished for the navy and the nation. 
His character was an admirable blend of 
simplicity and sagacity, moderation and 
firmness, prudence and prompt decision; 
he had great charm of manner, and was 
the soul of honour. Self-seeking ambition 
or advertisement were wholly alien to his 
nature, and he commanded the complete 
confidence and affection of his colleagues 
and subordinates in the Royal Navy, and 
of the many foreign officers of high rank 
who served with him, or under his 
direction, in the war of 1914-1918. 

Calthorpe was awarded many British 
and Allied decorations, including the 
C.V.O. (1910), the G.C.M.G. (1919), the 
G.C.B. (1922), and the highest orders of 
France, Italy, Greece, Rumania, China, 
Japan, and the United States. 

On his retirement from the navy in 1930 
Calthorpe resided in the Isle of Wight 
where he was a D.L. and a J.P. and a 
notable supporter of all good causes in 
that locality. He married in 1900 Effie, 
daughter of Robert Dunsmuir, of Victoria, 
British Columbia, and had no issue. He 
died at Ryde 27 July 1937. 

There',is a'portrait of Calthorpe by Phihp 
Connard, painted on board the Superb in 
1919, at the Imperial War Museum. 

[The Times, 28 July 1937; Admiralty 
records ; personal knowledge.] 

R. M. BURMESTEB. 

CAMPBELL, BEATRICE STELLA 
(1865-1940), better known as Mks. 
Patrick Campbell, actress, was born in 
Kensington 9 February 1865, the yoimgest 
daughter and child of John Tanner, the son 
of an army contractor to the British East 
India Company and a descendant of 
Thomas Tanner, bishop of St. Asaph 
[q.v.]. Her mother was Maria Luigia 
Giovanna, daughter of Count Angelo 
Romanini, an Italian political exile. 
Beatrice Tanner was educated at Brighton 
and Hampstead, and in Paris, and studied 



138 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Campbell, B. S. 



for a short time at the Guildhall School of 
Music. In 1884, when she was nineteen, 
she eloped to marry Patrick Campbell, 
who had then a small post in the City : his 
liither owned property at Stranraer. 

In October 1888 Mrs. Patrick Campbell 
went upon the professional stage, making 
Iter first appearance in a play called 
Bachelors at the Alexandra Theatre, 
I -Liverpool. After touring in the company 
of (Sir) Phillip Ben Greet [q.v.] (Rosahnd 
and Viola were among her parts), she 
arrived in London in March 1890, playing 
Helen in The Hunchback at the Adelphi 
Theatre. During the following year the 
Ciattis engaged her for the Adelphi where 
she acted between August 1891 and the 
spring of 1893 in such melodramas as The 
Trumpet Call and The Black Domino. 
Shortly after The Black Domino opened 
she received a fortnight's notice from the 
Gattis (who were paying her £8 a week) 
on the grounds that her voice and gestures 
were ineffective and that nothing she said 
or did 'got over the footlights'. It was at 
this time that her performance was seen 
l)y Mrs. Alexander and Graham Robertson, 
the artist, who knew that (Sir) George 
Alexander [q.v.] wanted an actress to play 
the part of Paula Tanqueray in the new 
dratna. The Second Mrs. Tanqueray, by 
(Sir) A. W. Pinero [q.v.] at the St. James's 
Theatre. Negotiations followed, made 
difficult by the attitude of the Gattis who 
wished to keep Mrs. Campbell when they 
heard that she was sought for the St. 
James's. At last she was released, and, 
thanks to the generosity of Elizabeth 
Robins, who had been cast meantime for 
I'atda and withdrew in Mrs. Campbell's 
favour, this almost unknown player — ' the 
fragile creature of Italian origin', as 
Pinero called her— had her chance. From 
the moment that she walked upon the 
stage of the St. James's on the night of 
27 May 1893, her success was astonishing. 
Mrs. Campbell had a dark Italian beauty 
and a rich and expressive voice: it was 
soon realized that none of her contempor- 
aries had her gift for portraying passionate, 
complex women, 'the flash and gloom, the 
swirl and the eddy, of a soul torn by 
supposed intellectual emotion', as (Sir) 
Edmimd Gosse put it in a letter to her 
Avritten in 1895. She might fail in the 
simplicities, but properly cast she was 
unexampled. William Archer wrote of her 
Paula: 'Never was there a more uncom- 
promisingly artistic piece of acting. It 
was incarnate reality, the haggard truth.' 
John Davidson in a letter to her written 



in 1901 said: '"Paula" is like an opal of 
many hues and lustres, with stains of life} 
and wovmds of passion through which the 
disastrous fires glow that shatter it in the 
end.' Although, as Mr. Hamilton Fyfe has 
noted, Davidson did not attribute this 
merit entirely to the actress, no other 
player of Paula has left the same impres- 
sion or shown the same temperamental 
brilliance. 

Later during the 'nineties, when her fame 
was at its height, Mrs. Campbell appeared 
in such parts as Dulcie Larondie in Henry 
Arthur Jones's strong, romantic play, 
The Masqueraders (St. James's, April 
1894); Agnes Ebbsmith, who threw the 
Bible into the fire, in Pinero's The 
Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith (Garrick Theatre, 
March 1895) ; Fedora, in the play of that 
name (Haymarket Theatre, May 1895); 
Juliet to the Romeo of (Sir) Johnston 
Forbes-Robertson [q.v.] at the Lyceum 
Theatre (September 1895), a part to which 
she was less fitted ; and Magda in Suder- 
mann's drama of that name, also at the 
Lyceum (June 1896), in which she was 
superb in revolt and indignation. Although 
the play failed on its first production, she 
acted in it often during her later career. 
In November 1896 she appeared at the 
Avenue Theatre as the Rat Wife in Ibsen's 
Little Eyolf. She was generally considered 
to have been miscast as Ophelia to Forbes- 
Robertson's Hamlet at the Lyceum (Sep- 
tember 1897), although Mr. Bernard Shaw 
defended her in the Saturday Review. ' Mrs . 
Patrick Campbell,' he wrote, 'with that 
complacent audacity of hers which is so 
exasperating when she is doing the wrong 
thing, this time does the right thing by 
making Ophelia really mad. The resent- 
ment of the audience at this outrage is 
hardly to be described. . . . Playgoers 
naturally murmur when something that 
has always been pretty becomes painful ; 
but the pain is good for them, good for the 
theatre, and for the play.' Nine months 
after this, in June 1898, Mrs. Campbell 
had one of her most memorable successes 
as a Melisande of haunting beauty in 
Maeterlinck's PelUas and Mdlisande 
(Prince of Wales's Theatre, June 1898), 
with (Sir) John Martin Harvey as Pelleas. 
Her Lady Macbeth (Lyceum, September 
1898) was played with what A. B. Walkley 
[q.v.] termed 'a mysterious sensuous 
charm'. 

In September 1899 Mrs. Campbell went 
into management at the Prince of Wales's, 
opening with a failure, Chester Bailey 
Fernald's Japanese play, The Moonlight 



139 



Campbell, B. S. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Blossom. The financial loss was heavy. In 
April of the next year Mrs. Campbell had 
a deep personal grief when her husband 
was killed fighting in South Africa. Her 
management remained unfortunate finan- 
cially, but she had a run of artistic 
successes in such parts as Mrs. Daventry 
(Royalty Theatre, October 1900) in the 
play Mr. and Mrs. Daventry, based by 
Frank Harris [q.v.] on a scenario of Oscar 
Wilde ; Mariana in a revival of Jose Eche- 
garay's play of that name (Royalty, May 
1901) ; and Mrs. Clara Sang, the bedridden 
wife in Bjornstjerne Bjornson's Beyond 
Human Power (Royalty, November 1901). 
During January 1902 she acted for the 
first time in New York, as Magda. When 
she returned to London she appeared in a 
series of unimportant productions inter- 
rupted by one famous revival: that in 
which she played Melisande in French to 
the Pelleas of Sarah Bernhardt (Vaudeville 
Theatre, July 1904). According to W. L. 
Courtney [q.v.] in the Daily Telegraph, 
Mrs. Campbell's Melisande was 'in its 
French form more gracious and childlike 
and poetic than we have ever seen it 
before'. After 'a nightmare', Mrs. Camp- 
bell's word for the melodrama The Bond- 
man by (Sir) Hall Caine [q.v.] (Drury Lane 
Theatre, September 1906) in which she 
appeared as Greeba, there came the 
triumph of a few Court Theatre matinees 
of Ibsen's Hedda Gdbler (March 1907). Mrs. 
Campbell, physically nothing like Ibsen's 
description, was a mistress of heat and 
light and sound; she saw Hedda as 'a 
proud, intelligent woman, a well-bred 
woman in the highest sense. A vital 
creature, suffocated by the commonplace.' 
Another visit to the United States of 
America followed, and then an English 
tour. Next Mrs. Campbell gave matinees 
at the New Theatre (November 1908) of 
Arthur Symons's version of Hugo von 
Hofmannsthal's Elektra and of Yeats's 
Deirdre. In January 1909 she played 
Olive in Rudolf Besier's Olive Latimefs 
Husband (Vaudeville), and in September 
of that year Mieris in the ill-fated False 
Gods by J. B. Fagan [q.v.], with Sir 
H. Beerbohm Tree at His Majesty's 
Theatre. 

Mrs. Campbell spent the year 1910 in 
America. Back in London she opened at 
the Haymarket (March 1911) in Besier's 
Lady Patricia. Here it was said of her that 
she burlesqued with much humour both 
herself as an actress and the kind of 
woman she had been impersonating for so 
long. At the St. James's (December 1911) 



she appeared with Sir George Alexander 
for the first time in seventeen years: the 
part — one she had refused more than once 
and never liked — was Mrs. Chepstow in 
the drama Bella Donna, by- Fagan and 
Mr. Robert Hichens. After a revival at 
the St. James's (June 1913) of The Second 
Mrs. Tanqueray and her performance of 
Leonora in The Adored One by Sir J. M. 
Barrie [q.v.] (Duke of York's Theatre, 
September 1913), Mrs. Campbell found 
one of her last major successes, Eliza 
Doolittle, the flower-girl Galatea of Mr. 
Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion. 'I invented 
a Cockney accent and created a human 
Eliza' she wrote later of a part that she 
played first at His Majesty's (April 1914) 
and afterwards in the United States. 
Mr. Shaw was always a firm friend: his 
letters to her are the crown of the 
autobiography which she published in 
1922. 

During the rest of her career Mrs. Camp- 
bell's star slowly waned. She had such 
effective parts as Rosalie la Grange in The 
Thirteenth Chair (Duke of York's, October 
1917), George Sand in Madame Sand 
(Duke of York's, June 1920), and Anastasia 
in The Matriarch (Royalty, May 1929). 
There were also revivals of Macbeth 
(Aldwych Theatre, November 1920, with 
the American actor James K. Hackett) ; 
Hedda Gdbler (Everyman Theatre, May 
1922); and Ibsen's Ghosts (in which she 
played Mrs. Alving, Wyndham's Theatre, 
March 1928). But much of her time was 
spent in touring and her new parts were 
few and unimportant. She never regained 
her full hold on the West End stage, and 
during the last years of her life she was 
engaged chiefly in minor film work in 
America. To the end she retained her 
sense of humour and cutting wit. Off the 
stage she was tempestuous, tactless, and 
good-hearted ; upon it she was an actress 
in the grand manner. A modern critic, 
James Agate, said of her at her death: 'In 
my life I have seen six great actresses, and 
six only. These are Bernhardt, Rejane, 
Mrs. Kendal, Ellen Terry, Duse, and Mrs. 
Patrick Campbell.' She died of pneumonia 
at Pau 9 April 1940. In 1914 she had 
married, as his second wife, (Major) 
George Frederick Myddleton Cornwallis- 
West. By her first husband she had a son, 
who was killed in action in France in 1917, 
and a daughter, SteUa Patrick Campbell, 
an actress who appeared often with her 
mother. 

A portrait of Mrs. Campbell as Paula 
Tanqueray was painted by Solomon J. 



140 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Cannan 



Solomon in 1894, and another was painted 
by Prince Pierre Troubetzkoy. 

[The Times, 11 April 1940; Mrs. Patrick 
Campbell, My Life and Some Letters, 1922; 
n. Hamilton Fyfe, Sir Arthur Pinero's Plays 
and Players, 1930; G. Bernard Shaw, Our 
Theatres in the Nineties, vol. iii, 1932 ; A. E. W. 
Mason, Sir George Alexander and the St. James'' 
Theatre, 1935; James Agate, Ego 4, 1940; 
Who 's Who in the Theatre, 1939.] 

J. C. Trewin. 



CAMPBELL, JAMES HENRY MUS- 
SEN, first Bakon Glenavy (1851-1931), 
Irish lawyer and politician, was born at 
Terenure, Dublin, 4 April 1851, the 
youngest son of William Mussen Campbell, 
an officer in the Dublin metropolitan 
police, by his wife, Delia, daughter of 
Henry Francis Graham Poole, of Newtown 
Abbey, co. Kildare. He was educated at 
Kingstown, co. Dublin, and at Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he won a classical 
scholarship and was a senior moderator in 
both classics and history. As a speaker he 
was outstanding, and won the college 
historical society's gold medal for oratory. 

Called to the Irish bar (King's Inns, 
Dublin) in 1878 Campbell rapidly became 
a leading junior on the North-Eastern 
circuit. His oratory won him distinction 
among such brilliant advocates as T. M. 
Healy, Edward Carson [qq.v.], and Sey- 
mour Bushe. He took silk in 1892 and was 
made a bencher of King's Inns in 1894. 
He was called to the English bar by 
Gray's Inn in 1899, and became a bencher 
in 1901 and K.C. in 1906, but practised 
little in England. 

Like most Irish barristers Campbell 
was a politician. He became prominent as 
a unionist. Elected to parliament for the 
St. Stephen's Green division of Dublin at 
a by-election in 1898, he lost this seat to 
the nationalists in 1900. In 1903, at 
another by-election, he was returned as 
one of the two members for Dublin 
University, Carson having been the other 
member since 1892. This seat Campbell 
held until he was raised to the bench in 
1916. An effective member, his speeches 
were praised by A. J. Balfour. He held 
office as solicitor-general for Ireland from 
1901 to 1905 and as attorney -general for 
a short time in December 1905. He was 
sworn of the Irish Privy Coimcil in the 
last-named year. 

During the home rule controversy of 
1912 to 1914 Campbell, deeply involved in 
the Ulster unionist movement, was a 
member of Carson's provisional govern- 



ment. He was re-appointed attorney- 
general in April 1916 a few days before the 
Sinn Fein rising. In December 1916 he 
was made lord chief justice of Ireland, 
was created a baronet in 1917, and in June 
1918 was appointed lord chancellor of 
Ireland. In the last scramble for office 
before the setting up of the Irish Free 
State in 1921 he was induced to retire in 
favour of Sir John Ross [q.v.], and was 
raised to the peerage as Baron Glenavy, 
of Milltown, CO. Dublin. 

Campbell's experience as potential rebel 
in the Ulster provisional government and 
attorney-general after the rising of 1916 
had considerably modified his views on 
home rule. During the years 1918 to 1921, 
as head of the Irish judiciary while the 
country was in active rebellion, he had 
come to see that a change was inevitable. 
Accordingly when the Irish Free State was 
established he accepted the new regime 
and was made a member of its first senate 
of which he was elected chairman in 1922. 
He was a dominating figure, perhaps too 
strong for a chairman, and did not allow 
the senate to develop its independence. 
He was even known to adjourn the House 
to suit his own convenience. In the words 
of his fellow senator, W. B. Yeats [q.v.], 
'handsome, watchful, vigorous, dominat- 
ing, courteous, he seemed like some figure 
from an historical painting'. The chair- 
manship of the senate was his last office. 
In 1928 he did not seek re-election. 

Glenavy was a convinced member of 
the Church of Ireland and served on its 
synod. In private life he was a keen golfer 
and bridge player. He married in 1884 
Emily (died 1939), second daughter of 
John MacCullagh, resident magistrate, of 
Newry, co. Down, and niece of the mathe- 
matician James MacCullagh [q.v.]. They 
had three sons, the youngest of whom was 
killed in the war of 1914f-1918, and one 
daughter. Glenavy died in Dublin 22 
March 1931, and was succeeded as second 
baron by his eldest son, Charles Henry 
Gordon (born 1885). 

There is a portrait of Glenavy, by Sir 
William Orpen, at Gray's Inn, and an- 
other, by Leo Whelan, is in the possession 
of his son. 

[The Times, 23 March 1931; private in- 
formation ; personal knowledge.] 

DiA3EtMiD Coffey. 

CANNAN, EDWIN (1861-1935), econo- 
mist, was bom at Funchal, Madeira, 3 
February 1861, the younger son of David 
Alexander Cannan, a native of Kirkcud- 



141 



Cannan 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



brightshire, who held a business post in 
AustraUa at the time of the Victoria gold 
rush, and in Edwin's boyhood resided at 
Bournemouth. His mother, Jane Doro- 
thea Claude, who died eighteen days after 
his birth, was the daughter of a Liverpool 
merchant, of Huguenot descent. He was 
brother of Charles Cannan [q.v.]. 

Cannan was educated at Clifton and 
Balliol College, Oxford. At Balliol, owing 
to illness and a consequent voyage round 
the world, he did not take an honours 
degree but, in the pass school, took 
political economy as one of his subjects. 
In 1885 he won the Lothian essay prize. In 
the introduction to his Economic Outlook 
(1912), he gave a characteristic account 
of the evolution of his studies as an 
economist. An essay, which was un- 
successfully submitted for the Cobden 
prize in 1886, was turned partly into his 
first book. Elementary Political Economy 
(1888), partly into a paper on 'The Bear- 
ings of Recent Economics on Indivi- 
dualism, Collectivism, and Communism' 
(republished in The Economic Outlook 
under the title ' Economics and Socialism ') 
which was read to the Fabian Society in 
1889, and contained the germs of much 
that was most characteristic in his 
approach to the problems of economic 
policy. There followed three years ' study 
of the works of earlier economists. This 
resulted in 1893 in A History of the 
Theories of Production and Distribution in 
English Political Economy from 1776 to 
1848, a work which, in spite of some 
protest at the sharpness of its strictures 
on the masters of the past, established 
his standing in the profession. 

On the strength of these writings and 
perhaps partly because it was believed 
that his attitude to the main tradition of 
English political economy was much more 
unorthodox than in fact it actually was, 
when the London School of Economics 
and Political Science was founded in 1895, 
he was among those who were invited to 
lecture on economics. Thenceforward, 
although, by a deliberate choice which 
sprang from the enjoyment of independent 
means, his appointment was never on a 
full-time basis and he resided all his life 
at Oxford, his teaching at the school was 
the main preoccupation of his life. He 
was not created professor of political 
economy in the university of London 
until 1907. But throughout this whole 
period he was the effective head of the 
economics department and played an 
essential part in building up the main 



tradition of the school. He retired in 1926 
and devoted himself first to the prepara- 
tion of A Review of Economic Theory 
(1929), which embodies the substance of 
his great sixty -lecture course on principles 
of economics at the school, and is as 
much a running disquisition on past 
theories and their genesis as an exposi- 
tion of contemporary doctrine. He then 
turned to a number of miscellaneous 
works, some arising from the presidency 
of the Royal Economic Society to which he 
was elected in 1932. The universities of 
Glasgow (1901) and Manchester (1927) 
conferred honorary degrees upon him. He 
died at Bournemouth 8 April 1935. He 
married in 1907 his second cousin, 
Margaret Mary, eldest daughter of David 
CuUen, deputy-surgeon-general, of Chel- 
tenham. The only child of the marriage 
died in boyhood. 

The concern with the history of econo- 
mic thought, which showed itself in 
Cannan' s first major work, was an abiding 
interest throughout his whole career. In 
1895 he had the supreme good fortune to 
discover a set of student's notes of Adam 
Smith's Glasgow lectures which he pub- 
lished with a learned introduction and 
notes the next year (Lectures on Justice, 
Police, Revenue and Arms delivered in the 
University of Glasgow by Adam Smith . . . 
in 1763). In 1904 he published, in two 
volumes, what is acknowledged to be the 
standard edition of the Wealth of Nations. 
Later there came an edition of the Bullion 
Report (The Paper Pound of 1797-1821, 
1919). 

Cannan was a severe critic of the classi- 
cal economists. Many would say that he 
was too severe and that, in some instances 
at least, a better case could be made out 
for his victims than he was prepared to 
concede. Nevertheless, he was deeply 
imbued with the spirit of the classical 
outlook — its long views, its wide perspec- 
tives, the broad humanity and cosmopoli- 
tanism of its approach. The questions 
which seemed to him to be important 
were the questions to which the classical 
economists attempted to provide an 
answer: the question regarding the main 
causes of the increase of wealth and the 
conditions determining its distribution. 
His text-book Wealth: A Brief Explanation 
of the Causes of Economic Welfare (1914) 
is still probably the best introduction to 
the study of the economic system from 
this point of view. He was much less 
interested in the questions of equilibrium 
and disequilibrium which have been the 



142 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Carlyle 



main preoccupation of the present genera- 
tion of economists. He had a strong dis- 
like of the mathematical approach, and 
an almost passionate conviction that the 
important economic truths could be 
expressed, as he tried so hard to express 
them, in language which would be intel- 
ligible to laymen. Coupled with this was 
a sturdy suspicion of any speculative 
excursion which did not seem to have a 
more or less direct concern with practice. 
While he would have rightly repudiated 
the suggestion that he was a clqtssical 
economist malgri lui, for that would have 
suggested affiliations with the Ricardians 
with their lack of a sense of history, it is 
probable that he would not have resented 
the suggestion of some continuity of out- 
look, if not of doctrine, with that of the 
author of the Wealth of Nations. 

Cannan's work in economics was not 
confined to the exposition and history of 
general theory. From a very early stage 
he took a lively interest in policy ; and he 
played a prominent part in the public 
discussion of the practical problems of the 
day. For many years he reviewed current 
governmental publications for the Oxford 
Economic Review ; and he served a term of 
office on the Oxford city council. At an 
early stage, also, his interest in demo- 
graphy led to a prediction, many years 
ahead of other experts, of 'The Probable 
Cessation of Growth of Population in 
England and Wales' (Economic Journal, 
1895, reprinted in Economic Scares, 1933). 
His profound knowledge of local govern- 
ment and its history received classic 
expression in his History of Local Rates in 
England (1896: the second edition, pub- 
lished in 1912, contains very important 
additional matter). His criticisms and 
disquisitions on various aspects of econo- 
mic policy during and immediately after 
the war of 1914-1918, reprinted in An 
Economist's Protest (1927), are marked 
by great practical insight and expository 
skill. It was in this last connexion that 
he became involved in the great monetary 
controversies of the day — inflation, stabi- 
lization, rate of interest, the role of bank 
credit, and the like ; and the vigour of his 
polemics on some of these topics, especi- 
ally in regard to the nature of bank credit 
and the return to the gold standard, is 
probably responsible for the dispropor- 
tionate attention which has been given to 
his attitude towards these questions, to 
the neglect of his more solid and enduring 
contributions. 

As a teacher Cannan was outstanding. 



In lectures his delivery was poor. But his 
sense of the architecture of his subject 
was superb; and his complete disin- 
terestediiess and great learning and good 
sense, disguised behind a somewhat jaimty 
informality which endeared him greatly 
to the yoimg, exercised a profound in- 
fluence upon all who came into contact with 
him. In the years following his death, 
owing partly to his lack of interest in those 
aspects of pure theory which were the 
main focus of attention in this country in 
the inter- war period, and partly to his 
identification in the public mind with 
certain practical policies in regard to 
money which, in their results, proved to 
be unfortxmate, his reputation has tended 
to be somewhat under a cloud. But his 
contributions to pure scholarship and to 
our knowledge of the evolution of incen- 
tives and institutions are of lasting value. 
If it is fair to say that he ignored much 
that was good in the intellectual develop- 
ments of the inter- war period, it is equally 
fair to say that in his own work there is 
much that is novel and true that has not 
yet received full recognition. 

Cannan was a man of strong personality. 
A mordant wit and an abrupt manner 
concealed a character of strong attach- 
ments and infinite gentleness and sym- 
pathy. He possessed in a marked degree 
that characteristic British determination 
to assert his individual rights as a citizen 
which has done so much for the rule of 
law in this country; and, although not 
litigious, if he thought that a principle 
was involved, he would go to any trouble 
and expense to defend it. He had httle 
feeling for the arts, save for the modes of 
the sweet, wholesome English prose that 
he himself handled with such distinction. 
But he had a great interest in the day -to- 
day history of the face of England and he 
was a leading authority on roads which he 
studied for many years, first as an ardent 
cyclist, and then as a driver of a 'baby' 
Austin which he learned to drive at the 
age of sixty-six. 

[Economic Journal, June 1935 ; Clare Market 
Review, vol. xv. No. 3, and vol. xvi. No. 1, 
1935 ; personal knowledge.] 

Lionel Robbins. 

CARLYLE, Sir ROBERT WARRAND 

(1859-1934), Indian civil servant and 
scholar, was born at Brechin 11 July 1859, 
the elder son of James Edward Carlyle, 
minister of the Free church at Brechin, 
subsequently successively Free Church 
chaplain in Bombay, Berlin, and Pieter- 



143 



Carlyle 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



maritzburg, by his wife, Jessie Margaret, 
daughter of James Milne, of Huntly, 
Aberdeenshire. The original spelling of 
the name, Carlile, was altered by Robert's 
grandfather, a kinsman of the famous 
Thomas Carlyle and brother-in-law of 
Edward Irving [q.v.] through Robert's 
grandmother, 

Robert Carlyle was educated privately 
and at Glasgow University and Balliol 
College, Oxford. He passed the Indian 
civil service examination of 1878 and in 
1880 was posted to the old undivided 
province of Bengal. Here he spent his 
jiuxior years in attaining the sound grasp 
of district administration which stood him 
in good stead thereafter. In 1897 he was 
collector of Darbhauga during one of the 
last serious Bihar famines, and was con- 
spicuous for his untiring personal super- 
vision of relief operations over a wide area, 
his excellent work being recognized by 
his appointment as CLE. in 1898. His 
next important appointment was that 
of inspector-general of poUce (1902), in 
which he gained the respect of all ranks. 
This was followed by promotion (1904) to 
the difficult post of officiating chief secre- 
tary to the government of Bengal (the 
appointment was confirmed in 1905), and 
thence to that of secretary to the govern- 
ment of India in the revenue and agricul- 
tural department at Simla (1907). He 
became a member of the governor-general's 
council in 1910, and was serving in that 
capacity during the viceroyalty of Lord 
Hardinge of Penshurst at the time of the 
momentous removal, in 1911, of the head- 
quarters of the government of India from 
Calcutta to Delhi. Of the wisdom of that 
change he always entertained doubts. 

Secretariat work was never particularly 
congenial to Carlyle. His handwriting 
was curiously illegible, and he had no 
liking for debates in the legislative coiuicil. 
His strength lay in his thorough knowledge 
of administration, the soiuidness of his 
judgement, the fearless expression of 
his views, and the attractiveness of his 
personality. He was held in high regard 
by all, both British and Indian, and always 
commanded the loyalty of those who 
served under him. He was appointed 
C.S.I, in 1910 and K.C.S.I. in 1911. 

Carlyle retired in 1915 and went to live 
in Essex. Thenceforward his main in- 
terest lay in collaboration with his 
brother, Alexander James Carlyle, in the 
writing of A History of Mediaeval Political 
Theory in the West (6 vols., 1903-1936). 
He also wrote an article on 'The Pohtical 



Theories of St. Thomas Aquinas', which 
appeared erroneously above his brother's 
name, in the Scottish Review for January 
1896. He was a member of the Central 
Tribunal to consider adjustments between 
war service and necessary industrial 
activities (1916-1918) and a trustee of 
the King's Fund (1919). 

Carlyle married in 1903 Isabel Jane, 
daughter of James Barton, of Farndreg, 
Dundalk, co. Louth. Lady Carlyle, whose 
house was always a gracious social centre, 
was indefatigable in organizing much 
needed comforts for the troops engaged in 
the Mesopotamian campaign, for which 
work she received the Kaiser-i-Hind gold 
medal in 1916. There were no children of 
the marriage. After his retirement both 
Carlyle and his wife were much interested 
in the work of his cousin. Prebendary 
Wilson CarUle, founder of the Church Army. 
Carlyle died at Florence 23 May 1934. 

[The Times, 28 May 1934; private in- 
formation ; personal knowledge.] 

Henry Wheeler. 

CAROE, WILLIAM DOUGLAS (1857- 
1938), architect, was bom at Great Crosby, 
near Liverpool, 1 September 1857, the 
younger son of Anders Kruise Caroe, 
Danish consul at Liverpool and a natura- 
lized British subject, by his wife, Jane, 
Green. He was educated at Ruabon Gram- 
mar School and Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he was a senior optime in the 
mathematical tripos of 1879. 

Caroe was articled to J. L. Pearsoi 
[q.v.], and after completing his articles| 
he remained on in Pearson's office on 
gradually diminishing part-time basis^ 
while he built up his own practice. It was 
at this period that he was responsible 
tmder Pearson for a great deal of the 
detailing of Truro Cathedral. His own 
practice at that time included a large 
amoimt of work in Ireland — ^houses, farm 
buildings, and stables — and his church 
work in England grew rapidly. In 1895 
he was appointed architect to the Ecclesi- 
astical Commissioners and the Charity 
Commission and held the post untU his 
death. A vast amount of ecclesiastical 
work passed through his hands in these 
years. He acted as consulting architect to 
the diocesan boards of finance of Lichfield, 
Canterbury, Bath and Wells, and New- 
castle-upon-Tyne. He was architect to the 
cathedrals of Canterbury, Durham, South- 
well, St. Davids, Brecon, and Jerusalem, 
and to many churches, including Great 
Malvern Priory, Tewkesbury Abbey, 



144 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Carpenter 



llomsey Abbey, and St. Peter's, Wolver- 
hampton. He built or reconstructed the 
archbishop's palace at Canterbury, and 
the bishops' palaces at Abergwili, South- 
well, Bristol, St. Albans, Llandaff, Roches- 
ter, and Wolvesey (Winchester). He was 
ulso the designer, among other buildings, 
of the University College of South Wales 
and Monmouthshire at Cardiff, the Ted- 
dington laboratories of the National 
Physical Laboratory, the offices of the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners in Millbank, 
Wycombe Abbey School, Sherborne 
School for Girls, North Foreland School, 
Broadstairs, new buildings for Pembroke 
College, Cambridge, and the churches of 
St. David, Exeter, St. George, Leicester, 
SS. Andrew and Patrick, Elveden, Suffolk, 
St. Helen, St. Helens, Lancashire, and St. 
Ninian, Douglas, Isle of Man. He designed 
internal fittings for many hundred medie- 
val churches, including St. Mary's, Weston 
Zoyland, Winchester College Chapel, and 
St. Mary's, Cardigan, and between the 
years 1887 and 1937 he was responsible 
for the structural restoration of many 
medieval buildings including the churches 
of St. Hilda, Hartlepool, and St. Michael, 
Stanton Harcourt; he also did important 
restoration work at Christ Church, Oxford. 
He ■ designed the monuments to Arch- 
bishop Temple in Canterbury Cathedral, 
to Bishop Owen in St. David's Cathedral, 
to Bishop Satterlee and Bishop Harding 
in Washington Cathedral, U.S. A., and to 
Bishop Ridding in Southwell Cathedral. 
He was a member of the first commission 
on St. Paul's Cathedral in 1912, when he 
signed a minority report with (Sir) Horace 
Darwin [q.v.], and acted as adviser to the 
Norwegian government on Trondhjem 
Cathedral. He received the Order of St. 
Olaf of Norway, and was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Institute of British Architects 
in 1890. 

Caroe's publications include two books, 
Sefton (1893) and King's Hostel, Trinity 
College, Cambridge (1909). He edited 
' Tom Tower \ Christ Church, Oxford. Some 
Letters of Sir C. Wren to J. Fell (1923). 
He married in 1891 Grace Desborough 
(died 1947), daughter of John RandaU, 
barrister, of London, and had two sons 
and one daughter. He died at the house 
which he had built at Kyrenia in Cyprus 
25 February 1938. 

Caroe was a man of forceful character 
and great energy and business capacity. 
He was a faithful representative of what 
may be considered the closing phase of the 
Gothic revival which reached its climax 



in the work of his master, Pearson, and of 
G. F. Bodley [q.v.], and gave way in its 
turn to later developments which aimed 
at the spirit of Gothic architecture rather 
than at the close reproduction of period 
methods and details. 

A crayon drawing of Caroe is in the 
office of his firm at 3 Great College Street, 
Westminster. 

[The Times, 1 and 4 March 1938 ; Journal of 
the Royal Institute of British Architects, 11 
April 1938 ; Builder and Architect, 4 March 
1938 ; private information.] 

Ian MacAlister. 



CARPENTER, Sir (HENRY CORT) 
HAROLD (1875-1940), metaUurgist, was 
born at Clifton, Bristol, 6 February 1875, 
the second son of William Lant Carpenter, 
engineer, of Bristol, by his wife, Annie 
Grace Viret. He was a grandson of W. B. 
Carpenter [q.v.] and a great-great-grand- 
son of Henry Cort [q.v.], the inventor of 
the puddling process for iron. Owing to his 
father's early death, his mental develop- 
ment was much influenced by his uncle, 
J. Estlin Carpenter [q.v.]. He was 
educated at St. Paul's School and at East- 
bourne College for a year and in 1893 
entered Merton College, Oxford, as a post- 
master. Having obtained a first class in 
natural science in 1896, he studied organic 
chemistry at Leipzig and took his Ph.D. 
at the end of two years. He then worked 
with W. H. Perkin [q.v.] at the Owens 
College, Manchester, until 1901, when he 
was appointed to take charge of the new 
departments of chemistry and metallurgy 
at the National Physical Laboratory. 
His interest soon shifted from organic 
chemistry to metallurgy, and from 1905 
he confined his work to that subject, his 
first original contribution, with B. F. E. 
Keeling, being a study of the alloys of 
iron and carbon, involving accurate 
measurements in the range of high tem- 
peratures. This difficult investigation, es- 
tablishing the main features of the system, 
was followed by studies of the structure 
of other alloys, especially the complex 
alloys of copper with aluminium. 

In 1906 Carpenter was invited to occupy 
the new chair of metallurgy in the univer- 
sity of Manchester, where he built up a 
school of research, investigating tool steels 
and various complex alloys containing 
copper and aluminium. The 'growth' of 
cast iron was traced to the penetration 
of oxygen along the surface of the flakes of 
graphite. He left Manchester in December 
1913 for the chair of metallurgy at the 
145 L 



Carpenter 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Royal School of Mines, South Kensington, 
but before taking up the duties he made a 
six months' tour of Canada and the 
United States of America in order to 
study metallurgical operations on a large 
scale. At the Royal School of Mines, 
however, he devoted himself mainly to the 
metallographic side of the subject. In a 
series of papers, mostly in collaboration 
with Miss C. F. Elam (Mrs. Tipper), he 
followed the process of recrystallization 
of metals which had been deformed, in 
the course of which means were devised 
for growing crystals of metals, especially 
aluminium, large enough to allow of a 
study of their mechanical properties. 
This research laid the foundation of later 
work on single crystals. Other papers, 
in collaboration with Mr. John Monteath 
Robertson, described, more minutely than 
before, the changes of structure in carbon 
steels when heated or cooled through the 
critical range of temperature. The pro- 
duction of well-formed crystals of oxide 
of iron heated under a reduced pressure 
of oxygen was also studied, as was the 
structure of native metals, these subjects 
being linked by a common interest in the 
processes of growth of crystals. 

Carpenter successively filled the presi- 
dential chairs of the three principal 
metallurgical institutes, being president 
of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 
(1934), of that of Metals (1918-1920), and 
of that of Iron and Steel (1935-1937). He 
had been instrumental in founding the 
Institute of Metals, and as chairman of 
a Treasury committee was responsible in 
1929 for a report which resulted in im- 
proving the status of professional men in 
government service. He was elected 
F.R.S. in 1918 and knighted in 1929. He 
received the honorary degree of D.Met. 
from the university of Sheffield and that 
of D.Sc. from the university of Wales. He 
also received numerous gold medals, 
including the Japanese Honda medal 
(1940). 

Carpenter married in 1905 Ethel Mary, 
daughter of George Henry Lomas, of 
Brooklands, Cheshire; there were no 
children of the marriage. 

In the war of 1914-1918 Carpenter 
served on the Admiralty Board of Inven- 
tion and Research. On the outbreak of 
war in 1939 the metallurgical department 
of the Royal School of Mines was trans- 
ferred to Swansea, and it was while on a 
country walk that he succumbed to heart 
failure 13 September 1940. 

Carpenter's numerous publications in- 



clude only one book, a two-volume work 
on Metals, written in collaboration with 
Mr. J. M. Robertson and published in 
1939, remarkable for its clear exposition 
of the main facts of the structure of metals 
and alloys. 

[The Times, 16 September 1940; Obituary 
Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society, No. 10, 
December 1941 (portrait); Journal of the 
Iron and Steel Institute, vol. cxlii, 1940; 
Metallurgia, October 1940; personal know- 
ledge.] C. H. Desch. 

CARSON, EDWARD HENRY, Baron 
Carson, of Duncairn (1854-1935), Ulster 
leader and lord of appeal in ordinary, was 
born in Dublin 9 February 1854, the 
second son of Edward Henry Carson, a 
civil engineer practising in that city, by 
his wife, Isabella, daughter of Captain 
Peter Lambert, of Castle Ellen, Athenry, 
CO. Galway, a descendant of General John 
Lambert_ [q.v.]. He was educated at 
Portarlington School and at Trinity College, 
Dublin, where he studied law, although 
his first inclination was towards architec- 
ture. After taking his degree, he was 
called to the Irish bar (King's Inns, 
Dublin) in 1877 and by 1880 had become 
known to solicitors as 'a desirable junior', 
so that three years later he was much ins 
demand both in the Dublin courts and onj 
the Leinster circuit. In 1887 he became] 
junior covmsel to the attorney -general J 
John Gibson, on whose elevation to theJ 
bench in 1888 Peter O'Brien (afterwards | 
Lord O'Brien, q.v.) continued Carson asl 
his counsel. As junior crown prosecutorl 
he conducted several important criminalj 
trials until, in 1889, he took silk. At the' 
instance of A. J. Balfour, who had formed 
a high opinion of him, he was appointed 
solicitor-general for Ireland in June 1892, 
only two months before the end of Lord 
Salisbury's second administration. In 
July he was returned to parliament as one 
of the members for Dublin University, a 
seat which he continued to hold for 
twenty-six years. He then determined to 
explore the wider field open to talent 
across St. George's Channel, and he was 
called to the English bar by the Middle 
Temple in 1893, becoming Q.C. the follow- 
ing year. In due course he was elected a 
bencher (1900) and treasurer (1922) of his 
Inn ; he had been a bencher of King's Inns 
since 1891. 

Carson's first success at the English bar 
was in the libel action brought in 1895 by 
Oscar Wilde [q.v.] against the Marquess 
of Queensberry, which caused him to be 



146 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Carson 



acknowledged by common consent as one 
of the foremost advocates at the bar. 
Although he was invited to take odice 
when the unionists gained power in 1895, 
Carson refused: he was at the height of 
his powers as an advocate, and he felt it 
necessary to devote himself to his profes- 
sional career. In 1900, however, having 
been sworn of the Irish Privy Council in 
1896, he became solicitor-general for 
England, an office which involved a knight- 
hood and which he held until the fall of 
the unionist administration in December 

1905, when he was sworn of the Privy 
Council. In January 1910 he was chosen 
as leader of the Irish unionists in the 
House of Commons on the retirement of 
W. H. (afterwards Viscount) Long [q.v.] 
from that position. On the resignation of 
Balfour himself from the leadership of the 
opposition in the next year, Carson was 
one of the four men canvassed as possible 
successors, but he refused to allow his 
name to go forward, preferring to devote 
all his energies to the service of Irish 
unionism. Many years afterwards he said : 
*From the day I first entered parliament 
up to the present, devotion to the union 
has been the guiding star of my political 
life.' 

Even though the liberals had promised 
that no home rule bill should be intro- 
duced during the parliament elected in 

1906, Carson saw that a liberal admini- 
stration constituted a grave menace to the 
imion, and he promoted to the best of his 
ability the close organization of the rank 
and file of the loyalists of Ulster; in 1907 
he vigorously opposed the devolution 
scheme which, as it was also rejected by 
the nationalists, remained stillborn. In 
the battle over the parliament bill (1910- 
1911), his speeches were directed to show- 
ing the effect that this measure would have 
on the Irish problem, for if the veto of the 
House of Lords were abolished, the 
passage of home rule was assured. 

In 1911 the Ulster Unionist Council 
appointed a commission 'to take im- 
mediate steps, in consultation with Sir 
Edward Carson, to frame and submit a 
constitution for a provisional government 
in Ulster'. For this post of Ulster leader, 
Carson had all the qualities necessary ; 
readiness to accept responsibility, insight, 
courage, resource, and single-minded sin- 
cerity for the cause. At a great demon- 
stration on 23 September, at Craigavon, 
near Belfast, he was welcomed as the new 
leader, and in a speech in reply to ad- 
dresses declaring for resistance to the 



jurisdiction of a Dublin parliament, he 
declared that the people of Ulster and he 
joined together would yet defeat 'the most 
nefarious conspiracy that has ever been 
hatched against a free people' and called 
on them to be ready themselves 'to be- 
come responsible for the government of 
the Protestant Province of Ulster'. The 
appeal was heard, and in spite of extreme 
provocation and threats, the discipline 
maintained by him prevented any out- 
break of disorder in Ulster. 

In 1912 the Ulster Volunteer Force was 
raised, and application was made to the 
magistrates for permission to drill. It was 
granted, and soon battalions sprang up all 
over the province to form the nucleus of 
the body which gave substance to the 
declaration that Ulster intended to govern 
the districts over which she had control. 
On 9 April 1912, at a great demonstration 
at Balmoral, near Belfast, Bonar Law, 
after assuring Ulster of the support of 
English imionists, shook hands with 
Carson as a visible sign of the pledge amid 
great enthusiasm. 

When in the committee stage of the 
home rule bill an amendment was put 
down by Thomas Charles Reginald Agar- 
Robartes, liberal member for St. Austell, 
to exclude the counties of Antrim, Down, 
Derry, and Armagh from the jurisdiction 
of the Dublin parliament, Carson advised 
that it should be supported. His colleagues 
had doubts, but their faith in his judge- 
ment was such that they imanimously 
supported him. Once more, at a gathering 
at Blenheim on 29 July, Bonar Law 
pledged the support of the imionists of 
England, and Carson announced that the 
people of Northern Ireland would shortly 
challenge the government to interfere with 
them if they dared, and would await the 
result with equanimity. This was followed 
by the drafting of a bond or sacred obliga- 
tion, which at first was intended to be 
worded according to the Scottish national 
covenant of 1581 ; but this was found to 
be impracticable, and a new covenant was 
drawn up which was to be signed all over 
the province on 28 September, known as 
'Ulster day'. Carson described the cove- 
nant as a step forward, not in defiance, 
but in defence, not in a spirit of aggression 
nor of ascendancy, but with a full know- 
ledge that Ulster would carry out every- 
thing which it meant, whatever the 
consequences. Following this up, Carson 
moved, in January 1913, the exclusion of 
the whole province of Ulster from the 
scope of the bill. The amendment was 



147 



Carson 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



defeated, although Carson's speech made 
a powerful impression, and on 16 January 
the bill was read a third time. A fortnight 
later it was defeated in the Lords by a 
majority of 257, but it had only to be 
passed again in two succeeding sessions 
in order to become law, and therefore 
preparations were pushed forward in 
Ulster, plans were adopted for a provisional 
government, and Carson, accepting the 
chairmanship of the central authority, 
said Ulster might be coerced into sub- 
mission, but in that case she would have 
to be governed as a conquered country. 
To the guarantee fimd of £250,000 for 
members of the Ulster Volunteer Force 
and their dependents who might suffer as 
a result of their services, Carson subscribed 
immediately £10,000. 

The importation of arms and ammuni- 
tion into Ireland having been prohibited 
by royal proclamation in December 1913, 
correspondence took place between Carson 
and the prime minister, H. H. Asquith, 
which many people looked upon as the 
forerimner of some concessions on the part 
of the government. Carson, however, 
knowing how much the government was 
in the hands of the nationalists, had no 
illusions on the subject, and his scepticism 
was shown to be well founded when, on 
the second reading of the bill on 9 March 
1914, the prime minister was only able to 
offer ' county option ' with a time limit of 
six years. Carson described the offer as 
'sentence of death with a stay of execu- 
tion', but he noted with satisfaction that 
the government had admitted the prin- 
ciple of exclusion. The debate was ad- 
joxu-ned, but on 14 March at Bradford 
Mr. Winston Churchill made a grave 
speech clearly hinting that if Ulster refused 
the offer of the prime minister, force 
would be employed, and concluded: 'Let 
us go forward together and put these grave 
matters to the proof.' What this meant 
was revealed when it was announced that 
warships had been dispatched to Lamlash 
in the Isle of Arran, and that extra troops 
were to be rushed into Ulster. The im- 
mediate sequel was the ' Curragh incident ' 
(20 March), and the imminence of civil 
war was brought home to the world. 
Lastly, when the gun-running at Larne 
(24 April) was denounced by Asquith as a 
grave and unprecedented outrage, Carson 
replied that he took full responsibility for 
everything that had been done. The 
prime minister then assured the House of 
Commons that the government would, 
without delay, take proper steps to vindi- 



cate the authority of the law ; but there 
the matter ended, for no steps whatever 
were taken. 

The promised amending biU was intro- 
duced and passed the Commons (25 May), 
but on 8 July the Lords substituted the 
permanent exclusion of the whole province 
of Ulster in the place of 'county option'. 
Rumours reached Carson that there were 
differences of opinion in the Cabinet over 
the amending bill. At the subsequent 
conference of party leaders opened at 
Buckingham Palace on 21 July, Carson 
and James Craig (afterwards Viscount 
Craigavon, q.v.) attended as the Ulster 
representatives, and when, on 24 July, it 
broke down on the question what portion 
of Ulster should be excluded, the amend- 
ing bill, with 'county option', was put 
down for second reading on 30 July. By 
then, however, the country was on the 
brink of war, and at Asquith's request, in 
order to avoid domestic controversy at 
such a crisis, Carson and Bonar Law con- 
sented to the postponement of the pro- 
ceedings on the amending bUl, on the 
express assurance of the prime minister 
that 'this was of course without prejudice 
to its future'. War having broken out h 
August, a party truce was proclaimed oi 
the terms that no controversial measure 
were to be taken, but the prime ministe 
provoked the protest of the whole unionis 
party by advising the royal assent to tl 
home rule bill, although at the sann 
time annoimcing a bill suspending it 
operation until after the war, and sayini 
that ' as an integral part of the proposals] 
the government would introduce ai 
amending bill before the Irish government 
bill could possibly come into operatioi 
In the same speech Asquith declared the 
coercioii of Ulster to be 'an absolutely 
unthinkable thing' which he and hi 
colleagues 'would never countenance o^ 
consent to'. 

Together with the rest of the unionisi 
party, Carson considered the governmeni 
to have been guilty of a flagrant breach o( 
faith in thus passing the home rule bill 
into law; nevertheless, he offered it the 
services of the Ulster Volunteer Force, In 
Belfast, on 30 September, he explained 
to the Ulster Unionist Council the position 
in regard to the postponement of the 
amending bill, and said that however 
unworthily the government had acted, 
their own duty was to think of their 
country. Their country and the Empire 
were in danger; England's difficulty was 
their difficulty and England's sorrows had 



148 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Carson 



been, and always would be, their sorrows. 
He therefore said to the Ulster volunteers : 
' Go and help to save your country ; go and 
win honour for Ulster and for Ireland.' 
Next morning he marched at the head of 
the North Belfast volunteers to the Old 
Town Hall where they were enrolled as 
the first unit of the now famous 36th 
(Ulster) division. 

In Asquith's administration of May 
1915, Carson was appointed attorney- 
general. In the eighteen months of its 
existence, he became more and more 
dissatisfied with the way in which the 
government was being conducted, holding 
strong views about the delay in applying 
conscription, the necessity of a retreat 
from the Dardanelles, and the dishonour 
of Great Britain's abandonment of Serbia 
after the pledges given by Sir Edward 
Grey. The exigencies of war having still 
required the further postponement of 
the amending bill, Asquith renewed his 
pledge on the matter, but after the Easter 
rebellion in Dublin in 1916, the govern- 
ment, to the astonishment of everyone, 
proposed that negotiations should be 
opened for an arrangement for bringing 
the Home Rule Act into immediate opera- 
tion, subject to an amending biU exclud- 
ing'the whole or a portion of Ulster. On 
behalf of the government, Lloyd George 
asked Carson to go to Belfast to try to 
persuade the people there to agree to the 
exclusion of the six counties. Carson con- 
sented, solely, as he said, 'on account of 
the representations made to me as to the 
urgency of the matter for the prosecution 
of the war and the encouragement of 
America to join the Allies. The Ulster 
people, with equal reluctance, authorised 
me to assent on their behalf, while pro- 
testing that their devotion to the vmion 
remained luiimpaired.' 

Before leaving on this difficult mission, 
Carson had received a letter from Lloyd 
George 'assuring him that the six county 
area would be permanently excluded from 
the act of 1914'. Meanwhile the national- 
ist leaders had persuaded their followers 
to agree to this policy of exclusion, but 
they maintained that a promise as to its 
temporary character had been made to 
them. On this misunderstanding the 
negotiations broke down. On 24 July 
Lloyd George gave another assurance that 
under no conditions did the present 
government or any member of it contem- 
plate forcing the six counties into a home 
rule government against their will. 

Carson's resignation from office in 



October 1916 heralded the break up of 
Asquith's administration. Under Lloyd 
George, who became prime minister in 
December 1916, Carson accepted office as 
first lord of the Admiralty. His admiration 
for the men of the navy was unbounded 
and he avowed that the glory of success 
belonged only to the officers and men of 
the ships. His whole duty lay in serving 
them, in seeing that they got all that they 
required for their support in guns, 
ammimition, and comfort. 

Carson had said : ' I myself would never 
have accepted office in [Lloyd George's] 
government except on the distinct under- 
standing that no attempt would be made 
to violate these reiterated pledges not to 
put Ulster under Home Rule.' Neverthe- 
less, T. P. O'Connor [q.v.] once more 
raised the question in the Commons on 
7 March 1917, and Lloyd George in his 
speech on that occasion pointed out that 
'in the north-eastern portion of Ireland 
you have a population as hostile to Irish 
rule as the rest of Ireland is to British 
rule, as alien in blood, in religious faith, 
in traditions, in outlook — as alien from the 
rest of Ireland in this respect as the in- 
habitants of Fife or Aberdeen'. In May, 
under pressure from the prime minister, 
Carson consented to the setting up of a 
convention of representative Irishmen 
under the chairmanship of Sir Horace 
Plimkett [q.v.], and it was said by Lloyd 
George that if this body could propose a 
settlement 'by substantial agreement', 
the government would introduce legisla- 
tion to give effect to it. But after it had 
sat for many months, the prime minister 
admitted that in the report of the con- 
vention there was no 'substantial agree- 
ment'. In January 1918, on learning that 
Lloyd George was intending to introduce 
a home rule bill for the whole of Ireland, 
which it was generally assumed would be 
based on the majority report from which 
all the Ulster delegates had dissented, 
Carson, who had left the Admiralty in 
order to become a member of the War 
Cabinet in July 1917, resigned from the 
government. 

The joint letter issued by Lloyd George 
and Bonar Law on the eve of the general 
election of December 1918 gave a solemn 
pledge that only when the condition of 
Ireland was sufficiently settled would the 
Home Rule Act of 1914 be put into force, 
and that the policy of the government, if 
again returned to power, was to exclude 
the six counties of north-east Ulster from 
its operation. Carson was shown this 



149 



Carson 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



letter and asked if he agreed with it. He 
repUed in the affirmative, and in response 
to representations from Belfast, consented 
to return to Westminster for the newly 
created Duncairn division of Belfast. No 
one realized more than Carson that the 
danger to Ulster was as great as ever and 
that while the Home Rule Act of 1914 
was likely to come into force at any time 
after the legal end of the war had been 
determined, no provision had been made 
for the amending bill. In December 1919 
Lloyd George, stating that three-fourths 
of the people of Ireland were bitterly 
hostile and were at heart rebels against 
the Crown and government, but that 
Ulster was a complete contrast which 
would make it an outrage to place her 
people under the rest of Ireland, an- 
nounced that these were the considera- 
tions upon which he based his proposed 
legislation for the next session. 

When the Government of Ireland bill 
had been introduced on 25 February 1920, 
Carson went to Belfast and after a speech 
from him, the Ulster Unionist Council 
adopted a resolution disclaiming respon- 
sibility for the bill, but declaring that 
as there was no prospect of securing the 
repeal of the Act of 1914, the Ulster parlia- 
mentary representatives should not assume 
the responsibility of attempting to defeat 
it. Therefore when the rejection of the 
bill was moved on 31 March 1920, Carson 
rose and reiterated his opposition to the 
very end to the whole policy of home rule 
for Ireland: 'It will be fraught with 
disaster to your country and to mine. . . . 
The truth of the matter is there is no 
alternative to the union, unless separation, 
and anybody who will think out the 
circumstances will necessarily come to that 
conclusion. . . . What you are really going 
to do, and I wish to put it on record as my 
opinion, is to give a lever to your enemies 
by which they may, under the guise of 
constitutional law, attain results which 
you know in your hearts will be absolutely 
fatal to your whole Empire.' But he went 
on: 'If I help to kill this bill, I bring 
automatically into force the Act of 1914', 
and he added, 'It may turn out, as the 
leader of the House said yesterday, that 
under this bill, if it passes, the only part 
of Ireland which will have a parliament 

is the part that never asked for it 

One thing I will promise you, that Ulster 
will do her level best with her parliament.' 
And to the lord chancellor, F. E. Smith, 
Lord Birkenhead [q.v.], he wrote a letter 
which the latter read to the House of 



Lords on 22 November 1920. 'We have 
agreed therefore, and have made up our 
minds that in the interests of Ireland, 
Great Britain and the Empire, the best 
and only solution of the question is to 
accept the present bill and endeavour to 
work it loyally.' When therefore the 
Government of Ireland bill became law on 
23 December 1920, many people believed 
that the great struggle had at last come 
to an end. 

Carson now felt that his place should be 
taken by a younger man, and at a meeting 
of the Ulster Unionist Council held on 
4 February 1921 he announced his resigna- 
tion as leader of the Ulster unionists. An 
urgent request to him to continue in office 
was met by the plea that it was a case of 
age and energy, and that he felt himself 
unequal to the task of undertaking the 
initiation and establishment of the new 
Northern Ireland parliament. Three 
months later (24 May) he left the House 
of Commons on appointment as a lord of 
appeal in ordinary. As a compliment to 
his old constituency he took the title of 
Baron Carson, of Duncairn, and from his 
seat in the House of Lords he never 
ceased to guard the interests of Ulster. He 
strongly protested against handing over 
the southern loyalists to their enemies 
under the 'treaty' of 6 December with 
Sinn Fein. He also, on 11 May 1922, spoke 
very strongly in support of measures 
taken by the government for the protec- 
tion of the old Royal Irish Constabulary, 
and once more he called attention to the 
treatment by Sinn Fein of British subjects 
in Ireland. At the end of October 1929 he 
resigned his office as lord of appeal in 
ordinary. 

In October 1926, in the course of a 
fortnight's stay in Ulster, Carson received 
the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Queen's University, Belfast, and his last 
two visits were for the opening of the new 
parliament buildings at Stormont by the 
Prince of Wales in 1932 and for the un- 
veiling of his own statue in front of these 
buildings in July 1933. 

Soon after his eightieth birthday (1934) 
Carson fell very seriously ill with bron- 
chitis, and although he recovered, his 
health was undermined and he died at 
Cleve Court, Minster, Kent, 22 October 
1935. He was given a state funeral in 
Belfast and was buried in St. Anne's 
Cathedral. 

Carson was twice married: first, in 1879 
to Sarah Annette Foster (died 1913), 
adopted daughter of Henry Persse Kir 



I 



150 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Carter 



wan, of Triston Lodge, co. Galway, and 
had two sons and two daughters of whom 
the elder son and younger daughter pre- 
(ieceased their father; secondly, in 1914 
to Ruby, elder daughter of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Stephen Frewen (afterwards 
Frewen-Laton), of Winton and Sigston 
Castle, Yorkshire, formerly commanding 
the 16th Lancers, and had one son, who 
was elected conservative member of 
parliament for the Isle of Thanet in July 
1945. 

Carson was one of the most remarkable 
and powerful advocates that the bar has 
ever produced, and one of the most con- 
scientious and fearless in defence of his 
clients' interests. He had a shrewd and 
wide insight into human nature and his 
persuasive influence was enhanced by the 
charm of his attractive personality. As a 
lawyer he was at his best in cross- 
examination and in his appeal to a jury, 
of which he was an acknowledged master. 
His gift of searching cross-examination 
Avas aided by his piercing eyes and the 
height of his thin sinewy frame. He was 
certainly not a bully, as his enemies 
sometimes suggested, but he overpowered 
a witness with his penetrating eyes and 
the impression of commanding power. He 
was liked by all the juniors at the bar and 
respected by them, because he was never 
overbearing, pompous, or remote. He 
would never take a case unless he could 
oive his whole time to it. He cared nothing 
for money if it stood in the way of what 
he conceived to be his duty. In the 
Archer-Shee case (1910), in which he 
vindicated the honour of a young Osborne 
cadet against all the forces of the Crown 
and its law-officers, he devoted ten days 
to the case for a nominal fee and turned 
away a brief for 1,500 guineas. He said to 
a friend after he had become a lord of 
appeal in 1921 : 'I died on the day I left 
the House of Commons and the bar.' As 
a judge, he was fearless in his champion- 
ship of right and in his passionate desire 
to do justice and prevent oppression and 
wrong. 

Carson was a great orator — perhaps the 
greatest of his time, if the test of oratory 
is its power to move men to the very 
depths of their souls — but he never 
attempted to be oratorical. He never pre- 
pared set speeches. Lord Morley said to a 
friend in reference to the greatest oration 
which Carson ever made (the speech in the 
House of Lords on the capitulation, as he 
regarded it, of the government to Sinn 
Fein): 'It was so overwhelming in its 



passionate sincerity that if a division had 
been taken at that moment I should have 
trembled for the result.' But Carson told 
the same friend : ' I had prepared nothing, 
because I had a heavy case in the courts 
that day.' 

To the eloquence, courage, and capacity 
of Carson in critical years, Ulster owes 
her existence, for it can be truly said that 
by his determined refusal to allow Ulster 
to be driven out of the union, he saved 
the province from being coerced into a 
separation from all that it held dear. His 
services to Ulster were made at great 
personal sacrifice without the slightest 
consideration of the cost or the risk in- 
volved, and he was distinguished by a 
moral grandeur of character of which 
everybody was conscious except himself. 

Probably the best portrait of Lord 
Carson is that by P. A. de Ldszlo in the 
Middle Temple. An oil-painting by Sir 
John La very, executed in 1921, is in the 
Belfast Museum and Art Gallery. A 
picture by the American artist Robert 
MacCameron is in the possession of Lady 
Carson, as well as a portrait of Carson as 
a young man by Julia Falkard. There is 
also a portrait by Sir Edward Burne- Jones 
in the possession of Mr. Walter Carson. In 
the National Portrait Gallery, and also in 
the Belfast Museum and Art Gallery, there 
is an etching of the head by John George 
Day (1914) which is a striking likeness. 
The statue which stands in the grounds of 
the parliament buildings at Stormont is 
by L. S. Merrifleld, who also executed a 
marble bust now in the possession of the 
Belfast Corporation. In Vanity Fair, 9 
November 1893 appeared a cartoon by 
'Lib' entitled 'Dublin University', which 
is considered an excellent likeness and was 
reproduced by Edward Marjoribanks as 
the frontispiece to his biography. 

[Edward Marjoribanks, The Life of Lord 
Carson, vol. 1, 1932; Ian Colvln, The Life of 
Lord Carson, vols, ii and iii, 1934, 1936; 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 
D. L. Savory. 

CARTER, HOWARD (1874-1939), 
painter and archaeologist, was born in 
London 9 May 1874, the youngest son of 
Samuel John Carter, animal-painter, of 
South Kensington, by his wife, Martha 
Joyce Sandys. He was educated privately 
and trained by his father to be a draughts- 
man. At the age of seventeen (1891) he 
went to Egypt as assistant draughtsman 
on the staff of the Archaeological Survey 
of Egypt then being carried out by the 



131 



Carter 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Egypt Exploration Fund. Early in. 1892 
Carter joined (Sir) W. M. Flinders Petrie 
at El-Amarna and under him received four 
months' training in the art of excavating. 
In the autumn of the same year he was 
appointed draughtsman on the staff of 
the Archaeological Survey and worked 
in the tombs of Beni Hasan and El- 
Bersheh in Middle Egypt. Late in 1893 
he joined at Deir el-Bahari the staff of 
Edouard Naville with whom he remained 
six years making line-drawings of the 
sculptured scenes and inscriptions in the 
temple of Queen Hatshepsut ; these draw- 
ings were published by the Egypt Explora- 
tion Fund in six volumes with letterpress 
by Naville (1896-1908). At the end of 
1899 Carter was appointed by the 
Egyptian government to be inspector-in- 
chief of the monuments of Upper Egypt 
and Nubia with headquarters at Thebes. 
In 1902 he began excavations in the 
Valley of the Tombs of the Kings, dis- 
covered the sepulchres of Hatshepsut (as 
sovereign) and Tuthmosis IV, and installed 
electric lighting in several of the larger 
royal tombs at Thebes and in the rock- 
temple at Abu Simbel in Nubia. In 1903 
Carter was transferred to the inspectorate 
of Lower Egypt with headquarters at 
Tanta, but soon afterwards, owing to an 
incident with foreigners in which he 
asserted that he had done no more than 
his duty, he resigned and devoted himself 
to water-colour painting as a profession. 

Five years later (1908), at the urgent 
request of (Sir) Gaston Maspero, then 
director-general of the Service of Anti- 
quities of Egypt, Carter returned in order 
to superintend the excavations in the 
necropoUs at Thebes being conducted by 
George Herbert, fifth Earl of Carnarvon 
[q.v.]. During the war of 1914-1918, 
among other discoveries, he found and 
cleared the long sought for tomb of 
Amenophis I. On 4 November 1922 he 
• made the great discovery which will 
always be associated with his name, the 
tomb of King Tutankhamun with its 
extraordinary wealth of artistic treasures. 
Carter's records of the objects found and 
his handling and packing of them for 
transport down the Nile to Cairo were 
a most brilliant achievement and occupied 
no less than ten seasons (1922-1932). He 
published The Tomb of Tui-ankh-Amen 
(3 vols., 1923-1933, vol. i in collaboration 
with A. C. Mace) and he had hoped to 
publish the full catalogue of all objects 
found, but his health failed and the work 
was unfinished. He died in Kensington 



I 



after a grievous illness 2 March 1939. He 
was unmarried. 

[The Times, 3 March 1939; Journal of 
Egyptian Archaeology, vol. xxv, 1939 ; personal 
knowledge.] Percy E. Newberry. 

CASH, JOHN THEODORE (1854r- 
1936), physician, was born at Manchester 
16 December 1854, the yoimger son of 
John Walker Cash, who retired from 
business and took up farming near Leeds, 
by his wife, Martha Midgley. He was 
educated at Bootham School, York, and 
the Edinburgh CoUegiate School, and 
studied medicine at the university of 
Edinburgh, where he qualified M.B., CM., 
and M.R.C.S. (Eng.) in 1876 and gained 
a gold medal for his M.D. thesis in 1879. 
After graduation he studied the methods 
of pharmacological research in Berlin, 
Vienna, and Paris. He was then house 
physician at the Edinburgh Royal In- 
firmary, but returned to Berlin and after- 
wards moved to Leipzig. On coming to 
London he began researches with (Sir) 
T. L. Bnmton [q.v.] at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital and from 1880 to 1884 published 
many valuable pharmacological papers 
which are representative of a new and 
accurate scientific approach to the elucida- 
tion of the actions of drugs. His elaborate 
and precise researches upon the various 
alkaloids of aconitum, begun prior to 1886, 
paved the way for his pioneer endeavours, 
by researches on the substituted am- 
monias and benzene compounds, to lay 
the foundations of a relationship between 
chemical constitution and pharmacological 
action : this investigation, published jointly 
with Bnmton in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society (1885, 1892), 
indicated to synthetic chemists paths 
towards the discovery of new remedies. 

The high scientific standard of Cash's 
researches led to his appointment to the 
regius chair of materia medica and thera- 
peutics in Aberdeen University in 1886 
and to his election as a fellow of the Royal 
Society in the following year. He was a 
skilled experimentalist, ingenious in de- 
vising recording apparatus, and imbued 
with the axiom that, in order to obtain 
true results, the least disturbance of the 
tissues was of paramount importance. His ~J 
gracious manner and cultured language as jHI 
a lecturer inspired honourable work by "i 
his students and his scientific example 
encouraged A. R. Cushny [q.v.] to adopt 
pharmacology as his lifework. 

Cash was dean of the faculty of medicine 
at Aberdeen University and from 1911 



152 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Cavendish 



to 1019 a member of the General Medical 
Council when he took a large share in 
editing the British Pharmacopoeia of 1914. 
He received the honorary degree of 
LL.D. from the universities of Edinburgh 
and Aberdeen. 

Cash's chief recreation was a passionate 
devotion to salmon and trout fishing : he 
was an expert on the pathology of diseases 
of the salmon, and a particular salmon-fly 
bears his name. The opening of the 
salmon fishing season could always be 
dated by his disappearance from the 
laboratory after months of continuous 
research. He retired from his chair in 1919 
and settled at Hereford where, on the 
Wye, he enjoyed his favourite pastime 
but continued to be keenly interested in 
pharmacological researches. He died at 
Hereford 30 November 1936 and is buried 
there. 

Cash married in 1881 Margaret Sophia 
(died 1924), youngest daughter of the 
statesman John Bright [q.v.], and had 
two sons and two daughters. His ac- 
complished wife painted the beautiful 
water-colours used to illustrate his lectures 
on materia medica. 

[Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal 
Society, No. 6, January 1938 (bibliography 
and portrait); Aberdeen University Review, 
vol. xxiv, 1937 ; British Medical Journal, 1936, 
vol. ii, p. 1238 ; Lancet, 1936, vol. ii, p. 1429.] 
Walter J. Billing. 

CAVENDISH, VICTOR CHRISTIAN 
WILLIAM, ninth Duke of Devonshire 
(1868-1938), was born in London 31 May 
1868, the eldest son of Lord Edward 
Cavendish, yoimgest son of William 
Cavendish, seventh Duke of Devonshire 
[q.v.], by his wife, Emma Elizabeth, 
fourth daughter of William Saunders 
Sebright Lascelles, third son of Henry 
Lascelles, second Earl of Harewood [q.v.]. 
He was a nephew of Lord Frederick 
Cavendish [q.v.]. He was educated at 
Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. 
When he came down from Cambridge, 
where he had been president of the 
Amateur Dramatic Club, he went into a 
firm of accountants in the City in order 
to gain experience, and in order to obtain 
a knowledge of legal principles he entered 
the Inner Temple. On the death in 1891 
of his father who had represented West 
Derbyshire as a unionist, he succeeded 
him unopposed, becoming the youngest 
member of the House of Commons. In 
1892 he married Lady Evelyn Emily 
Mary, elder daughter of H. C. K. Petty- 



Fitzmaurice, fifth Marquess of Lansdowne 
[q.v.]. They lived chiefly at Holker Hall 
in Lancashire where he carried on tradi- 
tions of the famous Holker herd of short- 
horns. A popular member of the House of 
Commons he was appointed treasurer of 
the household in 1900, and in 1901 he 
undertook the duties of a whip. From 
1903 to 1905 he was financial secretary to 
the Treasury. On the death in 1908 of 
his uncle S. C. Cavendish, eighth Duke of 
Devonshire [q.v.], he succeeded to the 
dukedom, and in 1916 he was appointed 
governor-general of Canada in succession 
to the Duke of Connaught. 

During his tenure of the governor- 
generalship the Duke of Devonshire toured 
through the Dominion from east to west, 
from Nova Scotia to Vancouver. Without 
courting popularity he was exceedingly 
well liked and gained the confidence of the 
Meighen government without forfeiting 
the friendship of the liberals and agrarians . 
In 1922, the year after his return home, 
he declined the secretaryship of state for 
India in Lloyd George's coalition govern- 
ment, but when at the end of that year 
Bonar Law offered him the office of 
secretary of state for the Colonies he 
accepted and thereby became involved in 
the preparations for the British Empire 
Exhibition held at Wembley in 1924, the 
fortunes of which owed an immense debt 
to him for the particular care which he 
gave to it both before and after its opening. 
Without the knowledge of the public, he 
was a principal financial guarantor for its 
success. ReUeved in the spring of 1925 
of the double strain of office and of the 
exhibition, he took continuous and violent 
exercise on his Irish estate, which caused 
a sudden collapse which endangered his 
life and left him something of an invalid 
for the rest of his days. 

When Cavendish succeeded to the duke- 
dom he decided to live at Chatsworth 
as far as possible. But the Duke was 
careful to arrange that the public should 
have access to the house and grounds, 
and he continued the same traditions at 
Bolton Abbey, where, as at Chatsworth, 
he was visited by King George V and 
Queen Mary. In 1926 he presented 
Pevensey Castle to the nation. In 1932 
he was elected president of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England, and he 
was vice-president of the Navy League 
from 1909. 

The Duke of Devonshire was sworn of 
the Privy Council in 1905, and appointed 
G.C.V.O. in 1912 and K.G. and G.C.M.G. 



153 



Cavendish 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



in 1916. He was high steward of Cambridge 
University from 1923, and chancellor of 
Leeds University from 1909. He died at 
Chatsworth 6 May 1938, and was survived 
by his two sons and Ave daughters. He 
was succeeded as tenth duke by his elder 
son, Edward William Spencer, Marquess 
of Hartington (born 1895), whose elder 
son, William John Robert, Marquess of 
Hartington, was killed in action in France 
in 1944. 

A portrait of the Duke of Devonshire 
wearing the robes of chancellor of Leeds 
University, by P. A. de Laszlo (1928), is 
at Chatsworth : one of several copies is at 
Leeds University. 

[The Times, 7, 9, 11 May 1938.] 

E. I. Carlyle. 

CHALMERS, ROBERT, Babon 

Chalmers, of Northiam (1858-1938), civil 
servant and master of Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge, was born in London 18 August 
1858, the only son of John Chalmers, of 
Aberdeen, by his wife, Julia, daughter 
of Robert Mackay. He was educated at 
the City of London School imder Edwin 
Abbott [q.v.], and in 1877 entered Oriel 
College, Oxford, as a classical scholar. He 
obtained a first class in classical modera- 
tions in 1878 and a second class in natural 
science (biology) in 1881. 

Chalmers secured in 1882 the first place 
in the open competitive examination for 
the upper division of the civil service and 
was appointed a second-class clerk in the 
Treasury. He was promoted first-class 
clerk in 1894, principal clerk in 1899, and 
assistant secretary in 1903. In 1907 he 
accepted the post of chairman of the 
Board of Inland Revenue, where he was 
largely responsible for the rearrangement 
under which, by the Finance Act of 1908, 
excise was transferred from the Inland 
Revenue department to the Board of 
Customs which now became the Board 
of Customs and Excise. In 1911 he returned 
to the Treasury as permanent secretary 
and auditor of the civil list. Two years 
later Chalmers was appointed governor of 
Ceylon, a coimtry in which he was in- 
terested, as one of his parerga was the 
study of Pali, Ceylon's ancient language. 
But his time as governor was a troubled 
one, his ' spiritual home ' was the Treasury, 
and he was glad to return there in 1916 as 
joiut permanent secretary with Sir T. L. 
Heath [q.v.] and Sir John (afterwards 
Lord) Bradbury. Almost immediately, 
however, at Mr. Asquith's request, he 
accepted, in May, the post of under- 



secretary to the chief secretary of Ireland, 
on the retirement of Sir Matthew Nathan 
[q.v.] after the Easter rebellion of that 
year. This was only a temporary appoint- 
ment, and he returned in September to 
his former office at the Treasury, which 
he held until his retirement in March 1919, 
his period of service being prolonged from 
August 1918 at the personal request of 
Bonar Law. He had been sworn of the 
Irish Privy Council in 1916. On Chalmers's 
retirement the chancellor of the Exchequer, 
(Sir) Austen Chamberlain, recorded in a 
Treasury minute: 'There cannot be many 
instances in the long line of his distin- 
guished predecessors where tasks of such 
difficulty and diversity have been heaped 
in quick succession on the shoulders of a 
single man.' 

In 1924, on the death of Sir Adolphus 
Ward [q.v.], Chalmers, who had been 
raised to the peerage in 1919 as Baron 
Chalmers, of Northiam in the county of 
Sussex, accepted the mastership (which 
he retained until 1931) of Peterhouse, 
Cambridge, a college with which he was 
already identified: his younger son, who 
had died of wounds in May 1915, had been 
an undergraduate there, and he himself 
had resided and taken an ad eundem 
degree from there in 1920. From 1920 
to 1922 he was a member of the royal 
commission on the universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge. 

Chalmers was twice married: first, in 
1888 to Maud Mary (died 1923), daughter 
of John George Forde Pigott; secondly, 
in 1935 to Iris Florence, elder daughter 
of Sir John Biles [q.v.], and widow of 
Robert Latta, professor of logic at Glas- 
gow University. By his first wife he had 
two sons, the elder of whom was killed 
in May 1915, and one daughter. He died 
at Oxford 17 November 1938, when the 
peerage became extinct. 

Chalmers was appointed C.B. in 1900, 
K.C.B. in 1908, and G.C.B. in 1916. He 
was elected an honorary fellow of Oriel 
College in 1918, and academic honours 
were showered upon him. He received 
honorary degrees from the universities 
of Glasgow (1913), Oxford (1923), Cam- 
bridge (1924), and St. Andrews (1930). He 
was a trustee of the British Museum (1924- 
1931) ; was elected a fellow of the British 
Academy (1927) ; and was president of 
the Royal Asiatic Society (1922-1925, 
years which included the society's cen- 
tenary). Besides his works on Pali he was 
the author of a History of Currency in the 
British Colonies (1893). 



154. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Chamberlain, A. N. 



Chalmers was a many-sided man, and 
the side which he presented to the official 
world, and to the world of Ceylon, Ireland, 
and Cambridge, was not always his most 
attractive side. It is a testimony to his 
merits that this did not affect his career. 
Those who knew him soon discovered that 
his mask of pomposity and cynicism con- 
cealed not only genuine kindness of heart 
and unostentatious generosity often 
secretly exercised, but an intense inward 
sensitiveness to misfortune and suffering. 
He felt bitterly, although he never showed 
it, the deaths of his two sons, of whom 
he was very proud. Few of his younger 
colleagues at the Treasury knew that, as 
a young man, he had lived in the East End 
where he worked under Samuel Barnett 
[q.v.], then vicar of St. Jude's, White- 
chapel, giving up all the time not required 
by his official duties at the Treasury to the 
social work of St. Jude's and helping by 
personal contact the poor and the sick. 
If, in the civil service as a whole, his strict 
guardianship of the public purse made him 
respected rather than loved, his absolute 
integrity in the high positions which he 
occupied was generally recognized. In the 
Treasury itself his profound knowledge of 
financial procedure was a valuable asset ; 
and he had the faculty, such as few 
seniors possessed, of communicating, by 
influence and example, his methods and 
his energy, if not his own powers, to those 
of his juniors who were able to profit by 
them. As master of Peterhouse, although 
he did not take a prominent part in the 
life of the university, he proved, in spite 
of his mannerisms, a real acquisition to his 
college as an institution, and a generous 
benefactor to the poorer scholars whom he 
helped lavishly by his hospitality, and 
from his private purse. 

[The Times, 18, 19, 26, and 28 November 
1938 ; P. E. Matheson, Lord Chalmers, 1858- 
1938 in Proceedings of the British Academy, 
vol. XXV, 1939 (portrait) ; official records ; 
personal knowledge.] Maurice Headlam. 

CHAMBERLAIN, (ARTHUR) 
NEVILLE (1869-1940), statesman, was 
the youngest of three members of his 
family who, in two successive generations, 
played great parts at the highest level of 
British statesmanship. He was born at 
Edgbaston, Birmingham, 18 March 1869, 
the only son of Joseph Chamberlain [q.v.], 
by his second wife, Florence, daughter of 
Timothy Kenrick, of Birmingham. His 
half-brother (Sir Joseph) Austen Chamber- 
lain [q.v.], being set apart for a political 



career, passed from Rugby to Cambridge. 
Neville, who was to go into business, 
returned home from Rugby and took 
commercial courses at Mason College, 
which was afterwards converted into 
Birmingham University. There he studied 
metallurgy and engineering design. From 
Mason College he entered the office of 
a firm of accountants where his mental 
alertness and quick mastery of financial 
problems were soon noted. 

In 1890 Joseph Chamberlain bought 
20,000 acres on the island of Andros in 
the Bahamas where he was advised that 
sisal could be profitably grown. There 
Neville went at the age of twenty-one 
(November 1890) to take charge of the 
development of the estate. For seven 
years he planned and toiled in the attempt 
to bring the enterprise to success. It was 
a life of extreme hardship, and all in vain : 
the soil was too thin for the crop. In 
the complete social isolation of those 
years, he found comfort in books, reading 
steadily and well in history, biography, 
and science. While his character was 
strengthened, the extreme loneliness of 
the life must have intensified the natural 
shyness and reserve which handicapped 
him for a time when he entered public life. 

Back at Birmingham in 1897, Chamber- 
lain began the business career which for 
many years absorbed all his energies. 
Although he then had no ambition for 
a parliamentary career, he was an ardent 
politician with a lively interest in local 
public affairs. No one could be of the 
household of Joseph Chamberlain and 
remain indifferent to the problems of 
government or to the individual's civic 
responsibilities. But his father and brother 
were fully occupied by their public duties 
and, after the loss of precious time in the 
Bahamas, Neville felt that he must concen- 
trate on business until he had established 
an independent position. He soon became 
one of the outstanding figures in the 
industrial life of Birmingham and took 
an active part in the proceedings of the 
influential chamber of commerce. At the 
same time his lifelong interest in health 
questions was stimulated by work for the 
General Hospital, of which he became 
chairman. His life was broadening as 
Joseph Chamberlain's had done a genera- 
tion before. There is, indeed, a remarkable 
resemblance between father and son, not 
only in the several main stages of their 
careers — business, city government, 
parliament. Cabinet — but (allowing for 
the seven lost years) in the timing of them. 



155 



Chamberlain, A. N. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Chamberlain was elected to the Birming- 
ham city council in 1911, the year of his 
marriage to Annie Vere, daughter of 
Major William Utting Cole, 3rd Dragoon 
Guards, of Woodhay House, Newbury, 
who became an unfailing help in all 
phases of his public as of his private life. 
To city government he brought new 
vitality and enterprise. Under his chair- 
manship of the town planning committee, 
two Birmingham schemes for planning in 
built-up areas were the first to be sanc- 
tioned in this country. A stiU more notable 
personal achievement was the establish- 
ment in 1916, against the strong opposi- 
tion of banking interests, of the first 
municipal savings bank. Although it 
succeeded beyond expectation, it remains 
the only municipal institution of its kind 
in the country. 

Chamberlain's very exceptional record 
in city government was noted outside 
Birmingham and soon widened his re- 
sponsibilities. In 1915 he was appointed a 
member of the Central Control Board 
(Liquor Traffic). A hapless experience in 
national war administration followed. In 
December 1916 Lloyd George, who had 
just succeeded Asquith as prime minister, 
proposed to relieve the strain on man- 
power by voluntary recruitment of labour 
for war industries. Chamberlain was made 
director-general of national service to 
organize and direct the work. In order 
that he might give his full time to the 
post, he resigned the lord mayoralty of 
Birmingham, to which he had been 
elected for a second term in the previous 
month. His efforts were fruitless. Within 
a few days of the appointment Lloyd 
George conceived a dislike of him and he 
was left without authority or equipment 
for his difficult task. He said afterwards 
that he was without instructions and 
without powers. After seven months of 
futility he resigned and returned to 
Birmingham. 

This unhappy episode was a turning- 
point in Chamberlain's life. He was not 
the man to sit down quietly under failure 
that was not due to fault of his own. His 
mind was at last fixed on a career in 
national politics and, at the general 
election of December 1918, he was re- 
turned to the House of Commons as 
conservative member for the Ladywood 
division of Birmingham. He was then in 
his fiftieth year : there is no other instance 
of a prime minister who entered parliament 
so late. 

For four years Chamberlain supported 



the coalition government of which his 
brother Austen was a leading member. 
He spoke seldom but always well. Voice, 
pose, and a lucid and incisive style recalled 
memories of his father. He was chairman 
of several departmental committees but 
rejected a suggestion of Bonar Law that 
he should accept government office; he 
no longer had any confidence in Lloyd 
George and would not serve under or with 
him. On the Irish 'treaty' of December 
1921 he supported the government. 

When the coalition fell in October 1922, 
Chamberlain was on his way home from 
a holiday in Canada. For the first time 
he and his brother were in different camps. 
Austen was the chief defender of the 
coalition at the Carlton Club meeting 
(19 October) which destroyed it; and he 
continued for a time longer his co-opera- 
tion with Lloyd George. Bonar Law pressed 
Neville to join the new government and, 
having become definitely anti-coalition, 
he accepted office as postmaster-general. 
At once the prime minister was greatly 
impressed by his sound judgement and 
fine administrative gifts. Promotion came 
swiftly, and he rose easily to each suc- 
cessive post. There were four posts in 
a little over a year (1922-1924) : after the 
Post Office, the paymastership-general, 
the Ministry of Health (where he passed 
an important housing bill), and the 
chancellorship of the Exchequer. He was 
sworn of the Privy Council in 1922. 

In his first term at the Treasury (1923- 
1924), Chamberlain was a chancellor 
without a budget. Baldwin, who suc- 
ceeded Bonar Law as prime minister in 
May 1923, having annomiced a policy of 
tariff reform, decided- — against the advice 
of most of his colleagues, including 
Chamberlain — to appeal to the country 
in the autumn. The conservative majority 
was lost and, with liberal help, Ramsay 
MacDonald [q.v.] formed the first labour 
government in January 1924. 

It was a sharp disappointment to 
Chamberlain that when the conservatives 
secured a great majority in the following 
October, the party was once more com- 
mitted against a general tariff. Baldwin 
offered him the Exchequer again but he 
preferred to return to the Ministry of 
Health; Mr. Churchill, who had just 
rejoined the conservative party, went to 
the Exchequer. His first budget provided 
the finance of the widows, orphans, and 
old-age pensions bill. This measure was 
suggested to Baldwin by Chamberlain 
while in opposition in 1924 and it was he 



136 



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Chamberlain, A. N. 



who piloted the bill through the House 
in 1925. 

Chamberlain's four and a half years 
(1924-1929) at the Ministry of Health 
raised the department's status and his 
own. Masterly conduct of the difficult 
Rating and Valuation Act of 1925 (which 
gave relief to agriculture and industry) 
put him in the first rank of parliament- 
arians. By securing the fuU co-operation 
of private builders as weU as of the local 
councils, he solved the immediate housing 
problem : nearly a million houses had been 
built when he left office. In 1929 he 
passed the very important Local Govern- 
ment Act which reformed the Poor Law 
(boards of guardians were abolished) and 
recast the financial relations of the State 
and local authorities. 

At the general election of May 1929 
Chamberlain was returned for the Edg- 
baston division of Birmingham, and held 
the seat until his death. With labour 
in office again, he, at Baldwin's request, 
turned his attention to the re-organization 
of the conservative central office. A 
research department was set up and at 
once gave special consideration to the 
question of tariffs. The party leadership 
also came under review and, as chairman 
of the central office, he presented a critical 
memorandum which Baldwin so much 
disliked that for a short time it was 
thought that he would resign. 

In the financial crisis of August 1931, 
which destroyed the labour government, 
it was Chamberlain who, until Baldwin 
returned from abroad, represented the 
conservative party in negotiations pre- 
ceding the formation of the provisional 
all-party government. In that he was 
again minister of health, but he succeeded 
Philip Snowden [q.v.] as chancellor of the 
Exchequer when the government was 
reconstituted in November after the 
general election, and he held the office for 
five and a half years. Drastic economies 
were necessary for several years before 
normal expenditure and revenue could be 
balanced. Throughout that trying period 
he directed policy with courage and 
sound judgement. Upon him also fell the 
brunt of negotiation and decision on war 
reparations, war debts, and Empire trade 
policy, this last being dealt with at the 
memorable Imperial Economic Conference 
held at Ottawa in 1932. 

Although, in the general election, the 
government was not committed on the 
fiscal question. Chamberlain secured 
Cabinet approval for a general tariff 



which, at a common standard of 10 per 
cent., was more for revenue than protec- 
tion. The free trade system, initiated 
eighty-six years before with the repeal of 
the Corn Laws, was thus ended in 1932 ; 
and the settlement has not since been 
seriously challenged. In the same year 
a great saving in debt charges was effected 
by the conversion of £2,000,000,000 of the 
5 per cent, war loan to a 3J per cent, 
stock. 

By 1935 there seemed to be a good 
prospect of substantial tax reductions ; 
but hope of that vanished when, in the 
following year, the government proposed 
an expenditure of £1,500,000,000 on re- 
armament within five years. This had 
been delayed to the point of danger, 
partly because of hostile public opinion, 
partly because a disarmament policy was 
still being pursued in the League of 
Nations, and partly because the financial 
crisis in the early 'thirties was held to be, 
for the time, more important. As soon as 
that anxiety was relieved Chamberlain's 
was the chief political initiative in increas- 
ing the air estimates in 1934. He thought 
that Baldwin exaggerated the strength of 
labour opposition in the country and he 
desired to make rearmament the main 
issue at the general election in 1935. 

Dangers multiplied . Italy invaded Abys- 
sinia in October 1935 ; Hitler's aggressions 
had already begun ; the Spanish civil war 
broke out in July 1936; the Japanese 
menace continually disturbed the Far 
East. Foreign affairs occupied more and 
more of the time of the Cabinet, and 
Chamberlain took an active part in the 
discussions. Labour party hostility to 
him, which reached the depth of bitterness 
after the Munich conference of 1938, was 
intensified in the Abyssinian war when, 
quite wrongly, he was widely regarded as 
pro-Italian and anti-League of Nations. 
He had been in fact a stout upholder of 
the League and in the Abyssinian crisis 
was ready, if the French had been willing 
to co-operate, to prevent or stop war. He 
supported Leagxie sanctions against Italy, 
and called for their abandonment only 
when their failure was manifest. 

In the summer of 1936 Baldwin, worn 
by the labours and anxieties of the time, 
decided to resign the premiership after the 
coronation in the following May. There 
was no rival to Chamberlain as his suc- 
cessor and, within the inmost circle of 
high politics, it was known for months 
before that he would be the next prime 
minister. It was with the warm approval 



157 



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D.N.B. 1931-1940 



and goodwill of all his colleagues that he 
entered upon the office on 28 May 1937. 

Chamberlain had thus been able to 
ponder, months in advance, over the grave 
responsibilities awaiting him. The para- 
mount, inescapable problem now was 
national defence. German militarism, and 
its aggressive political direction, menaced 
the peace of the world. Great Britain was 
unprepared to meet it : and danger was so 
near that it had become imprudent to 
reveal her military weakness. The labour 
party's opposition to rearmament still 
continued. 

The position was one of extraordinary 
difficulty. British and French military 
weakness was an incitement to German 
aggression, and prejudiced every effort by 
negotiation to stop the drift towards war. 
Could Germany and Italy be brought back 
into the comity of nations ? In no other 
way could war be averted. It was the way 
which for nearly two years Chamberlain 
resolutely pursued. He knew the diffi- 
culties and, in particular, was not unaware 
of the sinister qualities of Hitler and 
Mussolini. But the pacification of Europe, 
which was the aim of his policy, could not 
be achieved without their collaboration, 
and not to seek it was to admit failure 
which he would not do while any hope of 
success remained. He often said that he 
would take no responsibility for war until 
he had done everything possible to 
prevent it. 

Conversations with the Berlin govern- 
ment were opened in the early days of the 
new premiership. The German foreign 
minister accepted an invitation to come 
to London in Jiuie; but events in the 
Spanish civil war angered Hitler and the 
visit was never paid. Chamberlain then 
turned to Rome. Through the foreign 
secretary, Mr. Eden, he sent a message 
to Mussolini who, in a friendly reply, 
suggested the expansion of the Anglo- 
Italian 'gentleman's agreement' of the 
previous January. It was arranged to 
begin negotiations in September, but here 
also the Spanish war barred the way. 

In November direct contact with Hitler 
came about in a curious manner. Lord Hali- 
fax, who was a master of foxhovmds as 
well as lord president of the Coimcil, went 
to Berlin for a national himting exhibition. 
While there he was invited to meet the 
Fiihrer at Berchtesgaden. They had what 
Lord Halifax called a 'free, frank, informal 
and confidential talk'. There was in this 
no movement away from France, whose 
government was at once informed of what 



happened. M. Chautemps, the premier, 
and M. Delbos, the foreign minister, came 
to London for discussion of the European 
situation; and, shortly afterwards, M. 
Delbos exchanged views with von Neurath 
in Berlin. The way appeared to be clearing 
for Anglo-German negotiations. Sir Nevile 
Henderson, the British ambassador in 
Berlin, came to London for consultation 
and returned with full instructions. At 
the same time von Ribbentrop, already 
counted an enemy of Great Britain, was 
appointed foreign minister in the German 
government. A month passed before 
Hitler received the ambassador. He was, 
Henderson reported, in a bad temper, 
very angry with British newspapers, and 
resentful of any criticism of his relations 
with Austria. 

Hitler's designs upon Austrian inde- 
pendence alarmed Mussolini who at this 
turning-point (February 1938) informed 
the British government that he was ready 
to open discussions covering all matters in 
dispute between Great Britain and Italy. 
Chamberlain felt that if this offer were 
spurned the Hitler-Mussolini association 
would be strengthened and the risk of war 
increased. Mr. Eden objected to the pro- 
cedure proposed on the grornid that there 
should be no negotiation with Italy until 
she had withdrawn a substantial part of 
her forces from Spain. Chamberlain'^ 
undertaking that no agreement should 
take effect until that condition was com- 
plied with did not satisfy the foreign 
secretary; and, after close discussion at 
three meetings of the Cabinet, he resigned 
on 20 February. Lord Halifax succeeded 
him at the Foreign Office, and negotiations 
with Italy began at once. Three weeks 
later Hitler invaded Austria, destroyed 
its government, and proclaimed it a pro- 
vince of the German Reich. British pro- 
tests, ignored in Berlin, were repeated in 
parliament: Chamberlain spoke of the 
profound shock to the friends of peace 
and the setback to hopes of international 
co-operation. The Germans gave a general 
undertaking that there would be no 
further aggression, and a particular assur- 
ance that they had no designs against 
Czechoslovakia. But confidence was 
everywhere weakened. 

The British Cabinet considered the 
position and, on 24 March, Chamberlain 
gave to the House of Commons a detailed 
review of the country's liabilities abroad. 
As to Czechoslovalda, he quoted with 
approval a statement made by Mr. Eden, 
when foreign secretary, that 'nations can- 



158 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Chamberlain, A. N. 



not be expected to incur automatic mili- 
t ary obligations save for areas where their 
\ital interests are concerned'. But that, 
Chamberlain continued, must not be in- 
terpreted as meaning that Britain would 
in no circumstances intervene. Ought 
1 Britain to assure France forthwith of full 
military support if she were called upon, 
I )y reason of German aggression, to go to 
the aid of her ally, Czechoslovakia? The 
( abinet had decided against that but, 
said Chamberlain, 'legal obligations are 
not alone concerned and, if war broke 
out ... it would be well within the bounds 
of probability that other coiuitries besides 
those which were parties to the original 
dispute would almost immediately become 
involved. This', he added, 'is especially 
true in the case of two countries like Great 
Britain and France, with long associations 
of friendship, with interests closely inter- 
woven, devoted to the same ideals of 
democratic liberty and determined to 
uphold them.' 

^Vhile the labour opposition condemned 
Ihis speech, Mr. Churchill welcomed it as 
'a very considerable advance on any 
previous declaration'. In effect, he said, 
there was evidently a defensive alliance 
with France and he was for declaring it 
openly and making it effective by a mili- 
tary convention. This view was not 
accepted. The Dominion governments 
approved the policy announced, but they 
did not wish to widen their obligations; 
and it would not have been easy at that 
time, nor even when events became more 
critical later in the year, to bring them 
into war on any issue which had then 
arisen in central Europe. 

Within Czechoslovakia the situation 
rapidly worsened throughout the sum- 
mer. Discontent among the three million 
Germans in the Sudeten border districts 
was whipped by Nazi agents into fierce 
agitation. Concessions by the Prague 
government were met by demands for 
more and still more. Border 'incidents', 
invented or distorted, were reported with 
provocative headings in all the German 
newspapers. The position was already 
dangerous when, towards the end of July, 
( hamberlain persuaded Lord Runciman 
to go to Prague as mediator. After weeks 
of negotiation with both sides he sub- 
mitted a plan of home rule for the Sudeten 
areas on the Swiss cantonal model, and it 
was accepted by the Czech government. 
It was too late. Henlein, the Sudeten 
leader, threw off disguises and was seen 
to be Hitler's tool. The orders now came 



direct from Hitler. At Nuremberg, on 12 
September, he demanded self-determina- 
tion for the Sudetens and promised them 
the support of the Reich. Powerful 
German forces were ready for action. 
Lord Runciman could do no more and 
returned to London on 16 September. 

The French government had approved 
the Rvmciman mission. France was 
pledged by treaty to defend the Czechs 
against aggression. At Lanark on 27 
August, Sir John Simon, speaking for the 
government, repeated Cliamberlain's 
declaration of 24 March which was, in 
effect, that if France were involved in war 
with Germany because she went to the aid 
of the Czechs, Britain would be at the side 
of France . Ne vile Henderson also repeated 
this in an official communication to the 
German foreign minister. But France was 
unready. Many French newspapers, of all 
parties, favoured the German minority 
claims and blamed the Czech government 
for dilatoriness. Public opinion generally 
was apathetic. After information that the 
German army was ready to strike, the 
French Cabinet met on 13 September and 
the announcement was made that 'more 
reserves may be called up '. It was evident 
that France would not then fulfil her 
treaty obligations to the Czechs. M. 
Daladier, the premier, afterwards said 
that he suggested to Downing Street some 
'exceptional procedure'. 

Chamberlain had already considered 
what, in such a situation, his exceptional 
action should be. On the evening of 14 
September the world was startled by the 
news that he had just sent a message to 
Hitler proposing that they should meet 
the next day to discuss a peaceful settle- 
ment. Hitler agreed, and on Thursday, 15 
September, Chamberlain flew to Berchtes- 
gaden. His action was everywhere ap- 
proved. Hitler demanded an immediate 
assurance that the British government 
accepted the principle of self-determina- 
tion for the Sudeten Germans. Chamber- 
lain said that he would consult the 
Cabinet about that if Hitler gave an 
assurance that Germany would, mean- 
time, refrain from hostilities. The assur- 
ance was given. 

Chamberlain returned to London on the 
Friday, the same day that Lord Runciman 
arrived from Prague. The Cabinet sat for 
five hours on the Saturday, and on the 
Simday there were long discussions with 
M. Daladier and M. Bonnet, the French 
foreign minister. It was then annoimced 
that the two governments were 'in 



159 



Chamberlain, A. N. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



complete agreement'. The demand for 
self-determination had been conceded. 
British labour leaders condemned the 
decision and sought common action 
against it with French labour only to 
find that their French friends were not 
prepared to risk a war to preserve the 
integrity of Czechoslovakia. 

On Thursday, 22 September, Chamber- 
lain met Hitler a second time, at Godes- 
berg, and was able to tell him that 
self-determination was accepted not only 
by Britain and France but also by Czecho- 
slovakia. Moreover, arrangements for the 
transfer of territory had already been 
worked out. Hitler denounced these 
arrangements as dilatory and said that 
the German flag must fly over Sudetenland 
within a few days. Having considered this 
overnight, Chamberlain sent a letter to 
Hitler, protesting against any threat of 
force and adding that the Czechs could 
not withdraw their armed forces so long 
as they were faced with the prospect of 
invasion. HUtler replied a few hours 
later with a violent attack on the Czechs. 
Germany's decision was irrevocable. 
Chamberlain's curt rejoinder was that he 
proposed to return home at once. He 
asked for a memorandum and a map 
showing the areas in which it was proposed 
that plebiscites should be taken. These 
were not received and at half -past ten that 
night he saw Hitler again. He was then 
shown the memorandum. It provided for 
Czech evacuation of the Sudeten frontier 
districts within forty-eight hours. This 
moved Chamberlain to anger. He called 
it an ultimatum. Talk continued for 
several hours Avithout removing the dead- 
lock. But Hitler did say that 'this was the 
last of his territorial ambitions in Europe, 
and that he had no wish to include in the 
Reich people of any other race than the 
Germans'. On Saturday, 24 September, 
Chamberlain returned to London. 

Before the Godesberg conference ended, 
the Prague government was informed that 
the British and French governments could 
no longer take the responsibility of ad- 
vising it not to mobiUze. French opinion 
stiffened and M. Daladier said that if 
Czechoslovakia were attacked France 
would take measures to help her. The 
Czech government rejected the German 
terms. War appeared to be certain. 
British mflitary and civil defence pre- 
parations were pressed forward with all 
speed. 

But Chamberlain refused to abandon 
his peace efforts. On 26 September he sent 



Sir Horace Wilson to Berlin with a letter 
to Hitler suggesting that German and 
Czech representatives should together 
consider how the territory to be ceded 
should be handed over. The letter was 
delivered to Hitler the same day by Sir 
Horace and the British ambassador. Next 
morning Sir Horace saw Hitler again and 
gave him this message from the British 
prime minister : ' If, in pursuit of her treaty 
obligations, France became actively en- 
gaged in hostilities against Germany, the 
United Kingdom would feel obliged to 
support her.' 'It is Tuesday to-day', 
Hitler retorted, 'and by next Monday we 
shall be at war.' But he replied to the 
prime minister with an assurance that 
the Czechs' fears were groundless and 
that their 'economic organism' would be 
stronger than before. Chamberlain there- 
upon appealed to him not to risk a world 
war when settlement was within reach in 
a few days. At the same time he asked 
Mussolini to support his proposal for 
further negotiation ; and the Duce asked 
Hitler and Ribbentrop to delay action for 
twenty-four hours. 

The next afternoon, Wednesday, 28 
September, the prime minister reported 
to the House of Commons. From no 
quarter was there any ray of hope that war 
would be averted. The speech, heard in 
sombre silence, was near its end when a 
note from Lord Halifax was passed along 
the Treasury bench and handed to 
Chamberlain who read it and, with scarce 
a pause, announced that Hitler had in- 
vited him to a conference at Munich on 
the following day. Mussolini and Daladier 
were also invited. 'I need not say what 
my answer will be', he added. The reUef 
was indescribable. For the moment 
differences were forgotten, and the good- 
will of the whole House was with him as he 
left for the last stage of these momentous 
events. 

Many people, perhaps most, failed to 
apprehend the Umited range of the Munich 
conference. Settlement was possible only 
on the basis of self-determination, which 
meant the cession of the Sudeten districts 
in which Germans were a majority of the 
population. That had already been agreed : 
it was Hitler's assumption of the rights of 
a victor in war that the Czechs, supported 
in this by Great Britain and France, foxmd 
intolerable. In a few hours at Munich the 
Godesberg terms were so modified that 
the Czech government accepted them. 
The evacuation of the Sudeten areas, which 
was to have been completed on 1 October, 



160 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Chamberlain, A. N. 



was extended over ten days. It was 
agreed that the limits of the territory to 
be occupied by the Germans after the first 
four days should be defined by an inter- 
national commission. An international 
force was to occupy the plebiscite areas. 
Hitler withdrew his demand that the 
evacuating Czechs should take none of 
their goods with them. The release of 
Germans from the Czech army was to be 
completed, not in one day but in four 
weeks ; and a right of option into or out 
of the transferred territories might be 
exercised at any time within six months 
after the date of the agreement. So, for 
the time, was peace saved. 

The agreement was signed at 12.30 a.m. 
on Friday, 30 September. Later the same 
morning Chamberlain saw Hitler for the 
last time and they both signed a declara- 
tion which, taken at its face value, was of 
inunense importance. The agreement on 
Czechoslovakia just signed was said to be 
'symbolic of the desire of our two peoples 
never to go to war again ' ; and ' the 
method of consultation shall be the method 
adopted to deal with any other questions 
that may concern our two countries '. This 
document had been prepared by Chamber- 
lain in advance, with the thought in his 
mind that, if it were violated, it would 
effectually damn Hitler. A similar de- 
claration, on behalf of Germany and 
France, was signed in Paris several weeks 
later. 

In the evening of 30 September 
Chamberlain was welcomed back to Lon- 
don by vast crowds of cheering people. 
The newspapers of all parties on the 
Saturday and Sunday acclaimed him as 
the saviour of peace: the British press 
had never been more united on any great 
public occasion. The churches were 
crowded at services of thanksgiving. From 
all parts of the world messages of con- 
gratulation poured into Downing Street. 
The statesmen of the Dominions and 
Colonies were fervent in their praise. 'A 
great champion has appeared in the lists'. 
General Smuts said at Johannesburg. . . . 
'He risked all and I trust he has won all.' 

But there was criticism, much of it 
strident and bitter, in the House of Com- 
mons during the four days' debate, in the 
following week. With a few notable 
exceptions, the labour party was solidly 
hostile ; and a small conservative minority 
which condemned the Munich settlement 
included Mr. Churchill. Yet nearly every 
speaker swelled the chorus of praise of 
the prime minister's courageous struggle 



for peace. All deplored the terms of settle- 
ment. The government's justification was 
put in one sentence by Sir John Simon: 
'How many amongst us are there who, 
if we could undo what was then done, 
would reject the settlement to which the 
prime minister put his hand on Friday, 
and instead — because it was the only 
alternative— would fling the world into 
the cauldron of immediate war ? ' Cham- 
berlain said: 'By my action I did avoid 
war. I feel equally sure that I was right 
in doing so.' 

On 6 October, by 366 votes to 144, the 
House of Commons declared confidence 
in the government. There was no division 
in the House of Lords, and the speeches 
there, spread over three days, nearly all 
supported Chamberlain's policy. It was 
remarkable, moreover, that in the French 
Chamber the Munich settlement was 
approved, except for the communists, by 
an all but unanimous vote. 

Chamberlain had the support of a great 
majority of the nation. He said in the 
Commons debate that he would not snatch 
party advantage by capitalizing the 
thankfulness for peace; he would not 
advise an early general election unless 
some new issue arose which required a 
fresh mandate from the country, or he lost 
the confidence of his supporters. One 
other sentence showed that on the morrow 
of Munich he realized the grave un- 
certainties of the future. 'It is possible', 
he said, 'that we may want great efforts 
from the nation in the months to come, 
and if that be so the smaller our differ- 
ences the better.' He had insisted that 
rearmament would be pressed forward. 

The European prospect worsened 
throughout the autumn. A dreadful 
pogrom against Jews in Germany horrified 
civilized people everywhere. Hatred of 
Hitler and his works spread among all 
classes in Britain. But Chamberlain 
would not yet abandon his peace efforts: 
if there was to be war let the coimtry be 
ready for it. He could not, of course, 
persist in his attempt to turn the Germans 
from their evil ways and, at the same 
time, tell the world what he thought of 
their leader. The restraints which his 
policy imposed were misunderstood, and 
the prejudice against him, fostered by 
poUtical opponents, deepened from this 
time on. 

With Italy relations had temporarily 
improved. The negotiations that followed 
Mr. Eden's resignation soon led to a com- 
prehensive agreement. It was approved 



161 



Chamberlain, A. N. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



by the House of Commons on 2 May 1938. 
The condition that it should not take 
effect vmtil there had been a substantial 
withdrawal of Italian forces from Spain 
was, however, insisted upon and the 
agreement did not come into full operation 
until November. In January 1939 Cham- 
berlain and Lord Halifax went to Rome 
for discussions with the Italian govern- 
ment, but without any fixed agenda and 
the visit had no lasting effect. 

In the same month, at Birmingham, 
Chamberlain spoke of political tension in 
Europe. There was talk of German designs 
on the free city of Danzig which was in the 
Polish customs system; but Ribbentrop 
covmtered that with the assurance at 
Warsaw on 26 January that enmity no 
longer existed between Germans and Poles. 
This was the prelude to a war of nerves 
against the Czechs. President Hacha was 
summoned to Berlin on 14 March and there 
bullied hour after hour until he signed 
a document in which he 'placed the fate 
of the Czech people in the hands of the 
Reichsfiihrer'. Czechoslovakia was simul- 
taneously invaded and, in a few hours, the 
Prague Cabinet surrendered. 

The policy of appeasement was dead — 
'wantonly shattered'. Chamberlain said 
at Birmingham. Hitler stood before the 
world a man forsworn, whose word no one 
could trust, from whose lawless aggression 
no neighbour of Germany was safe. The 
Poles at once consulted the British and 
French governments, and a provisional 
miderstanding was reached. On 31 March 
Chamberlain announced in the House of 
Commons that Britain and France would 
give all the support in their power to 
Poland if her independence were threatened 
while negotiations were in progress. 

Even before that announcement there 
were more aggressions: Hitler had seized 
MemeUand from Lithuania and demanded 
the incorporation of Danzig in the Reich. 
On Good Friday, 7 April, Italy invaded 
Albania, three days after an official denial 
that military action was intended against 
that country. The British government 
thereupon gave assurances of support to 
Greece and Rumania, and made a long- 
term agreement with Turkey. 

As early as March it was found that 
Poland and Russia could not be brought 
into one alliance. But obviously Britain's 
new agreements in Europe would be 
strengthened by a good understanding 
with the Soviet government. Anglo-French 
negotiations to secure it were begun at 
Moscow early in the summer. One obstacle 



was Russia's demand that Britain shoiild 
recognize her annexation of the three 
Baltic republics, Latvia, Esthonia, and 
Lithuania. This could not be squared with 
the British policy of protecting small 
nations against aggression. Yet on 24 May 
Chamberlain told the House of Commons 
that he hoped for early and full agreement. 
Discussions continued, and at the begin- 
ning of August British and French mili- 
tary missions went to Moscow. As this 
was done on Russia's invitation, a painful 
shock was caused by the announcement on 
21 August that she had signed a non- 
aggression pact with Germany. 

German propagandist reports that 
Britain would now abandon Poland were 
at once denied by Chamberlain. If the 
need arose, he said, British forces would 
be fully engaged in support of our Allies. 
Yet he continued the most strenuous 
exertions to prevent war and intensified 
these efforts when, in the last week of 
August, the hour of decision was felt to 
be near. But Hitler was bent on war, and 
on the morning of Friday, 1 September, 
German armies invaded Poland. British 
and French demands for suspension of 
hostilities being ignored. Chamberlain, at 
11.15 in the morning of Sunday, 3 Sep- 
tember, broadcast from 10 Downing Street 
the annoimcement that 'this coimtry is 
at war with Germany. ... It is the evil 
things we shall be fighting against — brute 
force, bad faith, injustice, oppression and 
persecution — and against them I am 
certain that right wiU prevail.' France 
declared war on Germany six hours later. 

Chamberlain's wish that the war-time 
government should represent all parties 
was thwarted by the refusal of the labour 
leaders and of liberals led by Sir Archibald 
Sinclair to serve under him. But there 
were some notable recruits, Mr. Churchill 
and Mr. Eden among them. Emergency 
measures were passed quickly with the 
support of all parties. 

The opening stages of the war were very 
different from what had been expected. 
U-boat attacks on British and AUied 
shipping began on the first day but many 
months passed before enemy air raiders 
bombed London, and there were only 
minor clashes between the opposing armies 
on the Franco-German frontier. After the 
quick defeat of Poland, there were no 
important land operations until the in- 
vasion of Denmark and Norwaj^ on 9 
April 1940. As the British fleet, owing to 
air attacks, could not remain in the Skager- 
rak, there was no effective check upon 



162 



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Chamberlain, J. A. 



enemy reinforcements for Norway, and 
the small British forces landed to help 
the Norwegian defence were mostly re- 
embarked Avithin two or three weeks. 

This was the first and not the worst 
British disaster in the war but it made a 
greater impression upon parliament than 
any that followed. On 7 and 8 May the 
withdrawal from Norway was debated in 
the House of Commons. In the division 
forced by the labour party the government 
was given a majority of 81 — the figures 
were 281 to 200 — but 40 ministerialists 
were in the minority and many abstained. 
Chamberlain thereupon considered his 
position and, when he was informed on 
10 May that labour members still refused 
to serve under him, he at once tendered 
his resignation and advised the King to 
commission Mr. Churchill to form a new 
administration. The change was an- 
nounced in a broadcast by Chamberlain 
that night. 

Chamberlain joined the new govern- 
ment as lord president of the Council and 
for several months worked in full harmony 
with his successor. In August he under- 
went an operation which was believed to 
be successful and he resumed his official 
duties, but only for a short time: illness 
returned and on 1 October he resigned 
from the War Cabinet, knowing that his 
public life was over. Titular honours 
(including the Garter) he declined, pre- 
ferring to remain plain Mr. Chamberlain. 
He was a freeman of Birmingham; the 
freedom of the City of London death 
prevented him from accepting, and the 
scroU was presented to Mrs. Chamberlain 
in 1941. Honorary degrees were conferred 
upon him by the universities of Oxford, 
Cambridge, Birmingham, Bristol, Leeds, 
and Reading ; and he was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society (1938). He died at 
Highfield Park, Heckfield, near Reading, 
on 9 November. His ashes were interred 
in Westminster Abbey. His son and 
daughter survived him. 

Chamberlain's career has some remark- 
able features. Coming to parhament in 
his fiftieth year, without a reputation in 
national politics, he excelled in every 
office entrusted to liim and was given the 
premiership for the best of all reasons, 
because he was the most trusted man in 
his party. He owed nothing to social 
influence. He was temperamentally un- 
fitted for the arts of self-advertisement. 
The lucid speech of which he was a master 
was on simple, straight lines: and the 



of the premiership he was exceptionally 
efficient. Occasionally his appointments 
to government office were criticized, but 
his leadership of the Cabinet was strong 
and masterful; and his colleagues knew 
that in all affairs that came before them 
he was animated by a lofty sense of public 
duty. To this all his varied interests were 
subordinate. Gardening and bird life 
attracted him all through his life. Music 
was a joy to him and he did much to 
foster public interest in the art. Family 
love and loyalty were deep and strong. 
His leadership of the conservative party 
did not mean repudiation of essentials in 
the radical faith in which he was brought 
up, and it was a grief to him that war 
prevented far-reaching social reforms upon 
which his heart was set. The failure to 
maintain peace was not, however, a 
complete failure; for, as Mr. Churchill 
said on the first day of the war, his resolute 
struggle for peace was of the highest moral 
and practical value and secured 'the 
wholehearted concurrence of scores of 
millions of men and women whose 
co-operation was indispensable'. 

Of portraits of Chamberlain, one, by 
Sir William Orpen, is in the possession of 
Mrs. Chamberlain; another, by Oswald 
Birley, is in the Birmingham Art Gallery ; 
and a third, by James Gunn, is at the 
Carlton Club. 

[Keith Failing, The Life of Neville Chamber- 
lain, 1946; private information; personal 
knowledge.] W. W. Hadlky. 

CHAMBERLAIN, Sir (JOSEPH) 
AUSTEN (1863-1937), statesman, was 
born at Birmingham 16 October 1863, the 
only son of Joseph Chamberlain [q.v.] by 
his first wife, Harriet, daughter of Archi- 
bald Kenrick, of Berrow Court, Edgbaston. 
His mother died at his birth, and his 
father subsequently remarried twice: 
(Arthur) NeviUe Chamberlain [q.v.] was 
his half-brother. Austen Chamberlain 
was educated at Rugby and Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; he took his degree in 
1885. On leaving Cambridge he was sent 
to France for nine months, and it was then 
that he developed the love of that country 
which was to influence him so greatly for 
the rest of his life. In Paris he attended 
at the ficole des Sciences Politiques, and 
among those whose acquaintance he made 
was Clemenceau. In February 1887 he 
went to Germany for twelve months, and 
he never revisited the country, although 
he had arranged to do so in the summer 
of 1914. Chamberlain went regularly to 



163 



Chamberlain, J. A. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Treitschke's lectures on Prussian history, 
but they disquieted him. Beriin did not 
attract him as Paris had done, and he 
found it 'shghtly provincial'. What was 
true of the German capital equally applied 
to the Germans themselves, and from 
these early days his preference was always 
for the French. 

When Chamberlain came home from 
Germany the first step that his father took 
was to find him a constituency, and he 
was duly adopted as prospective candi- 
date for the Border Burghs. He nursed 
the seat for four years, when something 
more attractive, and nearer Birmingham, 
offered itself, namely. East Worcester- 
shire, and he was returned unopposed as 
a liberal unionist at a by-election in March 
1892. Parliament was dissolved shortly 
afterwards, and Chamberlain did not make 
his maiden speech until after the ensuing 
general election, when he was re-elected. 
In April 1893, however, Gladstone is 
found writing to Queen Victoria that 
Austen Chamberlain had 'delivered one 
of the best speeches which has been made 
against the bill [the second home rule 
bill], and exhibited himself as a person of 
whom high political anticipations may 
reasonably be entertained'. The liberal 
unionists were returned forty-seven strong 
at the election of 1892, and Chamberlain 
was appointed their junior whip. When 
the conservatives came back to office in 
1895 he was made a civil lord of the 
Admiralty, a post which he held until 1900 
when he became financial secretary to the 
Treasury ; as usual, that soon led to high 
office, in his case the postmastership- 
general with a seat in the Cabinet and a 
Privy Councillorship. In 1903 he was ap- 
pointed chancellor of the Exchequer, 
when both his father and the free traders 
left Balfour's administration. 

This appointment had been very largely 
made in order that the breach between 
Joseph Chamberlain and Balfour should 
not be widened unnecessarily, and Austen 
was to be a link between his father and the 
prime minister. But the new chancellor 
found Balfour by no means easy to under- 
stand, and if he acted as a link, it was 
as one which often had to stand a very 
severe strain. He was responsible for two 
budgets during his first tenure of office 
as chancellor of the Exchequer, but the 
circumstances in which he was appointed 
precluded him from applying the principles 
of tariff reform and imperial preference in 
which he had come to believe, and he had 
to do the best he could with the exist- 



ing fiscal system. Nevertheless, although 
neither of his budgets was sensational, 
they were both well received . In December 
1905 the administration resigned, and at 
the general election of the following month 
its supporters were routed at the polls, 
although East Worcestershire remained 
faithful to Austen Chamberlain. 

Shortly afterwards, Joseph Chamber- 
lain was incapacitated from taking any 
further active part in political life, and in 
opposition his son had now a difficult part 
to play. In theory, the conservatives and 
liberal unionists were still distinct, but as 
only a small number of the latter had 
survived the election Chamberlain's im- 
mediate following hardly mattered: his 
task was to leaven the conservative mass 
with the doctrine of tariff reform, and to 
ensure that when next the party obtained 
a majority protection would be carried 
into effect. This brought him into conflict 
with other sections of the party, and not 
infrequently with Balfour himself. In the 
fight against the parliament bill in 1911 
he was numbered among the 'die-hards', 
although in later years he admitted that 
it had been a mistake for the House of 
Lords to throw out the budget in the first 
instance. 

In November 1911 Balfour resigned the 
leadership of the conservative party and 
Chamberlain and Walter Long (afterwards 
Viscount Long of Wraxall, q.v.) were 
rival candidates for the succession. How- 
ever, as the voting was likely to be close, 
they both stood down in favour of Bonar 
Law, who was elected unanimously. 
Whether this compromise was really in 
the best interests of the party and the 
country is a moot point, and Chamberlain 
was to have differences at least as serious 
with his new leader as those which he had 
experienced with his old. At first Bonar 
Law relied upon him to a very large 
extent, but before long, to quote Cham- 
berlain himself in Down the Years, he 
'turned more and more to Sir Edward 
Carson' and Chamberlain doubted the 
wisdom of concentrating the party's 
energies so largely upon opposition to the 
third home rule bill, to the exclusion of 
educational work for tariff reform. There 
was, in particular, a sharp difference of 
opinion between the two men over the 
advisability of postponing the imposition 
of taxes on food in the event of a conser- 
vative victory, a course advocated by 
Bonar Law. 

Chamberlain played a prominent part 
during the days immediately preceding 



164 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Chamberlain, J. A. 



the outbreak of the war of 1914-1918 in 
inducing the opposition leaders to bring 
pressure upon the government to stand 
by France and Russia, and to assure 
Asquith of conservative support. When 
the coaHtion was formed in May 1915 he 
became secretary of state for India, and 
he retained that office for two years. His 
resignation was brought about by the mis- 
management of the campaign in Mesopo- 
tamia, for the commission which inquired 
into it revealed a very disquieting state 
of affairs, particularly where the medical 
services were concerned. There was never 
any suggestion that blame attached to 
Chamberlain, but he was secretary of state 
for India, and as it was his department 
which was involved he felt it to be his 
duty to resign in July 1917. 

Until April 1918, when he became a 
member of the War Cabinet, Chamberlain 
remained out of office, although his 
services were by no means wasted, for he 
did valuable work on a committee to con- 
trol the dollar expenditure of all depart- 
ments. When Lloyd George reorganized 
his government after the general election 
of 1918 he offered Chamberlain the post 
of chancellor of the Exchequer, which was 
accepted (January 1919) on condition that 
therfe should be an early return to the old 
Cabinet system which had been suspended 
during the war. During this second period 
at the Treasury Chamberlain was con- 
fronted with a very difficult situation, not 
least owing to the industrial unrest which 
was the aftermath of the war, and the 
three budgets for which he was respon- 
sible went a long way towards placing the 
national finances on a sound footing. For 
two years he remained chancellor of the 
Exchequer, with Bonar Law as lord privy 
seal and leader of the conservative party. 
In March 1921 Bonar Law retired on 
account of ill health, and Chamberlain 
succeeded him in the conservative leader- 
ship : the Exchequer he vacated in favour 
of Sir Robert Home (afterwards Viscount 
Home of Slamannan, q.v.). 

Chamberlain was leader of the conserva- 
tive party in the House of Commons from 
the spring of 1921 until the autumn of the 
following year, and his task was no easy 
one. The rank and file was showing every 
day a more marked desire to break away 
from the coalition, and was arguing that 
in view of the unpopularity of the govern- 
ment this was the only course for the 
conservative party to pursue if it was not 
o go down to disaster with Lloyd George 
t the next general election. Chamberlain 



did not share this opinion. He had no 
confidence in his party's ability to win an 
independent majority of its own, and in 
view of the strength of the disruptive 
forces up and down the country the fall 
of the existing administration might well 
be the prelude to revolution. From the 
beginning, therefore, there were sharp 
differences between the new leader and 
many of his followers. 

The great dissolvent of conservative 
unity was the problem of Ireland. Cham- 
berlain was, in October 1921, one of the 
British representatives at the conferences 
which then began with Sinn Fein. He also 
signed the Irish 'treaty' itself on 6 Decem- 
ber. His next task was to obtain the 
assent of his followers to the settlement, 
and although he secured a substantial 
majority at the party conference in Liver- 
pool his difficulties were increased rather 
than diminished. The 'die-hards', as the 
irreconcilable element was again termed, 
became increasingly dissatisfied with his 
continued support of Lloyd George, and 
during the year 1922 his position and that 
of the government was still further 
weakened by the murder of Sir Henry 
Wilson [q.v.] and by the situation in the 
Near East where war with Turkey was 
narrowly averted. 

With the approach of autumn the crisis 
within the conservative party reached its 
height, and the head of the machine, Sir 
George Younger (afterwards Viscount 
Younger of Leckie, q.v.), was at open 
variance with his chief. Accordingly a 
meeting of conservative members of 
parliament was convoked at the Carlton 
Club on 19 October, and Chamberlain 
recommended that the existing govern- 
ment as then constituted under the 
leadership of Lloyd George should go to the 
country ; it would be time to talk of changes 
when the victory had been won. A motion 
was at once proposed to the effect that the 
party 'should fight the election as an 
independent party with its own leader and 
its own programme', and this point of 
view was backed by Stanley Baldwin. It 
was, however, the reappearance of Bonar 
Law that decided the issue, for he gave 
his support to the motion, which was then 
carried by 187 votes to 87. Chamberlain 
refused, as he put it, 'to send to the prime 
minister a message of dismissal', and he 
consequently ceased to be leader of the 
conservative party. 

Chamberlain, in common with Lord 
Birkenhead and others who had supported 
him at the Carlton Club, did not take 



165 



Chamberlain, J. A. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



office under either Bonar Law or Baldwin, 
but assumed an attitude of benevolent 
neutrality. This attitude, so far as Cham- 
berlain was concerned, was in no small 
measure due to the presence of his half- 
brother, Neville Chamberlain, in the 
administration, and he is found writing, 
'If Neville had not joined this Govern- 
ment, I'd have had them out in six months.' 
Chamberlain disapproved of the precipi- 
tancy of Baldwin in going to the 
country in 1923 on a protectionist policy 
without adequate preparation, but the 
labour victory at the polls soon reunited 
the conservative party. When, therefore, 
Baldwin, on the formation of his second 
government in November 1924, offered 
Chamberlain the foreign secretaryship he 
gladly accepted. 

Chamberlain took office in circumstances 
of peculiar difficulty, in view of the 
estrangement of France from Germany 
over the occupation of the Ruhr, although 
he had the advantage of enjoying that 
free hand which Baldwin gave to all his 
ministers. His first task was to denounce 
the protocol of Geneva, which had been 
approved by the previous government. 
The proposal had met with a hostile 
reception in many quarters in Great 
Britain and the Empire overseas, and was 
especially disliked by Chamberlain's own 
party. Something, nevertheless, had to be 
put in its place, and an offer by Strese- 
mann, then German foreign minister, to 
guarantee the existing territorial position 
on the Rhine, gave Chamberlain an op- 
portunity to initiate negotiations which 
later resulted in the Locarno pact. His 
patience in overcoming obstacles, both on 
the part of Germany and of France, was 
remarkable, for although the scheme was 
first envisaged in January 1925, it was not 
until the following 16 October that the 
Locarno pact was actually signed. It was 
very largely Chamberlain's work, and the 
recognition of this fact came in the form 
of the Garter, which was conferred upon 
him at this time, an honour bestowed upon 
only two commoners, Sir Edward Grey 
and A. J. Balfour, since the award to 
Castlereagh in 1814. If it be objected that 
the Locarno pact did not go far enough, 
especially where Germany's eastern fron- 
tiers were concerned, the answer must be 
that it was as far as Chamberlain could 
then have persuaded his fellow coimtry- 
men to go, and that it did give Europe a 
breathing-space. 

Chamberlain was the first foreign secre- 
tary to make a habit of attending regu- 



larly the meetings of the Council of the 
League of Nations, and in 1926 his presence 
at Geneva was very necessary to ensure 
for Germany that seat on the Council 
which she had been promised at Locarno. 
It was not only in Europe that Chamber- 
lain had difficulties to surmount. He had 
hardly taken office when he was confronted 
with the murder of Sir Lee Stack [q.v.], 
and during his tenure of the foreign secre- 
taryship he was continually endeavouring 
to put the admittedly imsatisfactory 
Anglo-Egyptian relations upon a sounder 
footing. In 1927 matters got so far as a 
draft treaty, but these hopes were wrecked 
upon the rock of Wafd opposition. In 
China, too, the British position became 
extremely serious in face of an outbreak 
of xenophobia on the one hand and the 
refusal of the Japanese to co-operate on 
the other. Chamberlain was much criti- 
cized for making no effort to regain the 
British concession at Hankow, which had 
been captured by the Chinese in January 
1927, but he knew that the country was 
not prepared for a campaign in the in- 
terior of China ; nevertheless he persuaded 
the Cabinet to send a strong force to 
Shanghai to prevent a repetition there of 
the events which had taken place at 
Hankow. 

During the greater part of 1928 Cham- 
berlain was ill, and so was unable to be 
present at the signing of the Kellogg pact 
in Paris on 27 August of that year. At the 
general election of May 1929 the conser- 
vative government was defeated, and 
although Chamberlain urged Baldwin to 
meet parliament, the prime minister de- 
cided otherwise, and the administration 
resigned. 

Of the various offices which Chamber- 
lain held during the course of his career 
he is best remembered for his foreign 
secretaryship. In this connexion he would 
seem to have two claims to distinction ; he 
never took a step without preparing the 
way very carefully indeed, and his his- 
torical sense rendered him profoundly 
aware of the mistakes of his predecessors. 
It has been said that he was little more 
than the mouthpiece of the Quai d'Orsay, 
and, alternatively, that he was the dupe 
of Stresemann. These accusations are 
mutually contradictory, and neither of 
them is true. As foreign secretary he was 
above all else a great realist; he never 
hankered after the unattainable, but he 
did his best with the tools that he had. 
When he laid down office the world was 
far more settled than it had been when he 



166 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Chamberlain, J. A. 



became foreign secretary four and a half 
years earlier. 

For a time Chamberlain was under a 
cloud ; he was returned for West Birming- 
ham, the seat to which he had succeeded 
on his father's death in 1914, and which 
he never lost, by the narrow majority of 
43: his policy of solidarity with France 
was temporarily unpopular in many 
quarters; and a number of conservative 
members of parliament had asked Baldwin 
for a promise that Chamberlain would not 
go back to the Foreign Office when their 
party returned to power. He had, how- 
ever, no longer any ambitions for himself, 
and, the ties between himself and his 
brother being as strong as they were, 
all his political hopes were based upon 
Neville succeeding Baldwin in the leader- 
ship, and thus eventually becoming prime 
minister. 

When the all-party government came 
to be formed in August 1931, and Cham- 
berlain was asked to co-operate, he willing- 
ly agreed, but he was bitterly disappointed 
that it was the Admiralty and not the 
Foreign Office which was offered to him. 
He felt that at the latter he might have 
been of real assistance, whereas at the 
Admiralty 'except to a few I appear not 
as someone who gives all he can to help 
in a crisis but as an old party hack who 
might be dangerous outside and so must 
have his mouth stopped with office'. His 
tenure of office as first lord of the Admiralty 
was not destined to be of long continuance, 
but it was marked by one important 
event, namely, the naval mutiny at Inver- 
gordon in September. It has, however, 
nowhere been suggested either that 
Chamberlain was in any way responsible 
for this incident, or that his attitude was 
other than scrupulously correct. After the 
general election of October 1931 he wrote 
to Baldwin to say that he waived all claim 
to inclusion in the new administration 
which was in process of formation. By no 
means the least cogent of the motives by 
which he was actuated was the desire to 
help his brother. 'I hope', he wrote, 'that 
my elimination will make Neville's acces- 
sion to the Chancellorship easier to 
secure.' 

When Chamberlain left office for the 
last time he had still five and a half years 

Ito live, and his position, politically, re- 
called that of his father between 1886 and 
1895 in that he exercised over the House 
of Commons a control which had not been 
his when he was a minister. Advancing 
years may have prevented him from that 



participation in the daily round at West- 
minster which had characterized him 
during the earlier part of his career, but 
he was rarely absent when foreign policy 
was the subject to be discussed. Nor did 
he treat the House of Commons as if it 
were a mere platform from which to 
address the country, for he listened to 
others with the courteous attention that 
he expected from his listeners. He refused 
to indulge in any factious criticism of the 
government of the day, but as the Ger- 
man danger became ever more manifest 
he neglected no opportunity of warning 
his fellow countrymen against it. Another 
task which occupied a good deal of his 
time was the work of the joint select 
parliamentary committee on Indian con- 
stitutional reform which was set up in 
1932, and of which he was a member. 

Chamberlain took part at this time in 
a number of non-political activities. He 
was chancellor of Reading University 
(1935-1937), and chairman both of the 
court of governors of the London School 
of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and of 
the governing body of the British Post- 
graduate Medical School; he was also 
chairman of the board of governors of 
Rugby School : in all of these capacities he 
worked extremely hard, for to the very 
end he displayed all his old zeal on behalf 
of any cause with which he was associated. 
In addition, he formed a number of busi- 
ness connexions, and also wrote from time 
to time for the British, French, and 
American press. It was during this period, 
too, that he published two books of an 
autobiographical character. 

The last occasion on which Chamberlain 
appeared in the centre of the political stage 
was in December 1935, after the conclusion 
of the Hoare-Laval pact, which he criti- 
cized severely. It was said that at first 
the government had intended to stand by 
the pact, and that what decided Baldwin 
to take the opposite course, even at the 
price of dropping his foreign secretary, 
was the fear that Chamberlain would 
attack him, although in actual fact Cham- 
berlain had not decided what line to adopt. 
In the ensuing debate Chamberlain sup- 
ported the government, but he believed, 
with considerable justification, that 'after 
S. B.'s miserably inadequate speech and 
the initial blunder' he could 'have so 
reduced his majority as to force his 
resignation'. On the following day Bald- 
win asked Chamberlain to join the ad- 
ministration as minister of state without 
a department,, as he considered that he was. 



167 



Chamberlain, J. A. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



too old to go to the Foreign Office again. 
Chamberlain refused, as he believed that 
all that Baldwin wanted was 'the use of 
my name to help patch up the damaged 
prestige of his government'. 

Chamberlain died suddenly in London 
16 March 1937. To turn from the states- 
man to the man, all who knew him can 
bear witness to his devotion to his family 
and to his sociability. He married in 1906 
Ivy Muriel, daughter of Colonel Henry 
Lawrence Dundas, of Datchet, and had 
two sons and one daughter. He was a 
devoted husband and father, and it was 
the happiness of his home life which en- 
abled him to emerge unscathed from the 
storms of his public career. He was a 
scholar, and throughout his life he read 
widely, which was apparent in all that he 
did and said. He was also a lover of nature 
and of rural pursuits, and possessed a very 
considerable knowledge of flowers. No- 
thing gave him greater pleasure than to 
stroll through woods and fields in spring 
picking primroses and cowslips, and when 
he was able to cultivate a rock-garden in 
Sussex, he spent many hours attending to 
his precious Alpines on which he became 
quite an authority. Owing to his poor 
sight and immaculate attire Chamberlain 
often conveyed to strangers an impression 
of austerity which was very far from being 
the case. Actually, he was the most 
' clubbable ' of men, was naturally sociable, 
and delighted in company. He was an 
extremely interesting and agreeable talker, 
for he had stored up in a exceedingly reten- 
tive memory a host of reminiscences 
which he told well. He had an even 
temper which was always under control, 
and an inborne generosity which led him to 
acknowledge without reserve any mistakes 
which he had made. He delighted in 
travel and sight-seeing, especially if he 
had the opportunity of studying pictures 
and works of art, in which he took great 
pleasure. He spoke French easily and 
well, and although his German became 
rather rusty, he could understand most of 
a conversation in that language. He had 
a large acquaintance among people of 
many nations, and he liked to invite them 
to his house in London, and to exchange 
views with them upon international 
politics. 

The chief portraits of Chamberlain are 
a full-length in Garter robes by I. M. 
Cohen in the Cordwainers' Company's 
hall ; one as chancellor of Reading Univer- 
sity by Sir William Rothenstein at Read- 
ing ; and one by P. A. de Ldszlo in the robes 



of chancellor of the Exchequer in private 
possession. 

[The Times, 17 March 1937; Austen 
Chamberlain, Down the Years, 1935, Politics 
from Inside, 1936, and Seen in Passing, 1937 ; 
E. Stern-Rubarth, Three Men Tried, 1939; 
Sir Charles Petrie, Life and Letters of the 
Right Hon. Sir Austen Chamberlain, 2 vols., 
1939-1940 ; personal knowledge.] 

Charles Petrie. 

CHAMPNEYS, BASIL (1842-1935), 
architect and author, was born in London 
17 September 1842, the third of the five 
sons of WiUiam Weldon Champneys, 
rector of St. Marj^'s church, Whitechapel, 
afterwards dean of Lichfield [q.v.], by his 
wife, Mary Anne, fourth daughter of Paul 
Storr, of Beckenham, Kent. He was an 
elder brother of Sir F. H. Champneya 
[q.v.]. 

Champneys was educated at Charter- 
house School, then in London; and atj 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where hej 
obtained a second class in the classical! 
tripos of 1864, He then studied architec- 
ture under John Prichard, diocesan sur- 
veyor of Llandaff, who was 'an uncom- 
promising medievalist, and stickler for 
the letter of Gothic'. He began private 
practice in 1867 and continued it for 
forty years. The long list of his buildings 
includes the Indian Institute, Mansfield j 
College, the Robinson Tower at New CoI-| 
lege, new buildings for Oriel and Mertonf 
Colleges, the library of Somerville Col- 
lege, and the church of St. Peter-le-Bailey,* 
all at Oxford ; the Archaeological Muse- 
um, the Divinity and Literary Schools, 
and Newnham College (at intervals from 
1875 to 1910), all at Cambridge; new 
buildings for Bedford College, in Regent's 
Park, London; King's Lynn Grammar 
School; the Butler Museum at Harrow 
School; the chapel at Mill Hill School; 
the museum at Winchester College; the 
Harpur Girls' School at Bedford ; churches 
at Slindon (Staffordshire), Hastings, and 
Kentish Town; much work at Manches- 
ter Cathedral; and, most important of 
all, the John Rylands Memorial Library 
in Deansgate, Manchester, which took 
nine years (1890-1899) to build and 
equip. This remarkable and costly monu- 
ment was raised to the memory of John 
Rylands [q.v.] by his widow, as a worthy 
repository for the fine collection of early 
books and manuscripts (the 'Althorp 
Library') which he had purchased from 
Lord Spencer. Mrs. Rylands seems to 
have admired the small library of Mans- 



168 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Charles 



field College, one of Champneys's most suc- 
cessful buildings, and to have asked him 
to develop it on a far more lavish and 
magnificent scale. In spite of its cramped 
position on a mean street, the Rylands 
Library is a really noble design carried out 
in every detail with consummate skill in 
late Gothic style and with considerable 
regard for practical requirements. Champ- 
neys was happiest when working in stone 
rather than in brick, and in late Gothic 
rather than in neo-Jacobean or some form 
of Renaissance design. His work was 
always scholarly ; and, if not invariably 
original, was at least more original than 
that of some of his contemporaries. 

The Royal Institute of British Architects 
paid tribute to Champneys's great talents 
by awarding him the Royal gold medal for 
architecture in 1912, but he never became 
A member of that institute or took any 
part in professional politics, being himself 
\% pronounced individualist who regarded 
MPchitecture as an art rather than a pro- 
fession. However, he was by no means a 
•ecluse and had a wide circle of friends, 
unong them Coventry Patmore [q.v.], 
whose Memoirs and Correspondence he 
published in 1900. It is said that he 
iivided his time fairly equally between 
irchitecture and literature, and as early 
IS 1875 he produced a little book on the 
Shen unfrequented district around Rye 
md Romney Marsh under the title A 
'iuiet Corner of England. In later life he 
jublished (1915) a Retrospect and Memoir 
f his mother-in-law, Adelaide Drummond, 
ind also wrote many delightful articles on 
listoric towns and buildings. 

Champneys married in 1876 May 
'heresa Ella, second daughter of Maurice 
Jrummond, a descendant of William 
Drummond, fourth Viscount Strathallan 
q.v.], and had two sons and two daughters. 
Je died at his home at Hampstead 5 April 
,935, at the age of ninety -two. 

[The Times, 6 April 1935; Manchester 
hiardian, 8 April 1935 ; Builder and Architect, 
2 April 1935; Journal of the Royal Insti- 
llte of British Architects, 27 April 1935.] 

Maktin S. Briggs. 



CHARLES, ROBERT HENRY (1855- 
931), archdeacon of Westminster and 
dblical scholar, was born at Cookstown, 
o. Tyrone, 6 August 1855, the fifth of the 
even sons of David Hughes Charles, M.D., 

P., of Cookstown, by his wife, Annie 
Elizabeth, second daughter of John Allen. 
le was an elder brother of Sir Richard 
[avelock Charles, first baronet [q.v.]. His 



education was begun at a private school 
near his home ; but he became dissatisfied 
with the quality of the instruction, and, 
at his own request, he was transferred to 
Belfast Academy. Here he made rapid 
progress, and entered Queen's College, 
Belfast, in 1874. Concentrating on classics, 
he won the first of five scholarships, and 
graduated B.A. (1877) and M.A. (1880), 
both with first class honours. During his 
undergraduate years at Belfast he passed 
through a spiritual crisis, one of the results 
of which was his resolve to seek ordination. 
He accordingly entered Trinity College, 
Dublin, where he had a brilliant career in 
classics and theology. At the end of his 
courses he spent some time in Germany 
and Switzerland ; and it was during a stay 
at Heidelberg that he met Mary Lilias, 
daughter of William Bence-Jones, of 
Lisselan, co. Cork. They were married in 
1886 ; and, although they had no children, 
their house was the home of a number of 
nieces whom they brought up as their own 
children. 

Charles was ordained deacon in 1883 
and priest in 1884 and during the six years 
from 1883 to 1889 served curacies in 
Whitechapel, Kensington, and Kennington 
with such zeal and energy that his health 
was seriously impaired and prolonged rest 
became necessary. With his wife he went 
to Germany for a year. During this visit 
he began the study of the religious develop- 
ments within Judaism in the period 
between the Testaments, and particularly 
the exposition of the Apocalyptic literature 
both Jewish and Christian. 

On their return Charles settled in Oxford 
and incorporated at Exeter College in 
1891. At Oxford began the publication of 
a long series of works of first-rate impor- 
tance. It opened with an English transla- 
tion of the Book of Enoch (1893, 2nd ed. 
1912) and was crowned by the massive 
edition of the Apocalypse of St. John (2 
vols., 1920) and the great Critical and 
Exegetical Commentary on the Book of 
Daniel (1929). In the intervening years he 
published English translations, with com- 
mentaries, of many important Apocalyp- 
ses. More important still, he provided 
scholars with reliable information al)out 
the texts. For this purpose it was 
necessary to command not only Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin, but also Syriac, Arme- 
nian, and Ethiopic. Charles did it all: his 
mastery of classical Ethiopic was out- 
standing and universally recognized. His 
critical editions of the Book of Jubilees 
(Ethiopic, 1895) and Enoch (also Ethiopic, 



169 



Charles 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



1906), and The Testaments of the Twelve 
Patriarchs (Greek, 1908) are indispensable. 
Indeed, nothing of his on Apocalyptic 
literature can safely be ignored. "VVhile 
pursuing his own researches with charac- 
teristic zeal he gathered about him a band 
of scholars with similar interests, and the 
result of their joint labours was the great 
Oxford edition of The Apocrypha and 
Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in 
English (2 vols., 1913), in which, besides 
the general editorship, Charles had a large 
share of the detailed work. He brought 
together his conclusions on the Apocalyptic 
literature and its main ideas in two im- 
portant articles, 'Apocalyptic Literature' 
and 'Eschatology', published in the 
Encyclopaedia Biblica; in his Jowett 
lectures for 1898-1899, A Critical History 
of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, 
in Judaism and in Christianity (1899, 2nd 
revised and enlarged ed. 1913) ; and in his 
Religious Development between the Old and 
the New Testaments (1914). In 1916 he 
made a valuable contribution to Byzantine 
studies by producing an English edition of 
the Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu. 

Charles's great scholarship obtained due 
recognition. He received honorary degrees 
from the universities of Belfast (1923) and 
Oxford (1928). He was professor of biblical 
Greek in Trinity College, Dublin (1898- 
1906) ; Grinfield lecturer on the Septua- 
gint (1905-1911) and Speaker's lecturer in 
bibUcal studies (1910-1914) at Oxford; 
Warburton lecturer in Lincoln's Inn 
Chapel from 1919 ; and Schweich lecturer 
of the British Academy (1919-1920). He 
was elected a fellow of the British 
Academy in 1906 and of Merton College, 
Oxford, in 1910. In 1925 he was the first 
recipient of the British Academy's medal 
for biblical studies. In 1913 he was ap- 
pointed a canon of Westminster, and 
became archdeacon in 1919. Here he 
applied himself with his customary zeal 
to the duties of his office, especially the 
preaching. His sermons were solid and 
scholarly deliverances on important mat- 
ters of Christian life and doctrine: many 
of them appeared in print. In the last 
eighteen months of his Ufe he was gravely 
handicapped by injuries sustained in a 
road accident. He died at his home in 
Little Cloisters 30 January 1931. He was 
a benefactor of Ripon Hall, Oxford, the 
library of which inherited many of his 
books. His portrait, painted in oils by 
M. Grixoni, was given to the haU by his 
nephew, Sir Havelock Charles. 

Of Charles's work on the Apocalyptic 



literature, on which his fame chiefly rests, 
two things fall to be said. He was a man 
of powerful intellect and unflagging in- 
dustry who, by years of concentrated 
study, made himself master of the lan- 
guage of the Apocalypses. His knowledge 
was vast in extent and accurate in detail ; 
and his commentaries are a wonderful 
storehouse of exact information. Yet there 
was a sense in which the language of 
Apocalyptic remained a foreign language 
to him. He could never be completely at 
home in the world of the Apocalyptists. 
And this made it impossible for him to 
achieve that perfect understanding which 
demands sympathy as well as knowledge. 
Further, his editions of the texts stand as 
models of scholarship. The materials are 
set out with far greater completeness and 
accuracy than ever before ; and those who 
find themselves compelled to dissent from 
some of Charles's conclusions usually do 
so on the basis of evidence which Charles 
himself supplies. The making available 
of so much material was an inunense 
service to biblical scholarship, and further 
progress in this field must inevitably be 
based on Charles's work. 

[The Times, 2 February 1931 ; F. C. Burkitt, 
Robert Henry Charles, 1855-1931 in Proceed- 
ings of the British Academy, vol. xvii, 1931 ; 
Memoir by Dr. C. F. D'Arcy prefixed to the 
posthumous volume of Charles's sermons. 
Courage, Truth, Purity, 1931 (portrait) ; private 
information.] T. W. Manson. 

CHARRINGTON, FREDERICK 

NICHOLAS (1850-1936), philanthropist 
and temperance reformer, was born in 
London 4 February 1850, the eldest son 
of Frederick Charrington, brewer, by his 
wife, Louisa, daughter of Huxley Griffith, 
of Stepney. After two terms at Marl- 
borough in 1864, he left and a year later 
was sent to Brighton College. On leaving 
school after two years he travelled on the 
continent, and afterwards went into a 
brewery at Windsor with a view to learn- 
ing the details of that trade. A place was 
then found for him in his father's firm 
of Charrington & company, but this he 
soon relinquished, sacrificing the prospect 
of a large fortiuie in order to take up the 
cause of Christianity and temperance in 
the district surrounding the brewery in 
the East End. 

Charrington was at that time (1870) 
aged twenty, and his action created a 
considerable impression. At a meeting of 
the Band of Hope over which he presided 
there was a crowded audience. The early 



170 



D.N.B. 1081-1940 



Chesterton 



meetings of the Tower Hamlets mission 
which he founded were held in a tent. The 
work made great progress. A conference 
hall was built, and later the great assembly 
hall in Mile End Road to hold 4,000 
people. Here every Sunday Charrington 
provided a free tea for 700 hungry men 
and women of the district, and in 1909 
King George V, then Prince of Wales, 
gave the first of an annual series of free 
teas. The lord mayor and sheriffs of London 
on lord mayor's day have contributed to 
this charitable hospitality since 1887. 

Charrington's ardent advocacy of the 
causes which he championed led at times 
to some criticism and opposition from a 
section of the public and the press. But 
the very publicity that ensued brought 
the conditions of life in the poorer quarters 
of London to the notice of many who be- 
came his devoted friends and supporters. 
A man of great muscular strength, he 
never made any attempt to avoid violence 
in the strange quarters which he frequented 
by day and night and from the strange 
characters with whom he had to do. 
Although quite capable of giving as good 
as he got, he was more than once severely 
injured by assaults from his opponents. At 
times it must be admitted that he allowed 
his fervent enthusiasm to carry him to 
fantastic lengths. On 18 May 1915, when 
the House of Commons was discussing the 
report of a select committee on pensions, 
Charrington, wearing evening dress, an 
overcoat, and a silk hat, dashed into the 
House from the members' lobby, seized 
the mace from the Speaker's table, and 
began to protest against the drinking bar 
inside the lobby being used by members. 
He was arrested, but released after two 
hours' detention. 

Charrington was one of the original 
members (1889-1895) of the London 
County Council, a member of the old Mile 
End guardians and vestry, and later of 
the Stepney borough council. He died, 
unmarried, in London 2 January 1936. He 
left his body to the medical school of the 
London Hospital. 

A portrait of Charrington was presented 
to him in 1930 and is now at the Tower 
Hamlets Mission. 

[The Times, 3 January 1936; Guy Thorne 
(C. A. E. R. Gull), The Cfreat Acceptance ; the 
Life Story of F. N. Charrington, 1912.] 

Arthur Cochrane. 

CHELMSFORD, first Viscount (1868- 
1933), viceroy of India. [See Thesiger, 
Frederic John Napier.] 



CHESTERTON, GILBERT KEITH 

(1874-1936), poet, novelist, and critic, was 
born on Campden Hill, London, 29 May 
1874, the elder son of Edward Chesterton, 
head of the well-known Kensington firm 
of auctioneers and estate agents. His 
mother, Marie Louise Grosjean, was of 
French and Scottish blood, and her 
maternal ancestors, the Keiths of Aber- 
deen, gave Chesterton his middle name. 
He was educated at St. Paul's School from 
1887 to 1892. At sixteen he started the 
junior debating club and a magazine 
known as 'The Debater' which contains 
startlingly good work for a boy of that 
age — a boy, moreover, who was almost 
two years behind his contemporaries in 
his school work. The practical side of 
producing and distributing the paper was 
altogether beyond Chesterton's powers 
and was taken care of by one of his most 
intimate friends, later his wife's brother- 
in-law, Lucian Oldershaw. He was al- 
ready the kind of being that he was to 
remain all his life : absent-minded, good- 
natured almost to weakness, yet of a rock- 
like strength in holding and maintaining 
his ideas. Some of those ideas were 
inherited: love of freedom, belief in 
human equality and in all that is gener- 
ally known as liberalism ; others he was 
now slowly acquiring. As he sat at his 
desk, a tall, clumsy, unbrushed, untidy 
scarecrow, drawing all over his blotter 
and his books, his mind was deeply con- 
centrated, not on his lessons, but on the 
deepest problems of reality. Of this 
mental travail he has given some notion 
in Orthodoxy and it is confirmed by his 
note-books and the memories of his 
friends. 

Chesterton's drawings at this time 
showed so much talent that it was decided 
that he should go, not to Oxford, but to 
the Slade School of Art, continuing at the 
same time to study English literature at 
London University. It soon became 
abundantly clear that writing, not draw- 
ing, was his primary talent. But that he 
could and still did draw may be seen from 
his illustrations to Mr. Hilaire Belloc's 
novels: he would often complete the 
sketches for one of these in a couple of 
hours: at all times he would draw and 
paint while he talked or thought. In The 
Coloured Lands, published in 1938 after 
his death, may be seen a fair sample of his 
work at different periods. 

Although Chesterton's headmaster had 
spoken of him to his mother as a genius, 
neither she nor his father dreamed of a 



171 



Chesterton 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



livelihood made by writing alone. Ob- 
viously unfitted for the career of an estate 
agent, he worked for a time in two 
publishing houses and thence moved 
gradually into journalism. This became 
his profession, and in later years when his 
fame was at its height he would claim no 
other title than that of journalist. 

Chesterton in 1899 was working on the 
Speaker with a group of young liberals of 
the same general outlook as his own. His 
friendship with Mr. Belloc had begun, 
and this meant rnuch for his social think- 
ing. He had fallen in love and was 
engaged to Frances, eldest daughter of 
George William Blogg, a London diamond 
merchant. She was an Anglo-Catholic, 
and this meant much for his religious 
thinking. His first published volumes 
were both verse. The Wild Knight, 
financed by his father, won wide acclaim 
as poetry. Greybeards at Play, illustrated 
by the author, was highly successful fool- 
ing. Both were published in 1900. He was 
married in 1901. Public events were 
shaping in a fashion that stimulated at 
once his patriotism and a fierce criticism 
of the country that he loved. The South 
African war came like a flash of lightning 
separating liberal from liberal — Chester- 
ton, for instance, from Mr. Bernard Shaw : 
separating brother from brother — Ches- 
terton, for instance, from his brother 
Cecil : and casting a vivid light on thoughts 
that had not yet been fully outlined even, 
perhaps, to himself. 

Rightly or wrongly, Chesterton thus 
accepted the war and his own possible 
unpopularity as a pro-Boer as a test of 
his social and political views. He hated 
imperialism : he was what has been called 
a 'little Englander': and he wrote The 
Napoleon of Notting Hill (1904) in fantas- 
tic illustration of this thesis, outlining it 
more soberly in his long introductory 
chapter to England a Nation (also 1904), 
a symposium of young liberal thinking 
with the sub-title 'Papers of a Patriots' 
Club', edited by Oldershaw. 

During the period 1900 to 1910 the 
whole of Chesterton's philosophy was 
outlined and illustrated in twenty books 
and innumerable articles. He published 
over one hundred volumes in the course 
of a lifetime, greatly enriching and deepen- 
ing but in no fimdamental altering that 
philosophy. There were vigorous contro- 
versies in the religious field with Robert 
Blatchford and Joseph McCabe, in the 
social field with Mr. Bernard Shaw and 
H. G. Wells ; criticism in the national field 



of Rudyard Kipling and the imperialists 
made of Heretics (1905) a brilliant display 
of fireworks that drew all eyes. He had 
long contributed art criticism to the 
Bookman, and in 1904 he published G. F. 
Watts. In the field of pure letters his 
studies of Robert Browning (1903) and of 
Charles Dickens (1906) won him another 
sort of fame: it seemed that he might 
choose — poet, fantastic novelist, artist and 
art critic, political pamphleteer, essayist, 
sociologist, philosopher, and theologian. 
He chose them all and he chose, too, to 
remain in style and manner a journalist, 
to be careless of his facts and references, 
to avoid solemnity, to laugh at the experts 
and at himself, to puzzle his fellow journa- 
lists alike by his earnestness and his 
frivolity, to prove that 'there is foam on 
deep water'. 

Orthodoccy (1908) was called by Chester- 
ton 'a sort of slovenly autobiography'. It 
was, he said, 'an attempt to utter the 
unutterable things . . . my ultimate 
attitude towards life'. As against the 
various 'prophets' of the period — Ibsen, 
Mr. Shaw, Wells, Kipling, and the rest, each 
of whom was stressing some one element 
or tendency — Chesterton saw the riddle 
of a vast variety in the universe and he 
came to see Christianity as its only 
answer. Christianity made a new balance 
that was also a liberation: it 'made 
moderation out of the still crash of two 
impetuous emotions', 'got over the diffi- 
culty of combining furious opposites by 
keeping them both furious'. It taught 
'terrible ideals and devouring doctrines': 
it managed to make the lion lie down with 
the lamb and yet keep his royal ferocity. 
Orthodoxy was 'a thrilling romance'. It 
was not the philosophy created by one 
man to fit himself, and hence too small 
even to satisfy that self. 'God and 
humanity made it and it made me.' 

Soon after the publication of Orthodoxy 
the Chestertons moved from their little 
flat in Battersea and went to live at 
Beaconsfield where they remained for the 
rest of their lives, at first in a small rented 
house, later in one built to suit their ideal, 
a house with a few small bedrooms and 
one vast living-room where they could 
have parties for young iand old, act 
charades, or show plays in Chesterton's 
favourite toy theatre. He spent much 
time in painting and cutting out figures 
and scenery for this theatre and in making 
drawings for guessing games in the inven- 
tion of which he showed an endless 
fertility. Grieved at having no child of 



172 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Chesterton 



their own the Chestertons surrounded 
themselves with children: nieces and 
nephews, godchildren and young neigh- 
bours. His wife created a lovely garden 
in which Chesterton took a vague pleasure 
and which often appears in the back- 
ground of his stories. He began to write 
about Father Brown, the little priest- 
detective {The Innocence of Father Brown 
was published in 1911). He took his wife 
with him and motored over the King 

I Alfred country planning The Ballad of the 
_ iVhite Horse. He saw his many friends, 
sometimes in London, sometimes at 
Beaconsfleld : he appeared in pageants as 
Dr. Johnson: he grew fatter every year 
and became more and more a figure of 
legend, wearing a large flapping hat and 
an ample cloak, carrying a sword-stick and 
getting lost on every possible and impos- 
sible occasion. Setting out from home to 
give a lecture in some midland town he 
telegraphed to his wife: 'Am in Market 
Harborough. Where ought I to be ? ' 

'Father Brown' was actually Father 
(afterwards Monsignor) O'Connor who, 
despite his Irish name, is a Yorkshireman, 
in whose house part of the White Horse 
was written and who, in long walks over 
the Yorkshire moors, helped Chesterton 
to' thrash out the ideas that beset him. 
Both Father O'Connor and Mr. Belloc 
were deeply concerned with the social 
angle of Christianity's answer to the riddle 
of the universe. And as with Orthodoxy so, 
too, with Chesterton's social philosophy 
the battle against the opposing ideas held 
by Mr. Shaw and others brought Chester- 
ton's own thoughts into clearer focus. In 
1909 he published his brilliant sketch of 
Mr. Shaw. 'I liked it very much,' wrote 
Mr. Shaw, 'especially as it was so com- 
pletely free from my own influence.' This 
book cleared the ground for What 's Wrong 
with the World? (1910) much as Heretics 
and the controversy with Blatchford had 
cleared it for Orthodoxy. 

Starting life as a liberal by inheritance 
Chesterton said in these years: 'as much 
as ever I did, more than ever I did I 
believe in Liberalism. But there was a 
rosy time of innocence when I believed 
in Liberals.' It seemed to him that while 
no medical doctor says: 'we've had too 
much scarlet fever, let's try a little 
measles for a change', that was precisely 
what the sociological 'doctors' were 
saying. Capitalism was a failure: he 
agreed that it was a disease: but when 
they said: 'let's try a little socialism for 
a change', it seemed to him that for lack 



of a clear picture of health one disease was 
being offered as remedy for another. 

In What's Wrong with the World? 
Chesterton suggests some root thought on 
the nature of man, of sex, of the child 
and its education. Historically and of Ixis 
nature man needs the family, for its pro- 
tection the family needs property which 
capitalism destroys no less than socialism. 
'It is the negation of property that the 
Duke of Sutherland should have all the 
farms in one estate: just as it would be 
the negation of marriage if he had all our 
wives In one harem.' Property in its true 
meaning is also a condition for the 
ordinary man's development: 'Property 
is the art of the democracy.' He goes on 
to define 'the functions of father, mother 
and child as such ' and to show the limits 
that a free family would set to the power 
of the State. The book is Chesterton's 
social credo : later on he wrote The Super- 
stition of Divorce (1920), Eugenics and 
Other Evils (1922), The Outline of Sanity 
(1926). These and his essays deepen and 
enrich his social thinking but they add 
nothing in essentials to What 's Wrong with 
the World? 

The Ballad of the White Horse was 
published in 1911 and in 1912 Manalive, 
which is among the best of Chesterton's 
fantastic stories, expressing as it does 
supremely the intense zest which he 
brought to the business of living. The 
Victorian Age in Literature (1913) showed 
liim stUl brilliant in the field of pure 
literature. The same year, goaded by Mr. 
Shaw, he produced a play. Magic, which, 
despite admiring reviews, was a stage 
failure. 

Then came the war of 1914-1918 and 
Chesterton's almost mortal iUness. He 
had been overworking, overeating, and 
drinking — ('absent-mindedly' as a friend 
said, for it was only necessary to fill his 
plate or glass while he talked for him to 
empty it again). Cecil Chesterton had 
stood his trial for a libel action which had 
worried his elder brother more than him- 
self: the war had come as a final blow. ' I 
wonder', the doctor heard him murmur 
as he was lifted into a water bed, 'if this 
bally ship will ever get to shore.' He lay 
for many months unconscious between 
life and death. His wife nursed him 
devotedly and brought him back to full 
life and vigour. 'I am afraid', he wrote 
at once to Mr. Shaw, ' you must reconcile 
yourself to the dismal prospect of my 
being more or less like what I was before ; 
and any resumption of my ordinary habits 



173 



Chesterton 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



must necessarily include the habit of 
disagreeing with you.' 

In 1917 appeared Chesterton's fascinat- 
ing, sketchy, and inaccurate Short History 
of England. It exasperated historians, yet 
'He's got at something we hadn't got' 
wryly confessed a professor of history to 
one of Chesterton's friends. In 1919 came 
Irish Impressions and in 1920 The New 
Jerusalem. These books all mark stages 
in that mental voyage of discovery in 
which Chesterton, historically and in the 
contemporary world, was approaching 
nearer and nearer to the Roman Catholic 
Church. Externally he was at once urged 
forward and held back by the circum- 
stances of his life. Cecil Chesterton had 
with Mr. Belloc some years earlier started 
a newspaper, first (1911) the Eye Witness, 
later (1912) the New Witness, to combat 
corruption in public life and to uphold 
and restore the liberties of the poor against 
a growing bureaucracy. On Cecil's joining 
the army in 1916 Gilbert took over the 
editorship. Cecil died in France in 
December 1918, and his brother continued 
to edit the paper until its termination in 
1923. It was revived under his editorship 
in 1925 as G. K.^s Weekly, which survived 
until 1938. Added to all that he already 
had in hand, this editorship produced a 
chronic condition of overwork. On the 
other hand a journey to Jerusalem gave 
fresh inspiration to his thinking, and 
lecture tours in Holland and the United 
States of America strengthened his aware- 
ness of the Church's universality. All his 
thinking — directly religious, philosophical, 
sociological — brought him to the same 
conclusion, and in 1922 he overcame the 
largely physical problem posed for him 
by overwork, physical lethargy, and the 
habit of depending on his wife for all 
practical decisions. Chesterton was re- 
ceived into the Roman Catholic Church by 
Father O'Connor in July 1922. His wife 
followed him four years later. 

The two best known of the books which 
quickly followed Chesterton's reception 
are St. Francis of Assisi (1923) and The 
Everlasting Man (1925). Of these the 
former is by far the more popular, the 
latter the more important. In Orthodoxy 
Chesterton had traced his own discovery 
of Christianity, in The Everlasting Man he 
traced rather what that discovery, that 
revelation, had meant for mankind as a 
whole. Like Wells writing his Outline of 
History, Chesterton claimed 'the right of 
the amateur to do his best with the facts 
the specialists provide'. Unlike Wells: 'I 



do not believe', says Chesterton, 'that the 
best way to produce an outline of history 
is to rub out the lines.' But his own aim 
was not merely to draw an outline but to 
show something that seemed stale and 
dusty and old as it really was, fresh and 
new everlastingly. He asked men to read 
the Gospels like their daily paper, not 
merely as good but as news. 'I desire to 
help the reader to see Christendom from 
the outside in the sense of seeing it as a 
whole against the background of other 
historic things ; just as I desire him to see 
humanity as a whole against the back- 
ground of natural things. And I say that 
in both cases when seen thus, they stand 
out from their background like super- 
natural things.' 

When The Everlasting Man was pub- 
lished Chesterton had only eleven years to 
live. They were years of little external 
action, of amazing productivity. He 
travelled: to Europe fairly often, to 
America once more (1930-1931) where he 
gave courses at Notre Dame University, 
Indiana, and lectured throughout the 
country and in Canada. He wrote another 
play (The Judgment of Dr. Johnson, 1927), 
essays innumerable, more detective stories, 
more poems (especially The Queen of 
Seven Swords, 1926), literary works, of 
which by far the best was his R. L. 
Stevenson (1927), theology and philosophy, 
books of travel. His St. Thomas Aquinas 
(1933) was called by Etienne Gilson 'the 
best book on St. Thomas that has ever 
been written '. The pages of G. K 's Weekly 
are littered with brilliant matter never 
reprinted, but from them and from his 
scattered papers were gathered post- 
humously (1940) The End of the Armistice 
which cast, like his William Cobbett (1925) 
written during the same period, an almost 
lurid light of prophecy on the horrors that 
have followed. Never did Chesterton give 
in to the 'rather weakminded reaction', 
the mood of pacificism and appeasement 
that followed the war of 1914-1918. 

Added to Chesterton's other activities 
in his last years were several series of 
radio talks for the British Broadcasting 
Corporation. Both his own purely literary 
talks and his contributions to various series 
('The Spice of Life', 'Seven Days Hard') 
were received with rare enthusiasm. In 
these talks and in his writings down to the 
hour of his death an element was present 
that has caused the most fundamental 
disagreement as to Chesterton's character 
and his place in history. A note of youth, 
of high spirits, of fooling, present when he 



174 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Cheyne 



entered letters as a young joiurnalist, was 
as audible in the mature man broadcasting 
his last message to his coimtrj'men 
They may go out with a whimper, 
But I will go out with a bang. 

' Chesterton the Child ' was the supreme 
attribute given to Chesterton by Walter 
de la Mare when the sword of the warrior 
and the pen of the thinker had been laid 
aside. There was nothing childish in 
Chesterton, nothing callow in his youthful 
high spirits. The conception of Chesterton 
as a Peter Pan who never grew up accords 
ill with the books and ideas which led 
philosophers to welcome him as one of 
their own calibre, poets to give him front 
rank among themselves, and men of 
letters to acclaim his Dickens, his Brown- 
ing, and his Stevenson as showing the 
insight of genius. 

Chesterton died at Beaconsfield 14 June 
1936 ; his wife survived him imtil 1938. 

A painting of Chesterton, Maurice Bar- 
ing, and Mr. Hilaire Belloc ( 1932), by James 
Gimn, belongs to Mr. Hugh Balfour, Foss 
House, Pitlochry. There is a plasticine 
medallion, by Theodore Spicer-Simson, in 
the National Portrait Gallery, which also 
owns a bronze bust by Maria Petrie. 

[G. K. Chesterton, Autobiography, 1936; 
Mais'ie Ward, Gilbert Keith Chesterton, 1944; 
personal knowledge.] Maisie Ward. 

CHEYNE, Sir (WH^LIAM) WATSON, 
first baronet (1852-1932), bacteriologist 
and surgeon, was born at sea, off Hobart 
Town, Tasmania, 14 December 1852, the 
only son of Andrew Cheyne, of OUaberry, 
Shetland, captain in the mercantile 
marine, by his wife, Eliza, daughter of 
WiUiam Watson, minister of the united 
parishes of Fetlar and North Yell. He was 
educated at the grammar school and 
King's College, Aberdeen, and at Edin- 
burgh University, where he graduated with 
first class honours in medicine in 1875. He 
went the same year to Vienna, where he 
attended the lectures of A. C. Theodor 
Billroth, Ernest Wilhelm von Brixcke, 
Anton Politzer, Ferdinand R. von Hebra, 
and Siegmund Exner, and the following 
spring spent three months with the great 
pathologist Friedrich Daniel von Reck- 
linghausen at Strasburg. 

Shortly after his return to Edinburgh 
Cheyne became house-surgeon to Joseph 
(afterwards Lord) Lister [q.v.], who in- 
vited him to accompany him to King's 
College Hospital, where Lister had been 
appointed professor of clinical surgery in 
1877. At first, Lister and Cheyne received 



only a cold welcome which, however, 
enabled Cheyne to pursue his study of 
bacteriology, including the translation of 
two German works on bacteriology for the 
New Sydenham Society, namely, Robert 
Koch's Etiology of the Traumatic Infective 
Diseases (1880) and Carl Fliigge's Micro- 
organisms, with Special Reference to the 
Etiology of the Infective Diseases (1890). 
Gradually, however, Cheyne received due 
recognition, and in 1882 he published an 
important work entitled Antiseptic Sur- 
gery: its Principles, Practice, History and 
Results, an enlargement of his thesis for 
the Jacksonian prize, awarded by the 
Royal College of Surgeons in 1881, fol- 
lowed three years later by Lister and his 
Achievements (1885), which formed the 
subject of the first Lister memorial lecture 
delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons 
of England in 1924, when he was awarded 
the Lister medal. In 1880 Cheyne was 
appointed assistant-surgeon at King's 
College Hospital, becoming full surgeon in 
due course, professor of the principles 
and practice of surgery in 1891, and 
professor of clinical surgery in 1902. He 
was Hunterian professor at the Royal 
College of Surgeons from 1888 to 1890. 

On the outbreak of the South African 
war in 1899 Cheyne was appointed civil 
consulting surgeon to the forces and was 
appointed C.B. for his services, and in 
1908 he was created a baronet. When war 
broke out in 1914 he was made consulting 
surgeon to the navy and in 1915 became 
temporary surgeon-general, and was ap- 
pointed K.C.M.G. in 1916. He retired 
from active practice at the end of the war. 

The importance of Cheyne's work lies 
in the fact that not only was he a pioneer 
in antiseptic surgery and was one of 
Lister's most active followers, but he also 
emphasized the value of preventive medi- 
cine in clinical practice. When Cheyne 
began his bacteriological investigations at 
Edinburgh 'there was no staining of 
bacteria, no oil immersion lenses, no solid 
cultivating media, no proper incubators — 
in fact, everything was in its infancy'. 

In 1917 Cheyne was elected member of 
parliament for the universities of Edin- 
burgh and St. Andrews and from 1918 to 
1922 he was a member for the combined 
Scottish Universities. In 1919 he was 
gazetted lord-lieutenant of Orkney and 
Shetland, an office from which he resigned 
in 1930. He was elected in 1879 a fellow 
of the Royal College of Surgeons, was 
president from 1914 to 1916, and Hun- 
terian orator in 1915. In 1894 he was 



175 



Cheyne 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



elected F.R.S. He received honorary 
degrees from the universities of Oxford, 
Edinburgh, and Birmingham. 

Cheyne was twice married : first, in 1887 
to Mary Emma (died 1894), daughter of 
the Rev. William Servante, of Plumstead, 
Kent, and had two sons and one daughter, 
who died in infancy ; secondly, in 1894 to 
Margaret (died 1922), daughter of George 
Smith, of Lerwick, Shetland, and had one 
son and two daughters, all of whom pre- 
deceased him. He retired in 1922 to 
Fetlar where he died after a prolonged 
illness 19 April 1932, and was succeeded 
as second baronet by his eldest son, 
Joseph Lister Cheyne, M.C. (born 1888), 
colonel, 16th Lancers. 

[The Times, 20 April 1932 ; Obituary Notices 
of Fellows of the RoyallSociety, No. 1, December 
1932 (portrait) ; British Medical Journal, 1932, 
vol. i, p. 821 (portrait); Lancet, 1932, vol. i, 

p. 963.] J. D. ROLLESTON. 

CHILDS, WILLIAM MACBRIDE 

(1869-1939), educationist, was born at 
Carrington, near Boston, Lincolnshire, 
3 January 1869, the second son of William 
Linington Childs, vicar of Carrington and 
Frith Ville, who in 1879 became vicar of 
St. George's church, Portsea, by his wife, 
Henrietta Fowles Bell. He was educated 
at Portsmouth Grammar School and at 
Keble College, Oxford, of which he was a 
scholar; he obtained a second class in 
modern history in 1891. In 1892 he be- 
came assistant private secretary to (Sir) 
A. H. D. Acland [q.v.], but a career in 
official service did not attract him, and, 
in 1893, he accepted a lecturership in 
history at a college in Reading which had 
recently been opened at the instance of 
Christ Church, Oxford, as a centre for 
education of the university extension 
pattern. Within a few years Childs had 
become convinced that this college (which 
in 1902 received the title of University 
College, Reading) would offer a field for 
the work of his whole life. In 1897 he 
married Emma Catharine, daughter of 
Alfred Whiting Pollard ; he fixed his home 
in Reading, and he neither sought nor 
accepted employment elsewhere. In 1903, 
on the resignation of (Sir) Halford John 
Mackinder, the first principal of the college, 
Childs, who had become vice-principal in 
1900, succeeded him, and thenceforward 
until his retirement he devoted himself 
unreservedly to its interests. 

It was Childs's achievement to inspire 
and direct the efforts which in little more 
than twenty years converted the obscure 



college of 1903 into an independent 
university. No one could have reached 
this end without many helpers, and Childs 
was remarkably successful in bringing 
together a group of persons who, like 
himself, believed in the future of the 
college. But the initiative in its develop- 
ment was always with him, and its ex- 
pansion was made possible by his personal 
qualities. It was his obvious sincerity 
which won him the support of those whose 
aid he needed. His advocacy was made 
more effective by his conviction that a 
college which aimed at the character of a 
university must establish an ordered form 
of common life for its students. A series of 
halls of residence was an integral part 
of the college which he was planning, and 
few events in his career gave him greater 
satisfaction than the opening, in 1908, 
of Wantage Hall, a foundation for men 
students of the type traditional in the 
older English universities. 

By the end of 1911 Childs had obtained 
an endowment which made possible the 
ultimate independence of the college. 
Progress was delayed by the war of 191 4- 
1918 and the necessary work of recon- 
struction, but the end was reached in 1926, 
and Childs became the first vice-chancellor 
of the new university of Reading. In 1929, 
feeling that the main object of his work 
had been secured, he retired from office. 
He died at Hermitage, near Newbury, 21 
June 1939, survived by his wife and their 
four sons. He received honorary degrees 
from the universities of Liverpool (1928), 
Oxford (1929), and Reading (1935). 

There are two portraits of Childs, one 
by Morley Fletcher, the other by Eric 
Kennington, in the university of Reading. 

[W. M. Childs, Making a University, 1933 ; 
personal knowledge.] F. M. Stenton. 

CHOLMONDELEY, HUGH, third 
Baron Delamere (1870-1931), pioneer 
settler in Kenya, was born in London, 28 
April 1870, the only son of Hugh Chol- 
mondeley, second Baron Delamere, by 
his second wife, Augusta Emily, eldest 
daughter of Sir George Hamilton Seymour 
[q.v.]. Educated at Eton, he inherited the 
title with the estate of Vale Royal, Cheshire, 
at the age of seventeen. Pie served for a 
time in the 3rd battalion, The Cheshire 
Regiment, and in the Cheshire Yeomanry. 
As a young man he organized five expedi- 
tions to Somaliland in pursuit of big game ; 
the fifth took him from Berbera into the 
unsettled desert region through which the 
Kenya- Abyssinia border now runs. He 



«i 



176 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Cholmondeley 



reached the highlands of what is now 
Kenya Colony in 1897, the first English- 
man to traverse this route. 

Delamere could not settle down to the 
life of a country gentleman at Vale Royal, 
and in January 1903 he returned to the 
East Africa Protectorate and decided to 
take up land. The highlands were still 
wild and partly uninhabited, but the 
newly built Uganda railway connected 
Lake Victoria with the coast. 

The commissioner, Sir Charles Eliot 
[q.v.], was then embarking on a policy of 
attracting white settlers. Delamere re- 
ceived a ninety-nine-years' lease on 100,000 
acres in the Njoro district, and immedi- 
ately set about importing rams from 
England and New Zealand in order to 
improve the native sheep. At this time 
he was suffering from severe injuries to 
the spine as a result of several bad falls 
and arrived at his new estate on a stretcher. 
When the land proved unsuitable for 
sheep he turned to cattle and finally, after 
these too had died, to wheat, on which he 
inaugurated East African research into 
the breeding of rust-resistant varieties. 
Although not the first settler in East 
Africa, he was the first to experiment on 
a large scale and to sink considerable 
capital (mostly borrowed, for he was never 
well off) in these untried farming lands. 

Delamere's fiery and autocratic temper, 
his quickness in debate, his generosity, 
and his passionate belief in the civilizing 
mission of white settlement in Africa 
fitted him for leadership of the settlers in 
their frequent tussles with colonial officials 
and their attacks on bureaucratic restric- 
tions and delays. He was elected the first 
president of the Farmers' and Planters' 
Association in 1903 (which became the 
Colonists' Association in 1904), and was 
one of two unofficial members nominated 
to the first legislative council in 1907. 
During the war of 1914-1918 he was at 
first employed on intelligence work among 
the Masai along the German border. The 
strenuous life and severe malaria did his 
heart an injury which was ultimately to 
cause his death, and he was forced to give 
up active service. After six months in 
England he returned to his ranch, Soy- 
sambu, on which he had been able to 
realize his ambition of breeding, on a 
large scale, high-grade merino sheep. 

After the war the European community 
was enfranchised and Delamere was 
elected member for the Rift Valley in 1920. 
He held this position until his death and 
became, in addition, leader of the elected 



members, and one of two unofficial mem- 
bers of the governor's executive council. 
In 1923 he headed a deputation to the 
Colonial Office to resist proposals to 
enfranchise Indians on a common roll with 
Europeans and to allow their unrestricted 
immigration. 

Delamere's guiding faith was his belief 
in the need for strong and permanent 
settlements of British famihes in the 
highlands of Africa. After the conquest of 
' German East ' he hoped to see this policy 
extended to Tanganyika Territory, and a 
chain of European settlements forged from 
Kenya to the Cape. He envisaged the 
eventual creation of an East African 
Dominion, working towards the goal of 
self-government already reached by the 
white communities of South Africa and 
Southern Rhodesia, and he persistently 
pressed for the grant of an unofficial 
majority in the Kenya legislative council. 
In 1925 he organized, at his own expense, 
an imofficial conference of delegates from 
Kenya, Tanganyika, Northern Rhodesia, 
and Nyasaland, held at Tukuyu (southern 
Tanganyika) , to promote the 'solidification 
of the white ideal '. Two other conferences 
followed, in Livingstone and Nairobi, in 
1926 and 1927. The economic crisis, 
however, put an end to these and other 
projects for the strengthening of white 
settlement in Tanganyika and the Central 
African territories. In 1929 Delamere was 
appointed K.C.M.G. for his public services. 

By now the British government had 
veered from a belief that 'the main object 
of our policy and legislation should be to 
found a white colony' (1920), to a declara- 
tion that 'primarily, Kenya is an African 
territory, and . . . the interests of the 
African natives must be paramount' 
(1923). With this latter statement Dela- 
mere could never agree, and in 1930 he 
headed his last deputation to London to 
put forward the colonists' point of view 
to the labour government. By this time 
he was a sick man, and on his return to 
Kenya the strain of reorganizing his 
heavily indebted farms to meet the 
catastrophic fall in prices, superimposed 
on exacting political duties, proved too 
much for a system which he had never 
spared. He died of angina at Loresho, 
near Nairobi, 13 November 1931, and was 
buried on his estate at Soysambu, near 
Lake Elmenteita. 

Delamere was twice married: first, in 
1899 to Florence Ame (died 1914), fourth 
daughter of Lowry Egerton Cole, fourth 
Earl of Enniskillen, and had one son; 



177 



Cholmondeley 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



secondly, in 1928 to Gwladys Helen (died 
1943), daughter of Rupert Evelyn Beckett, 
formerly wife of Sir Charles Markham, 
second baronet. He was succeeded as 
fourth baron by his son, Thomas Pitt 
Hamilton (born 1900). 

A portrait of Delamere by F. R. Copnall, 
hangs in the chamber of the Legislative 
Council, Nairobi. A statue, by Lady 
Kennet, stands at the j miction of Dela- 
mere Avenue and Government Road, Nai- 
robi. 

[The Times, 14 November 1931; Elspeth 
Huxley, White Man's Country: Lord Delamere 
and the Making of Kenya, 2 vols., 1935; 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 
Elspeth Huxley. 

CLARK, ALBERT CURTIS (1859- 
1937), classical scholar, born at Salisbury 
21 February 1859, was the eldest son of 
Albert Charles Clark, writing-master at 
Haileybury College, by his wife, Ellen 
Curtis. He was educated at Hertford 
Grammar School and Haileybury College, 
and afterwards at Balliol College, Oxford, 
of which he was an exhibitioner. After a 
brilliant undergraduate career, during 
which he gained first classes in classical 
moderations (1879) and literae humani- 
ores (1881), the Ireland (1879) and the 
Craven (1882) scholarships, Clark was 
elected (1882) to a classical fellowship at 
Queen's College, where, first as lecturer 
(1882-1887), and then as tutor (1887- 
1913), he not only proved himself a 
teacher and lecturer of exceptional ability, 
but won a world-wide reputation by the 
distinction and originality of his work 
upon the text of Cicero's orations. 

In 1895 Clark produced a full-scale 
edition of the Pro Milone (with English 
notes), which was followed by four 
volumes containing the text of the follow- 
ing speeches: Pro Milone, Caesarianae, 
Philippicae (1900); Pro Sex. Roscio, de 
imperio Cn. Pompei, pro Cluentio, in Cati- 
linam, pro Murena, pro Caelio (1905) ; Pro 
Quinciio, pro Roscio Comoedo,pro Caecina, 
de lege agraria, pro C. Rabirio, pro Flacco, 
in Pisonem, pro Rabirio Postumo (1909) ; 
Pro Tullio, pro Fonteio, pro Sulla, pro Ar- 
chie, pro Plancio, pro Scauro (1911). To 
these must be added his edition of Asconius 
(1907). These volumes reveal scholarship, 
learning, and industry of the highest 
quality. Clark made a thorough collation 
and classification of the manuscripts, and 
threw new light upon their history and 
value in his Collations from the Harleian 
MS. of Cicero 2682 (1891), The Vetus 



Cluniacensis of Poggio (1905), and the 
Inventa Italorum (1909). Of these The 
Vetus Cluniacensis is his chef d^ceuvre, a 
masterpiece of erudition, detective ability, 
and constructive power. 

Clark had in 1909 been appointed 
university reader in Latin, a deserved 
tribute to the distinction of his work, and 
when in 1913 the Corpus Christi professor- 
ship of Latin fell vacant, his claim to the 
succession was universally acknowledged. 
Three minor works of considerable interest 
belong to the period of his readership : the 
Pontes Prosae Numerosae (1909), a collec- 
tion of ancient evidences for Latin prose 
rhythms; The Cursus in Mediaeval and 
Vulgar Latin (1910), a fascinating study 
showing that the rhythms of classical 
oratory were preserved in medieval Latin, 
with this difference that, whereas the 
classical rhythm was based on quantity, 
the medieval was based on stress accent ; 
and Prose Rhythm in English (1913) where- 
in he sought to relate the Latin rhythms 
with those of English. 

The works published by Clark during 
his tenure of the chair, despite thei 
erudition and ingenuity, are on tl 
whole less convincing. They are largely 
concerned with the application of sticho- 
metry to textual problems presented by 
the Greek Testament, a field in which he 
moved with less security, while his in- 
terest in this method had become almost 
an obsession. In his Primitive Text of the 
Gospels and Acts (1914) he employed it to 
explain the difference between the two 
main families of manuscripts, contending 
that the longer text of the Codex Bezae 
and its kindred represented the primitive 
form, and that the shorter version given 
by the Codices Sinaiticus and Vaticanus 
was due to line-omissions. To this scheme 
Clark returned in the elaborate edition of 
The Acts of the Apostles published in 1933 ; 
there, however, he laid less emphasis on 
stichometric principles and held that the 
shorter version of the Acts was largely due 
to deliberate revision. He also sought to 
show that the Codex Bezae came not from 
the West but from Egypt, and that the 
author of the Acts was not the author of 
St. Luke's Gospel. Between the publica- 
tion of these two works Clark had returned 
to his first love in a learned and valuable 
work. The Descent of Manuscripts (1918), 
illustrated in the main from the text of 
Cicero, but extending its survey to the 
manuscripts of Plato and Demosthenes. 
Here again the importance of stichometry 
is perhaps overstressed. 



178 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Clarke, E. G. 



In 1934 ill health and failing sight led 
Clark to resign his chair: he retired to 
London where he died, unmarried, 5 
February 1937. He received honorary 
degrees from the universities of Durham, 
Dublin, Manchester, and Oxford, and was 
elected an honorary fellow of his three 
colleges (Balliol, Queen's, and Corpus 
Christi) and a fellow of the British 
Academy (1916). But he was something 
more than a great scholar: he was a 
delightful human being who could carry 
his learning lightly, the best of company, 
full of humour and of wit, a perfect 
raconteur; above all, he was courteous, 
warm-hearted, and kindly, ready with his 
help and counsel for all who sought it. As 
a scholar he won admiration ; as a man, 
affection and regard. 

[The Times, 6 February 1937 ; Cyril Bailey, 
Albert Curtis Clark, 1859-1937 in Proceed- 
ings of the British Academy, vol. xxiii, 
1987; personal knowledge.] 

H. E. Butler. 

CLARKE, Sir EDWARD GEORGE 

(1841-1931), lawyer and politician, was 

the eldest son and third of the six children 

of Job Grey Clarke, by his wife, Frances, 

daughter of Henry George, of Bath. His 

fath^, who came from Axbridge in 

Somersetshire, kept a small silversmith's 

shop in King William Street in the City of 

London, in the rooms over which he lived 

with his family, and there Clarke was born 

15 February 1841. At the age of ten he 

was sent for two years as a boarder to 

College House, Edmonton, where his 

bealth, previously delicate, was set up for 

life. In December 1854 he was taken from 

he City Commercial School in Lombard 

treet, where he had spent another two 

ears, to assist his father in the shop : and 

e remained in that uncongenial occupa- 

ion until nearly the end of 1858. In 

February 1859 he took up a clerkship in 

the India Office, which had been recently 

jstablished on the dissolution of the old 

East India Company. He obtained the 

jlerkship by examination. There were 400 

sandidates and Clarke was placed seventh 

>n the list, a very remarkable achievement 

!onsidering how scanty had been his 

►pportunities for education. He had, how- 

!ver, made the most of those opportimities. 

Vhen serving in the shop he spent any 

pare time in reading and, after the shop 

iras closed, he attended evening classes 

egularly, becoming, in 1858, the first 

ssociate in arts of the university of 

)xford. Moreover, he was gifted with a 



very retentive memory and his industry 
never flagged. 

Clarke found that the life of a clerk in 
a government office was as little to his 
liking as that of a shop assistant. In 1860 
he happened to hear the aged Lord Lynd- 
hurst make one of his last speeches in the 
House of Lords and was fired with ambi- 
tion to be called to the bar and to make 
such a career for himself. Accordingly, 
when, later that same year, the govern- 
ment, desiring to reduce the clerical staff 
at the India Office, offered compensation 
to clerks who were willing to resign, Clarke 
sent in his resignation and received £253 
by way of compensation. It was an act of 
great courage and self-confidence — quali- 
ties which Clarke displayed throughout 
his life — ^to give up an assured competence 
for the hazards of a career at the bar, more 
especially since several years would neces- 
sarily elapse before he could be called and 
begin to earn an income at that profession. 
During those years he supported himself 
by reporting law cases and parliamentary 
debates and by writing literary reviews: 
but in addition to those sources of income 
he obtained, in 1861, one of the Tancred 
studentships at Lincoln's Inn which pro- 
vided him with an income of £95 for six 
years. In June 1861 he was admitted as 
a student of Lincoln's Inn : in November 
1864 he was called to the bar : and in 1880 
he took silk. He became a bencher of his 
Inn in 1892 and was treasurer in 1906. 
From the time when he became a Q.C. he 
was beyond all question one of the most 
eminent, if not the most eminent, of the 
leaders of the Common Law bar. He was 
an admirable forensic orator in jury cases, 
and for many years he was engaged on 
one side or the other in most of the 
important cases on the Common Law side 
of the High Court. 

From the time when he quitted the 
India Office Clarke took an active interest 
in politics. He was a strong conservative 
and an enthusiastic admirer of Lord 
Beaconsfield. In February 1880 he stood 
as the conservative candidate at a by- 
election for the borough of Southwark and 
won a notable victory over his liberal 
opponent. He was defeated at the general 
election which took place in April of that 
year ; but he was elected at a by-election 
for Plymouth in July, and for the next 
twenty years he represented that consti- 
tuency in the House of Conunons. 

While making a name for himself at the 
bar Clarke worked hard for the conserva- 
tive cause both in parliament and in the 



170 



Clarke, E. G. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



country and when, in the summer of 1885, 
Lord SaHsbury formed his first administra- 
tion, Clarke had reasonable grounds for 
thinking that he might be appointed one 
of the law officers. His claims were, how- 
ever, disregarded. Richard Webster, sub- 
sequently Viscoimt Alverstone and lord 
chief justice of England [q.v.], who was 
not then and had never been a member of 
parliament, was appointed attorney- 
general. On hearing a rumour that Web- 
ster would be appointed attorney -general 
Clarke actually wrote to Lord Salisbury 
that it wotdd be a mistake to make such 
an appointment and at the same time with 
characteristic frankness he sent a copy of 
the letter to Webster himself. In the 
following year, when Lord Sahsbury, after 
the defeat of Gladstone's first home rule 
bill, was again called upon to form a 
government, Clarke's claims were recog- 
nized and he was appointed solicitor- 
general, an office which he continued to 
hold until 1892 when the government 
resigned and Gladstone formed his last 
administration. The position which Clarke 
had by that time attained in the House 
of Commons, where eminent barristers 
are often apt to fail, is shown by the 
fact that he was chosen to answer the 
speech of Gladstone when he introduced 
his second home rule bill in February 
1893. " 

The general election of 1895 gave the 
unionist party a clear majority over 
the combined forces of the liberals and the 
Irish nationalists and Lord Salisbury be- 
came prime minister for the third time. 
He invited Clarke to resume the office of 
solicitor-general subject, however, to the 
condition, which Webster as attorney- 
general had accepted, that he would not 
take any private practice so long as he 
held the office. Clarke refused the office on 
that condition. Two years later Lord 
Salisbury offered Clarke the important 
judicial office of master of the Rolls, but 
Clarke declined that office also, because it 
would have precluded him from taking 
any part in politics. During the parlia- 
ment which sat from 1895 to 1900 Clarke, 
although sitting as a private member on 
the government side of the House, seems 
to have developed a cross-bench mind. He 
criticized the conduct of the Foreign 
Office in the matter of the Venezuelan 
boundary dispute ; he crossed swords with 
the chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir 
Michael Hicks Beach [q.v.], on the subject 
of Irish taxation ; and he denounced the 
conduct of the colonial secretary, Joseph 



Chamberlain [q.v.], with regard to the 
Boer Republics. He even went so far as to 
suggest that Lord Salisbury should himself 
take over from Chamberlain the manage- 
ment of South African affairs. His 
speeches on these subjects — for Clarke 
considered it his duty to express his 
opinions publicly — were very displeasing 
to many of his supporters in Plymouth. 
He was asked in 1900 to resign his seat, 
and thereupon did so. 

At the general election of 1906 Clarke 
was elected as the senior member for the 
City of London ; but in May he resigned 
his seat ostensibly on the ground that his 
health was no longer good enough for both 
his work at the bar and his parliamentary 
duties. Thus at the age of sixty-five he 
abandoned the political ambition which 
he had formed when he was a clerk at the 
India Office. He continued in practice at 
the bar until 1914, retiring nearly fifty 
years after the date of his call. The posi- 
tion which he had attained in the profession 
is marked by the fact that in 1908 he was 
sworn of the Privy Council, and that on 
his retirement the bench and bar gave 
him a dinner in Lincoln's Inn hall, at 
which the prime minister, H. H. Asquith, 
presided. 

Clarke was a staunch supporter of the 
Church of England, and in 1894 had 
built at his sole expense a church beside 
the river at Staines, dedicated in honour 
of St. Peter, and on his retirement from 
the bar he lived at a house called Peter- 
house which he had built adjacent to the 
church. There he died 26 April 1931 in 
his ninety-first year. On the following day 
there appeared in The Times newspaper 
a long obituary notice which he had 
himself written and sent to The Times 
eighteen years before with a covering 
letter expressing the remarkable opinion 
that an obituary notice of a man who 
has reached old age should be written by 
himself. 

Clarke was twice married: first, in 1866 
to Ann (died 1881), eldest daughter of 
George Mitchell, builder, of Camberwell; 
secondly, in 1882 to Kathleen Mathilda, 
daughter of Augustus William Bryant. By 
his first wife he had one son and three 
daughters, the eldest of whom died in 
infancy and the second as a child . By his 
second wife he had two sons, the younger 
of whom died at birth. 

A portrait of Clarke, painted by S. J. 
Solomon and presented to him by the bar 
of England, was given by him to the 
Royal Courts of Justice and hangs there. 



180 



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Clarke, G. S. 



Cartoons by 'Spy' appeared in Vanity 
Fair 13 March 1880 and 11 June 1903. 

[The Times, 27 AprU 1931; D. Walker- 
Smith and E. Clarke, The Life of Sir Edward 
Clarke. 1939; Sir Edward Clarke, The Story 
of My Life, 1918, and Selected Speeches, with 
Introductory Notes, 1908.] 

Malcolm M. Macnaghten. 



CLARKE, GEORGE SYDENHAM, 
Baron Sydenham of Combk (1848-1933), 
administrator, was born at Swinderby, 
Lincolnshire, 4 July 1848, the eldest of 
the five sons of Walter John Clarke, vicar 
of Swinderby, later of Knoyle House, 
Folkestone, by his wife, Maria Frances, 
daughter of Joseph Mayor, rector of South 
Collinghani, Nottinghamshire. His mother 
was a first cousin of J. E. B. Mayor [q.v.]. 
After being sent successively to Repton, 
Rossall, Haileybury, and finally Wim- 
bledon, he passed both first into and 
first out of the Royal Military Academy, 
being gazetted to the Royal Engineers 
in 1868. In 1871 he was appointed lec- 
turer on practical geometry and engineer 
drawing at the newly established Royal 
Indian Engineering College at Coopers 
tlill, near Staines, where he remained until 
1880. 

Although he took part in the Egyptian 
J3q)edition of 1882 and the eastern Sudan 
»mpaign of 1885, Clarke saw little active 
•ervice, and his promotion was slow, for 
he military authorities of those days had 
ittle regard for scientific young officers 
dth progressive views. In other quarters, 
lowever, his gifts were fully appreciated, 
md he was given nimnerous missions 
kbroad for investigating and reporting on 
echnical questions, in one of which the 

fectness of his judgement was after- 
is to be startlingly proved when 
oured cupolas, on which at Bucharest 
liad reported unfavourably in 1885, 
ipsed before the German guns at Liege 
-ix,^ Namur in 1914. As an alternative he 
dvocated earthwork defences such as had 
one good service for the Turks at Plevna, 
nd his views carried great weight with 
tie Colonial Defence Committee to which 
e was secretary from 1885 to 1892. As 
scretary to the royal commission on navy 
nd army administration (1888-1890), he 
ecame an earnest advocate of closer ties 
etween the mother-country and its over- 
:as possessions in matters naval and 
lilitary, as well as between the navy and 
le army. It was indeed to Clarke's room 
i the Horse Guards that for the first time 
naval officer was brought from the 



Admiralty for joint discussion of imperial 
strategy. Moreover, during his seven years 
(1894—1901) as superintendent of the royal 
carriage department at Woolwich Arsenal, 
he had realized sooner than anyone else 
what a strain a war, such as the South 
African, would put upon the resources of 
the Empire in the production of war 
material ; and when during that war the 
need was recognized for reorganizing the 
War Office, Clarke was made in 1900 a 
member of the committee entrusted with 
the preparation of a scheme of reform, and 
in 1903 he was summoned home to serve, 
with Lord Esher and Lord Fisher [qq.v.], 
on the War Office reconstitution commit- 
tee set up by the conservative government. 
This committee [see Brett, Reginald, 
Viscount Esher] reported within two 
months, in March 1904, recommending the 
establishment of a general staff, later 
known as the Army Council, and this led 
on eventixally to the Imperial General 
Staff and the Haldane reforms. The report 
was immediately adopted and Clarke was 
appointed to the Committee for Imperial 
Defence. 

As early as 1901 Clarke had interrupted 
his labours on military organization by 
accepting the office of governor of Victoria. 
At Melbourne he made himself popular 
and respected by all, but the constitutional 
checks imposed by his position on a 
masterful spirit might have led to early 
retirement but for his summons home in 
1903. In 1907, however, on the recom- 
mendation of Campbell-Bannerman, he 
was appointed governor of Bombay, and 
this ushered in the period of his life in 
which he received most fame and obloquy. 

Clarke was a lifelong liberal, and, as 
often happens to men of that temper, his 
views came to be identified at the end of 
his life with hide-bound toryism. Given 
co-operation with Indians, he expected to 
do much to advance the political life of 
India, but he was soon disillusioned. His 
appeals for co-operation, which caused 
him to be looked upon as 'dangerously 
pro-native', fell upon deaf ears, and 
believing as a liberal that it was his para- 
mount duty to maintain law and order 
wdthout distinction of race or colour or 
creed, he formed the deepest suspicion of 
the motives of the Indian political leaders 
and of the result to the unvocal millions 
of the races of India if democratic institu- 
tions were introduced. When therefore 
Tilak, the popular Brahman leader, ad- 
vocated the use of the bomb, Clarke had 
him prosecuted, but on his conviction, 



181 



Clarke, G. S. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



commuted his transportation to imprison- 
ment at Mandalay. The prosecution was 
regarded, even by Morley, no behever in 
popular government for India, as unwise ; 
nevertheless, when he resigned in 1913, 
Clarke left India as one who had brought 
great improvements, moral and material, 
to Bombay, who had paved the way for 
the construction of the great Sukkur 
barrage, and who left a memory of a 
'great, fearless, and upright' governor 
whom Indians would visit in his retire- 
ment in Kent and ask for his advice in 
their political problems. He was raised to 
the peerage on his retirement as Baron 
Sydenham of Combe, of Dulverton, 
Somerset. 

It was a profound disappointment to 
Sydenham that his services were not 
called upon by the government in the war 
with Germany in 1914, but he had been 
appointed in 1913 chairman of a royal 
commission on venereal diseases, the duties 
of which he carried out most judiciously. 
Other notable services which he rendered 
were as chairman (1915-1916) of the 
central tribunal hearing appeals from local 
committees administering the National 
Service Act, and as a member (1918) of 
Lord Bryce's conference on the second 
chamber. After the war he became more 
and more mistrustful of the opinions 
apparently dominant, and both in ample 
writings and in speeches in the House of 
Lords he made it no secret that he regarded 
the future of the Empire and of civilization 
with the deepest pessimism. He died in 
London 7 February 1933. 

Sydenham was twice married: first, in 
1871 to Caroline Emily (died 1908), eldest 
daughter of General Peregrine Henry 
Fellowes, and had one daughter, who pre- 
deceased her father ; secondly, in 1910 to 
Phyllis Angelina Rosamond, youngest 
daughter of George Morant, Grenadier 
Guards, resident at Shirley House, Carrick- 
macross, co. Monaghan, and widow of 
Captain Arthur Reynolds, East Surrey 
Regiment. There were no other children 
and the title became extinct. He was 
appomted C.M.G. (1887), K.C.M.G. (1893), 
G.C.M.G. (1905), G.C.I.E. (1907), G.C.S.I. 
(1911), and G.B.E. (1917). He was elected 
F.R.S. in 1896. 

A portrait of Sydenham by a Hvmgarian 
artist. Miss Schulz, is in the possession of 
his widow. 

[The Times, 8, 9, 11, and 15 February 1933 ; 
Lord Sydenham, My Working Life, 1927, and 
Studies of an Imperialist, 1928.] 

Alfred Cochrane. 



CLARKE, MAUDE VIOLET (1892- 
1935), historian, was bom in Belfast 7 May 
1892. In 1903 her father, Richard James 
Clarke, rector of Trinity church, Belfast, 
later archdeacon of Connor, accepted the 
living of Carnmoney on the outskirts of 
the city, and here, in an atmosphere of 
religion and scholarship, Maude, the 
second child and only daughter, and her 
three brothers grew up. Her mother was 
Anne Nugent, daughter of John Thomas 
Jessop, J.P., of Mount Jessop, CO. Longford. 

After being educated at a school in 
Belfast and later at Alexandra School and 
College, Dublin, Miss Clarke graduated 
with a first class in history at the univer- 
sity of Belfast. She then went with a 
scholarship to Lady Margaret Hall, 
Oxford, where she was awarded a first 
class in modern history in 1915. The three 
years from 1916 to 1919 were spent in 
Belfast, deputizing for the professor of 
modern history, (Sir) Frederick Maurice 
Powicke, and in the last-named year she 
returned to Oxford as history tutor of 
Somerville College. The rest of her life was 
divided between Coole Glebe (the rectory 
house of Carnmoney) and Somerville 
College, of which she became a fellow in 
1922 and vice-principal in 1933. With a 
witty Irish tongue masking a deeply 
religious nature, and an iron mil, she made 
an indelible impression upon her pupils 
and contemporaries, living a free social 
life and extending open hospitality to a 
wide circle of friends. She lived, in fact, 
at full pressure in these years, making for 
herself a many-sided reputation as a 
college tutor and administrator, as a uni- 
versity lecturer (1930), and, not least, 
as a scholar. A fine future seemed to lie 
ahead when, in 1933, she was smitten 
with cancer, and she died at Carnmoney 
17 November 1935, working almost to 
the last after a stoical resistance to the 
disease. 

Although the best was stUl to come — 
a projected history of fourteenth-century 
England — Miss Clarke had achieved at her 
death an established reputation by a 
number of articles of which 'The Origin 
of Impeachment' (1934) and a brilliant 
paper on the Wilton Diptych (1931), now 
in the National Gallery, are outstanding. 
An elaborate study of the Modus tenendi 
parliamentum was also finished just before 
her death and published posthumously 
(1936) under the title of Medieval Repre- 
sentation and Consent. Equally sure in its 
treatment of both the English and the 
Irish material, the book is an important 



182 



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lii 



D.N.B, 1931-1940 



Clerk 



contribution to the history of parliament 
at a critical phase in its development. A 
collection of her papers was published as 
Fourteenth Century Studies (edited by 
L. S. Sutherland and M. McKisack, 1937). 
Although Avritten for the scholar these 
articles are uniformly stimulating and at 
times provoking. With their great learn- 
ing lightly borne, close reasoning, and 
clear cut conclusions they are eminently 
original, and even the unproved hypo- 
thesis will be found to have thrown light 
on the problem. 

A distinguished personality and a tire- 
less worker. Miss Clarke advanced know- 
ledge by her own work and through that 
of her pupils. Her premature death was 
incontestably a loss, not easily measured, 
to later medieval studies in England. 

[The Times, 18 November 1935 ; Memoir by 
E. L. Woodward prefixed to M. V. Clarke, 
Fourteenth Century Studies, 1937 (portrait); 
personal knowledge.] V. H. Galbraith. 

CLERK, Sir DUGALD (1854^1932), 
mechanical engineer, was born at Glasgow 
81 March 1854, the eldest son of Donald 
Clerk, machinist, of Glasgow, by his wife, 
Martha Symington, second daughter of 
John- Brown, of Glasgow. He was about 
fifteen years old when he began his train- 
ing in the drawing office of Messrs. H. O. 
Robinson & company, of Glasgow, and 
in his father's works, also attending classes 
at the West of Scotland Technical College ; 
nd from 1871 to 1876 he studied at 
Anderson's College, Glasgow, and the 
Jforkshire College of Science, Leeds, under 
ihe chemist (Sir) T. E. Thorpe [q.v.], who 
nade him one of his assistants and set 
lim to work on the fractionation of 
jetroleum oils, an exercise which proved 
>f great value to him in his subsequent 
nvestigations. He had intended to be- 
some a chemical engineer, but his attention 
vas drawn to the gas engine by seeing one 
►f the Lenoir type at work in a joiner's 
hop in Glasgow, and it, with other forms 
f the internal-combustion engine, became 
he leading interest of his life. 

After his return to Glasgow from Leeds 
Ilerk was for a short time assistant to 
1. J. Mills, the Young professor of techni- 
al chemistry at the Royal Technical 
bllege; he then devoted himself to re- 
;arch on the theory and design of the gas 
ngine with the Glasgow firm of Messrs. 
liomson, Sterne & company from 1877 
1885 and with Messrs. Tangyes, of 
irmingham, from 1886 to 1888. In the 
itter year he joined his friend (Sir) 



George Croydon (later Lord) Marks in the 
firm of Messrs. Marks and Clerk, consulting 
engineers and patent agents ; this partner- 
ship lasted for the rest of his life. From 
1892 to 1899 he was engineering director 
of Messrs. Kynoch, of Birmingham, for 
whom he designed machinery for the 
manufacture of ammunition, and from 
1902 he was a director and from 1929 until 
his death chairman of the National Gas 
Engine Company, of Ashton-under-Lyne. 

Clerk began his work on the gas engine 
at the end of 1876. His first patent, taken 
out in 1877, was followed by a second in 
1878, and in 1881 he patented an engine 
working on what became known as the 
Clerk (two-stroke) cycle, in which the main 
crankshaft received an impulse at each 
revolution, in contrast to the Otto (four- 
stroke) engine in which there was one 
impulse for each two revolutions. Engines 
of the Clerk type were manufactured in 
considerable numbers, but their popularity 
waned for a time after the lapse of the 
Otto patent in 1890. The Clerk cycle, 
however, came into extensive use for gas 
engines of the larger sizes. 

The long series of researches carried 
out by Clerk on the internal-combustion 
engine, the specific heat of gases, and the 
explosion of gaseous mixtures won him an 
international reputation. He embodied 
his results in a book. The Gas Engine * 
(1886), which subsequently appeared as 
The Gas, Petrol and Oil Engine (1909), and 
in many communications to scientific and 
technical societies, particularly the In- 
stitution of Civil Engineers, to which, 
between 1882 and 1928, he contributed 
five papers, besides two James Forrest 
lectures (1904 and 1920). The second of 
these lectures, dealing with coal conserva- 
tion in the United Kingdom, was of wider 
scope than his other contributions, and 
with it may be coupled his Thomas 
Hawksley lecture to the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers in 1915, on the 
world's supplies of fuel and motive power. 
In 1917 he delivered the first Trueman 
Wood lecture to the Royal Society of Arts. 

Dxiring the war of 1914-1918 Clerk was 
director of Engineering Research at the 
Admiralty (1916-1917) and served on 
many committees concerned with the war 
effort. He was also chairman of the water 
power resources committee of the con- 
joint board of scientific societies (1917) 
and a member of the water power resour- 
ces committee appointed by the Board of 
Trade in 1918. Other activities included 
chairmanship of the Delegacy of the City 



183 



Clerk 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



and Guilds College, South Kensington 
(1918-1919), and membership of the 
University Grants Conunission and of 
the Carnegie Trust for Scotland. He was 
frequently a judge at the reliability trials 
which were fashionable in the early days 
of the motor-car. 

Clerk, who was appointed K.B.E. in 
1917, received honorary degrees from the 
universities of Glasgow, Leeds, Liverpool, 
Manchester, and St. Andrews. The Royal 
Society of Arts awarded him the Albert 
medal in 1922, and the Royal Society, of 
which he was elected a fellow in 1908, 
a Royal medal in 1924. For the papers 
which he read before the Institution of 
Civil Engineers he received the Watt 
medal (1882), Telford prize (1882 and 
1886), and Telford gold medal (1907). He 
was president of many engineering soci- 
eties, and would have been president of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers for the 
session of 1932-1933 had not ill health 
prevented him from assuming office. He 
married in 1883 Margaret (died 1930), 
elder daughter of Alexander Hanney, of 
Helensburgh. He died at his home at 
Ewhurst, Surrey, 12 November 1932. 

[Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal 
Society, No. 2, December 1933 (portrait); 
Engineer and Engineering, 18 November 1932 
(portraits); Proceedings, vol. ccxxxv, 1932— 
1933, and Journal, vol. xii, 1938-1939, of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers ; Proceedings of 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, vol. 
cxxiii, 1932 ; Nature, 24 December 1932.] 

H. M. Ross. 

COBBE, Sir ALEXANDER STAN- 
HOPE (1870-1931), general, was born at 
Naini Tal, India, 5 Jime 1870, the second 
son of Lieutenant-General (Sir) Alexander 
Hugh Cobbe, 17th regiment, by his wife, 
Emily Barbara, daughter of Captain G. 
Stanhope Jones, 59th regiment. He was 
educated at Wellington and Sandhurst. 
Commissioned in the South Wales Bor- 
derers in 1889, he was promoted to 
lieutenant in 1892 but transferred to the 
Indian Staff Corps that year, his appoint- 
ment being confirmed in 1894. He was 
attached to the 32nd Sikh Pioneers, with 
whom he saw active service in Chitral in 
1895, taking part in Colonel (later Major- 
General) F. H. Kelly's great march to the 
relief of the Agency. He subsequently 
served in Nyasaland in 1898 and 1899 in 
various minor operations and with the 
Central African regiment in Ashanti in 
1900, was wounded, and awarded the 
D.S.O. He was again on active service in 
1902, in Somaliland, and won the V.C. at 



Erego 6 October for good work with a 
Maxim gun when left alone in front of the 
line at a critical moment, while later he 
went out vmder heavy fire and brought in 
a wounded man. He had received his 
captaincy in 1900 and became major and 
brevet lieutenant-colonel in 1907. 

Between 1902 and 1914 Cobbe held 
several staff appointments in India and 
at the War Office and was made aide-de- 
camp to the king and brevet-colonel in 
1911. He went to France in October 1914 
as general staff officer of the Lahore 
division, transferred to the staff of the 
Indian Corps in June 1915, and was later 
brigadier-general. General Staff, I Corps. 
Returning to India in January 1916 as 
director of staff duties and military train- 
ing, he took over the Meerut 7th Indian 
division in Mesopotamia the following 
June, becoming major-general, and two 
months later succeeded General Sir Stan- 
ley Maude [q.v.] in the III Indian Corps, 
which he commanded in the operations 
of December 1916-February 1917 for the 
recapture of Kut al Amara, being particu- 
larly concerned with the clearance of the 
Kliudhaira bend and the capture of the 
Sannaiyat position. He was later in charge 
of the operations which resulted in sub- 
stantial success at Mushahida (March 
1917) and Istabulat and the capture of 
Samarra (April) and also of the advance 
to Tikrit in October. In 1918 his corps 
carried out the advance upon Mosul which 
culminated after sharp fighting at Sharqat 
and on the Lesser Zab in the surrender of 
the main Turkish field force. Difficulties 
of supply and transport were great but 
Cobbe's plans resulted in an outstanding 
success. 

Cobbe was appointed C.B. in 1915, 
K.C.B. in 1917, C.S.I, in 1918, and 
K.C.S.I. in 1919, becoming lieutenant- 
general in that year. From October 1919 
to June 1920 and again in 1921 and 1922 
he was military secretary at the India 
Office ; he was general officer commanding- 
in-chief. Northern Command in India from 
1926 to 1930, and had returned to his old 
post at the India Office shortly before he 
died. He had been promoted fuU general 
in February 1924, being the yoimgest 
holder of that rank in the army, and was 
made aide-de-camp general to the King 
and appointed G.C.B. in 1928. To the 
great pleasure of his old regiment he had 
been made colonel of the South Wales 
Borderers in 1922. An accomplished, as 
weU as a gallant and popular, soldier, he 
had a fine record both as a staff officer and 



184 



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D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Cochrane 



in command in the field and he inspired 
confidence as well as liking and respect. 

Cobbe married in 1910 Winifred Ada, 
eldest daughter of Sir Albert Edward 
Bowen, first baronet, of Colworth Park, 
Bedfordshire, and had one son, who was 
killed in the war of 1939-1945 as an officer 
in the Royal Air Force, and two daughters. 
He died in London, after an operation, 
29 June 1931. 

[The Times, 1 July 1931 ; J. W. B. Mere- 
wether and F. Smith, The Indian Corps in 
France (1918) ; (Official) History of the Great 
War. The Campaign in Mesopotamia, vols, iii 
and iv, 1925-1927 ; regimental information.] 
C. T. Atkinson. 

COCHRANE-BAILLIE, CHARLES 
WALLACE ALEXANDER NAPIER 
ROSS, second Baron Lamington (1860- 
1940). [See Baillie.] 

COCHRANE, DOUGLAS MACKIN- 
NON BAILLIE HAMILTON, twelfth 
Earl of Dundonald (1852-1935), lieu- 
tenant-general, was born at Auchentoul 
House, Banff, 29 October 1852, the second 
son of Thomas Barnes Cochrane, eleventh 
Earl of Dundonald, a soldier, by his wife, 
Louisa Harriet, daughter of William 
Alexander Mackinnon of Mackinnon. He 
was a grandson of Thomas Cochrane, 
tenth Earl of Dundonald [q.v.]. 

Dundonald (then Lord Cochrane) was 
educated at a private school at Walton- 
on-Thames and at Eton, and in 1870 
entered the army as cornet and sub- 
lieutenant in the 2nd Life Guards. During 
the following fifteen years he visited 
Germany and South America and in 1884 
was sent in command of a contingent of 
the 2nd Life Guards to relieve General 
Gordon [q.v.] at Khartoum. He took part 
in the battles of Abu Klea and Gubat in 
1885. His rides with dispatches across the 
desert to announce the seizure of Gakdul 
WeUs and again to tell of the death of 
Gordon and the fall of Khartoum made 
him famous at the time. During this 
campaign he succeeded to the title (1885). 
For his services in Egypt he was mentioned 
in dispatches and promoted lieutenant- 
colonel on his return early in 1885. Four 
years later he became a brevet colonel. In 
1890 he was made captain of the Queen's 
Guard, and in 1895 he took command of 
the 2nd Life Guards. Four years later 
the Boers attacked Natal, and, although 
his period of command had in the mean- 
time expired, within a few weeks (October 
1899) he landed at Cape Town and offered 



his services to Sir Redvers Buller [q.v.] 
and was given conunand of the South 
Natal Field Force. With it he was engaged 
at Colenso, and early in 1900, in command 
of the 2nd Cavalry brigade, he took part 
in the Tugela fighting and on 28 February 
1900 entered Lady smith. Later the same 
year he commanded the combined 3rd 
iviounted and Natal Volunteer brigades in 
the fighting on the Biggarsberg, and at 
Laing's Nek and in the eastern Transvaal. 
When Buller resigned the command of the 
Natal army in October 1900 the brigade 
was broken up and Dimdonald returned 
to England. For his services in the cam- 
paign he was mentioned in dispatches six 
times and promoted major-general (1900). 

In December 1900 Dundonald sat on 
the Yeomanry Reorganization Conunit- 
tee which brought about many changes, 
particularly in replacing the sword by the 
rifle. In 1902 he was invited to take com- 
mand of the Canadian Militia with a view 
to its reorganization and he accordingly 
proceeded in July to Ottawa where two 
years of inspections resulted in a scheme 
for a Canadia^n citizen army. He was 
author of Cavalry Training, Canada 
(1904). Owing, however, to political con- 
flict, his work came to an end and he 
returned to England in 1904, and in 1906 
served on the committee for the re- 
organization of the Territorial Army under 
the chairmanship of R. B. (Lord) Haldane 
[q.v.]. In 1906 he was promoted lieu- 
tenant-general and retired from the army 
in 1907. During the next few years he 
exerted himself in the interests of ex- 
servicemen and the work of their national 
association. He had, in 1897, designed a 
light machine-gun and a light ambulance, 
but neither was adopted for army use. 

When war broke out in 1914 Dun- 
donald was prevented by age from active 
participation, but he served his coimtry as 
chairman of the Admiralty committee on 
smoke screens (1915), making use of plans 
drawn up by his grandfather, the proposals 
of which bore fruit in 1918. In 1921 he 
served as special ambassador on the 
occasion of the Peruvian centenary. He 
was appointed C.B. in 1896, K.C.V.O. in 
1907, and K.C.B. in 1913. 

In 1878 Dundonald married Winifred 
(died 1924), daughter of Robert Bamford- 
Hesketh, 2nd Life Guards, of Gwyrch 
Castle, Abergele, Denbighshire. They had 
two sons and three daughters. Although 
as a young officer in Africa he suffered an 
injury that somewhat handicapped him 
thereafter, he remained active to a late 



185 



Cochrane 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



age, and at the age of seventy-seven he 
sailed a 14-ton boat across the Atlantic 
to South America. He died at his residence 
at Wimbledon Park, London, 12 April 
1935, and was succeeded as thirteenth 
earl by his elder son, Thomas Hesketh 
Douglas Blair (born 1886). 

A cartoon of Dundonald by 'Spy' 
appeared in Vanity Fair 8 May 1902. He 
is also Included in the cartoon 'A General 
Group' by 'Spy', which appeared in 
Vanity Fair 29 November 1900. 

[The Times, 13 April 1935 ; Lord Dundonald, 
My Army Life, 1926.] 

C. V. Owen. 

COLERIDGE, STEPHEN WILLIAM 
BUCHANAN (1854-1936), author and 
anti-vivisectionist, was born in London 
31 May 1854, the second son of John Duke 
(afterwards first Baron) Coleridge, lord 
chief justice of England [q.v.], by his first 
wife, Jane Fortescue, daughter of the Rev. 
George Turner Seymour, of Farringford, 
Isle of Wight. He was brother of the judge 
B. J. C. Coleridge, second Baron Coleridge 
[q.v.], and of Mr. Gilbert Coleridge, assis- 
tant master of the Crown Office from 1892 
to 1921. 

Stephen Coleridge did not go, as did his 
brothers, to Eton. He graduated from 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and after a 
year (1879-1880) spent in travel, became 
private secretary to his father (1884-1890). 
In 1886 he was called to the bar by the 
Middle Temple. In 1890 the lord chief 
justice appointed him clerk of assize for 
the South Wales circuit. His natural kind- 
ness and courtesy made him popular with 
the members of the circuit. 

An inherited rhetorical faculty charac- 
terized Coleridge's ^vritings both in prose and 
in verse. He appreciated good literature, 
and was an acceptable lecturer. His large 
output includes A Morning in my Library 
(1914), An Evening in my Library among 
the English Poets (1916), and other books 
of the same kind. He also published four 
volumes of Letters to my Grandson (1921- 
1923), telling him of the world about him, 
the happy life, and the glory of English 
prose and poetry. He had a pleasing 
amateur skiU in painting, and showed at 
various exhibitions. 

Coleridge was best known to the public 
for his outspoken attacks upon vivisection. 
Hatred of cruelty in all forms, especially 
to children and animals, was a marked 
feature of his character. He was one of the 
founders, in 1884, of the National Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. 



Although fond of games and outdoor pur- 
suits, he disliked any sport that involved 
the taking of animal life, and became presi- 
dent of the League for the Prohibition of 
Cruel Sports. But he reserved his most 
violent denunciations for experiments, 
conducted in the interests of medical 
science, on living animals. In the opinion 
of many he carried his prejudices to un- 
reasonable extremes. He would listen to 
no arguments which demonstrated the 
lifesaving value of the discoveries founded 
on vivisection, and went so far as to say 
that, even if the examples given to him 
were true, they were no justification for 
the practice. He even maintained that 
knowledge and reason were miserable bases 
on which to build conduct, character, and 
life. Such statements may well be thought 
to have damaged rather than furthered 
the cause which he advocated, and per- 
haps they did, but at the same time there 
must be hesitation in accepting this view 
without some qualification. Vivisection is 
not now the detestable and almost un- 
mentionable horror that it was to the 
masses in the far-off days when Coleridge 
attacked it, but, on the evidence of those 
acquainted with the subject, is practised 
with more care for the alleviation or 
removal of animal suffering by the use of 
anaesthetics. 

Coleridge was twice married: first, in 
1879 to Geraldine Beatrix (died 1910), 
daughter and co-heir of Charles Manners 
Lushington, of Norton Court, Kent, and 
niece of Sir Stafford Northcote, first Earl 
of Iddesleigh [q.v.] ; secondly, in 1911 toj 
Susan, second daughter of Allan Dunes 
Stewart, of Bim Rannoch and Inver- 
hadden, Perthshire. By his first marriage 
he had three sons, the eldest of whom pre- 
deceased his father. Coleridge died at his 
home at Chobham, Surrey, 10 April 1936. 

A cartoon of Coleridge by 'Elf ap- 
peared in Vanity Fair 27 July 1910. 

[The Times, 11 April 1936; Stephei 
Coleridge, Memories, 1913.] 

Alfred Cochrane. 

COLLIER, JOHN (1850-1934), paintei 
and writer on art, was born in Londoni 
27 January 1850, the younger son of the 
judge Robert Porrett Collier, afterwards! 
first Lord Monkswell [q.v.], by his wife, 
Isabella Rose, daughter of William Rose 
Rose, of Wolston Heath, near Rugby, 
and Daventry. He was educated at Eton 
and then went abroad to study French 
and German, the latter at Heidelberg, with 
the intention of entering the diplomatic 



186 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Colville 



service, but instead lie went into the City 
office of Sir John Pender [q.v.], chairman 
of the Telegraph Construction and Main- 
tenance Company, whose trade-mark of 
the flying horse Collier designed. From 
May 1916 to December 1918 he served 
as a temporary clerk at the Foreign 
Office. 

Collier's father did not oppose his desire 
to become a painter but introduced him to 
(Sir) Lawrence Alma-Tadema [q.v.] who, 
however, could not take him as a pupil, 
so Collier went to the Slade School of Art, 
afterwards studying in Paris and Munich. 
He began to exhibit at the Royal Academy 
at the age of twenty-five and continued to 
do so almost without a break until the 
year of his death. He was at his best in 
portraiture. He was vice-president of the 
Royal Society of Portrait Painters, and he 
is represented at the National Portrait 
Gallery by no fewer than eleven works, 
the subjects including Charles Darwin and 
T. H. Huxley. At the Tate Gallery he is 
represented by two pictures, 'The Last 
Voyage of Henry Hudson', a Chantrey 
purchase of 1881, and 'Henrietta Anne 
Huxley, aetat. lxxx', presented in 1928. 

Collier's popular reputation rested upon 
his so-called 'problem pictures', which, 
under such titles as 'The Cheat' and 'The 
Fallen Idol', appeared at the Academy 
from time to time. He himself disliked 
the description and said that he merely 
depicted little tragedies of modern life and 
always endeavoured to make their mean- 
ing perfectly plain. Perhaps the fairest 
judgement of Collier as a painter is to 
say that he was concerned with accuracy 
rather than with truth in the artistic 
meaning of the word, which implies a 
certain amount of emotional deformation. 
Not that he was indifferent to feeling, but 
he recorded it in the subject rather than 
expressed it in the treatment. In por- 
traiture he achieved a sober veracity 
slightly reminiscent of Frank Holl [q.v.]. 
If his publications, A Primer of Art (1882), 
A Manual of Oil Painting (1886), and 
The Art of Portrait Painting (1905), be 
taken into account, it is difficult to resist 
the conclusion that Collier had the scientific 
rather than the artistic habit of mind. 

In personal relations Collier, who was a 
thin, bearded man, gave the impression 
of quiet tenacity and a sort of polite ruth- 
lessness. He devoted much time and 
thought to the causes of Rationalism and 
divorce law reform. He was twice married : 
first, in 1879 to Marian, second daughter 
of Thomas Henry Huxley and sister of 



Leonard Huxley [qq.v.], who herself drew 
portraits (she died in 1887, shortly after 
the birth of their only child, a daughter) ; 
secondly, in 1889 in Norway, to Ethel 
Gladys, fifth daughter of T. H. Huxley, the 
marriage being regularized in England by 
the passing of the Deceased Wife's Sister 
Act of 1907. By his second wife Collier had 
a son and a daughter. He died at his home 
in Hampstead 11 April 1934. 

A self-portrait of Collier hangs in the 
Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 

\The Times, 12 April 1934 ; personal know- 
ledge.] Chaules Marriott. 

COLVILLE, Sir STANLEY CECIL 
JAMES (1861*-1939), admiral, was born 
in London 21 February 1861, the second 
son of Charles John Colville, tenth Lord 
Colville of Culross, later Viscount Colville^ 
of Culross, chamberlain to Queen Alexan- 
dra both as Princess of Wales and as Queen 
(1873-1903). He was grandson of General 
Sir Charles Colville [q.v.]. His mother was 
Cecile Katherine Mary, only child by his 
first wife of Robert John Carrington, 
second Lord Carrington. After a short 
time at Marlborough, he entered the train- 
ing ship Britannia as a naval cadet in 
1874 and in 1876 was appointed as mid- 
shipman to the Sultan in the Mediterranean 
under Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh 
[q.v.], and remained with the Duke when 
in 1878 he transferred to the Black Prince 
in the Channel squadron and afterwards 
on the North America and West Indies 
station. Next year he was sent to the 
Boadicea, wearing the broad pennant of 
Commodore (afterwards Admiral Sir) 
F. W. Richards [q.v.], at the Cape, and 
served on shore in the Zulu war. Promoted 
sub-lieutenant in 1880, he underwent the 
usual examinations at Portsmouth. In 
July 1882 he joined the Alexandra, flag- 
ship of Sir F. B. P. Seymour (afterwards 
Lord Alcester, q.v.) in the Mediterranean, 
being promoted lieutenant in November: 
thus he was present at the bombardment 
of Alexandria (11 July) and took part in 
the subsequent land operations. In 1883 
he was appointed to the Canada, North 
America station, in which Prince George 
(afterwards King George V) was midship- 
man. From 1884 to 1885 Colville was 
again in the Mediterranean for service 
with the Nile flotilla during the Gordon 
relief expedition, and after a short spell 
at home in the royal yacht Osborne, 
resumed his service for three years under 
the Duke of Edinburgh, now commander- 
in-chief, Mediterranean, with his flag in 



187 



ColviUe 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



the Alexandra. From 1889 to 1892 he was 
first lieutenant of the royal yacht Victoria 
and Albert and thus earned his promotion 
to commander (August 1892). 

After three years as commander of 
Admiral (Sir) Compton Domvile's flagship 
Trafalgar in the Mediterranean, Colville 
was at the Sirdar's request lent to the 
Egyptian government for operations on 
the Nile, and while in conmiand of the 
flotilla in the Dongola campaign (1896) 
was severely wounded [see Beatty, 
David, Earl], For this service he was 
specially promoted captain in October, 
and appointed C.B. In 1897-1898 he 
fiUed his only office appointment in London 
as naval adviser to the inspector-general 
of fortifications at the War Office, and 
then went as flag-captain to Admiral Pen- 
rose Fitzgerald, in the Barfleur, in China 
for eighteen months. Next he was flag- 
captain to Sir Frederick Bedford, in the 
Crescent, on the North America station 
for two years, foUowed by three more as 
chief of staff to Domvile in the Bulwark, 
Mediterranean Fleet. For one year (1906) 
he had his only independent captain's 
command in the Hindustan, Atlantic 
Fleet, and reached flag-rank in November 
at the early age of forty-five. In 1908 he 
hoisted his flag in the Bulwark as rear- 
admiral of the Nore division of the 
recently formed Home Fleet under Sir 
Francis Bridgeman [q.v.]. A year later 
he was appointed to the first cruiser 
squadron, then part of the Channel Fleet 
under Lord Charles Beresford [q.v.] just 
before that great officer's dispute with 
Lord Fisher [q.v.] ended in his being 
ordered to haul down his flag. 

Colville's squadron and the rest of the 
Channel Fleet was then absorbed into the 
expanded Home Fleet imder Sir WiUiam 
May [q.v.], and he soon found himself in 
charge of the first three great battle 
cruisers of the Dreadnought era, with his 
flag in the Indomitable. He completed two 
years in that command, was promoted 
vice-admiral in April 1911, and a year 
later went to sea again as vice-admiral 
commanding the first battle squadron. 
Home Fleet. He completed the usual two- 
year term in June 1914, and thus was 
ashore on half -pay when war broke out. 
He naturally wished for a new command 
afloat but, nothing being available, he was 
offered the shore command of vice-admiral, 
Orkneys and Shetlands. During August 
Admiral Sir John (afterwards Earl) Jellicoe 
[q.v.] had found the detailed work of 
arranging for the protection of the un- 



defended base at Scapa Flow, where the 
main Grand Fleet was stationed, too great 
a burden and asked for the appointment 
of a senior flag-officer who should be 
responsible for the general defences of the 
islands and base, and for the control of 
patrol vessels and minesweepers and the 
placing of obstacles to prevent the entry 
of enemy submarines. Colville in accept- 
ing the post asked that he should be treated 
as junior in rank to Jellicoe to whom he 
was senior in the flag-list by five months. 
The chief peril which he had to face was 
the entry of German submarines into the 
anchorage and his measures were so suc- 
cessful that, although there were several 
reports of such intrusion, in fact none did 
get in, but one of Colville's patrol vessels 
rammed and sank one outside the Hoxa 
entrance. 

In 1916 Jellicoe reported in a dispatch 
that it was largely due to Colville that the 
work at the northern base was so cheer- 
fuUy and energetically carried out, and 
official appreciation of the Admiralty 
was duly expressed. In February 1916 
he succeeded Sir Hedworth Meux [q.v.] 
as commander-in-chief at Portsmouth, 
having been promoted admiral soon after 
going to Scapa in September 1914. He 
held that important post for the rest of 
the war, and finally hauled down his flag 
in March 1919. He was appointed first 
and principal aide-de-camp to the king in 
the foUowing July and was placed on the 
retired list in April 1922, 

In 1927 ColviUe was appointed rear- 
admiral of the United Kingdom and in 
1929 vice-admiral of the United Kingdom 
and Ueutenant of the Admiralty, ancient 
offices which had fallen into desuetude 
but were revived in 1901 by King 
Edward VII as high court appointments, 
corresponding to the military Silver Stick 
and Gold Stick in Waiting. He died at 
Crawley Down, Sussex, 9 April 1939. 

Colville was a fine type of the 'salt 
horse' naval officer: without any preten- 
sions to brilliance or scientific eminence 
he had a thorough knowledge of his pro- 
fession, and possessed the complete con- 
fidence of his seniors. His lifelong energy 
and activity in everything concerned 
with the welfare of the navy were greatly 
appreciated by aU ranks. He made no 
mistakes and was popular and trusted 
throughout the service. Although owing 
something no doubt to his association 
with the royal family, he weU deserved his 
fortunate career in the Royal Navy. 

Colville was appointed C.V.O. in 1902, 



188 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Connor 



K.C.B. in 1912, and G.C.V.O. on the 
occasion of the King's visit to Scapa in 
July 1915, G.C.M.G. in 1919, and G.C.B. 
in 1921. Of foreign honours he received 
the Japanese Order of the Rising Sun, the 
Russian Order of St. Stanislaus, and the 
Order of the Crown of Siam, and he was a 
grand officer of the Legion of Honour, He 
married in 1902 Lady Adelaide Jane, 
youngest daughter of Admiral of the Fleet 
Richard James Meade, fourth Earl of 
Clanwilliam [q.v.], and had four sons. 

An oil portrait of Colville, painted by 
Sir William Llewellyn (1927), is in private 
possession. A tinted charcoal drawing of 
him by Francis Dodd is in the Imperial 
War Museum. 

[Admiralty records ; private information.] 
Vincent W. Baddeley. 

COLVIN, IAN DUNCAN (1877-1938), 
journalist, biographer, and poet, was born 
at Inverness 29 September 1877, the 
second son of Duncan Colvin, Free Church 
minister, by his wife, Grace Macpherson 
Strother. He was educated at Crieff 
Academy and Inverness College, and was 
for a short time with the Inverness Courier 
before going in 1897 to Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, where he studied under the pro- 
fessor of rhetoric and English literature, 
G. E. B. Saintsbury [q.v.], and won the 
gold medal for history and literature. 

Having left Edinburgh for London, 
where he served for a time in the London 
office of the Allahabad Pioneer, Colvin 
went to India in 1900 to join the staff of 
that journal. Three years later he passed 
(suffering shipwreck on the way) to the 
Cape Times under (Sir) Maitland Park. 
Apart from his leading articles, he became 
famous there for his political verse and 
tales signed 'Rip van Winkle'. 

In 1907 Colvin returned to London and 
in 1909 became leader writer of the Morn- 
ing Post, his name being associated with 
its leading articles for the next twenty- 
eight years. Here his knowledge of 
imperial questions became blended with 
stern conservatism and a deadly satiric 
touch. Lord Morley is reported to have 
said of Colvin's writings : 'There has been 
nothing like it since Junius.' Colvin's 
industry and inspiration also found scope 
in historical work. During the war of 
1914-1918 he wrote The Germans in 
England 1066-1598 (1915) and The Unseen 
Hand in English History (1917), which 
traces the struggle between the Merchant 
Adventurers and the Hanseatic League; 
and subsequently appeared a book of his 



on protection. The Safety of the Nation 
(1919). 

After the war Colvin engaged vigorously 
in the party controversies which agitated 
the next two decades. On nearly all these 
questions he was severely critical of the 
official policies of the day, irrespective of 
the party in power. He denounced Lloyd 
George's Irish 'treaty' of December 1921, 
and was implacable in hostility towards 
the Indian Round Table Conference of 
1931. He had no sympathy with the com- 
promises and concessions with which suc- 
cessive governments sought to stave off 
awkward questions. They affronted the 
'passionate logic' by which he claimed to 
test their worth. His last campaign was 
inspired by the civil war in Spain, where 
his sympathies were whole-heartedly on 
the side of General Franco. Assuredly he 
well deserved the title that was bestowed 
upon him by those who came under the 
lash of his satire and censure : 'keeper of 
the tory conscience'. He was never in- 
consistent or imstable. He never 'paltered 
with the truth to serve the hour' ; but was 
as faithful to his friends as unsparing to 
his adversaries, however overborne the 
former and however highly placed the 
latter. 

In 1922 Colvin published the Life of 
Jameson, in 1929 the Life of General Dyer, 
whose action at Amritsar in 1919 he 
championed ; and, in 1934 and 1936 respec- 
tively, vols, ii and iii of the Life of Lord 
Carson, of which vol. i by Edward Marjori- 
banks had appeared in 1932. His other 
works include South and East Africa (1910) 
and The Cape of Adventure (1912); his 
satirical verse is collected in Party Whips 
(1912), Intercepted Letters (1913), and A 
Wreath of Immortelles (1924). The Leper's 
Flute (1920), a tragedy in blank verse, was 
later produced as an opera. His lyrical 
translations After the Chinese appeared in 
1927, and he contributed many political 
and literary articles to the periodicals of 
his day. During the six years from 1931 
to 1937 his journalism was interrupted by 
intermittent ill health, and his death 
occurred in a nursing home at Ealing 
10 May 1938. 

Colvin married in 1909 Sophie, daughter 
of the Rev. George Robson, of Edinburgh, 
and had three sons and one daughter. 

[Private information ; personal knowledge.] 
Robert Hield. 

CONNOR, RALPH (pseudonym), 
divine and author. [See Gordon, Charles 
William.] 



189 



Conway, R. S. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



CONWAY, ROBERT SEYMOUR 
(1864-1933), classical scholar and com- 
parative philologist, the eldest son of 
Samuel Conway, Congregational minister, 
by his wife. Amy Curling, was born at 
Stoke Newington 20 September 1864. 
He was educated at the City of London 
School under Edwin Abbott [q.v.], from 
whom he learned accuracy in detail, an 
interest in comparative philology, and a 
broad outlook on literature. Proceeding 
to Cambridge as a scholar of Gonville and 
Caius College, he obtained first classes in 
both parts of the classical tripos (1885, 
1887). He was distinguished in part ii 
for an essay on Vernefs Law in Italy 
(published 1887). Conway was appointed 
classical lecturer at Newnham College, 
Cambridge, where he met Margaret Mary, 
daughter of William Hall, an iron-master 
in the Midlands, whom he married in 1891. 
Shortly after this appointment he was 
elected a fellow of his college. In 1893 he 
became professor of Latin at University 
College, Cardiff, and in 1903 Hulme pro- 
fessor of Latin in the university of Man- 
chester, where he remained until his 
resignation in 1929. He improved the 
teaching of Latin and established a final 
honours examination in Latin alone. 

In 1897 Conway published The Italic 
Dialects (2 vols.), which was followed after 
many years by The Prae-Italic Dialects of 
Italy (with Joshua Whatmough and 
Elizabeth Johnson, 3 vols., 1933). While 
at Manchester he undertook an edition of 
Livy. He set about his task with enthu- 
siasm and examined many manuscripts, 
especially in Italy. Three successive 
volumes were published (Books i-v, 1914 ; 
vi-x, 1919; xxi-xxv, 1929) in collabora- 
tion with William Charles Flamstead 
Walters, after whose death he produced 
a fourth volume (Books xxvi-xxx, pub- 
lished posthumously, 1935), with the help 
of Stephen Keymer Johnson. The work 
is very thorough but unnecessarily 
detailed. Conway's other great interest 
was in Virgil : or, as he always insisted on 
spelling it, 'Vergil'. In 1907 he published 
in collaboration with J. B. Mayor and 
William Warde Fowler [q.v.] a small but 
important book on The Messianic Eclogue ; 
and many papers on Virgilian subjects 
came from his pen, including an attempt 
to find a new site for Virgil's farm {Where 
was VergiVs Farm?, 1923). The edition of 
the Aeneid, Book I, published in 1935 after 
his death by his son Geoffrey Seymour 
Conway is perhaps his happiest piece of 
work, for it combines all his main interests. 



Conway was an accurate scholar in his 
own fields, but they were somewhat 
limited. He never lectured or wrote on 
a Greek author, and outside Livy, Virgil, 
and Cicero his acquaintance with Latin 
authors was not comprehensive. But he 
had great enthusiasms and a power of 
instigating his pupils to research on their ^ 
own account. Conway's frequent visits to 
Italy gave him a deep love of the country, 
and it was a high pleasure to him when in 
1929 he was made Commander of the Order 
of the Crown of Italy. Among other 
distinctions he received honorary degrees 
from the universities of Dublin (1921), 
Padua (1922), and Oxford (1928) ; and he 
was elected an honorary fellow of Gonville 
and Caius College in 1920 and a fellow of 
the British Academy in 1918. He was a 
founder of the Classical Association, and 
its president in 1927. 

Conway died in London 28 September 
1933. He had one son and four daughters. 

[The Times, 29 September 1933; Cyril 
Bailey, Robert Seymour Conway, 1864—1933, 
in Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 
xxii, 1936 ; personal knowledge.] 

Cyril Bailey. 

CONWAY, WILLIAM MARTIN, 
Baron Conway of Allington (1856- 
1937), art critic and collector and moun- 
taineer, was born at Rochester 12 April 
1856, the only son of William Conway, 
vicar of St. Nicholas's church, Rochester, 
afterwards rector of St. Margaret's church, 
Westminster, by his wife, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Adam Martin, M.D., of 
Rochester. Martin Conway was educated 
at Repton and Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where the counter attraction of the Fitz- 
william Museum robbed him of that first 
class in the historical tripos to which he 
had good reason to aspire. The university 
librarian, Henry Bradshaw [q.v.], who 
became his greatest friend, was delighted 
by his interest in woodcuts and early 
printed books. 'This is the most wonder- 
ful thing that has happened to me', he 
exclaimed, 'here have I been for twenty- 
five years studying the early printed books, 
and hitherto not one individual has 
taken the smallest interest in the subject.' 
Bradshaw financed the journeys on which 
Conway collected the material for his 
Woodcutters of the Netherlands in the 
Fifteenth Century (1884), which was to 
rank as the most important of his thirty 
books. After leaving Cambridge, where 
he was a university extension lecturer 
from 1882 to 1887, Conway lectured and 



190 



rii 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Conway, W. M. 



wrote a book on Early Flemish Artists 
(1887), a masterly and beautifully written 
contribution to art criticism, republished 
in 1921 as The Van Eycks and their 
Followers. 

Conway became Roscoe professor of art 
at University College, Liverpool, at the 
early age of twenty-nine (1885), and held 
the post imtil 1888. He was Slade pro- 
fessor of fine art at Cambridge from 1901 
to 1904, and in 1917 was appointed 
director-general of the Imperial War 
Museum. He was the first to realize the 
value of a systematic and comprehensive 
collection of photographic records of archi- 
tecture and works of art. He presented 
his collection of 100,000 carefully classi- 
fied photographs to the Courtauld Institute 
of Art, in which the Conway library has a 
house to itself. 

Conway first saw the Alps at the age of 
sixteen, and from 1872 to 1901 he missed 
very few Alpine seasons. He was not a 
natural athlete, or a good rock climber, 
and the ideal mountaineer whom he 
extolled in a famous paper read before 
the Alpine Club was, by an odd coinci- 
dence, very like Conway himself. He was 
one 'who loves first and foremost to 
wander far and wide among the moun- 
taihs, does not willingly sleep two con- 
secutive nights in the same inn, hates 
centres, gets tired of a district, always 
wants to see what is on the other side of 
any range of hills, prefers passes to peaks, 
but hates not getting to the top of any- 
thing he starts for; chooses the easiest 
and most normal route, likes to know the 
names of all the peaks in view, and can- 
not bear to see a group of peaks, none of 
which he has climbed'. 

Passes always moved Conway to more 
enthusiasm than peaks, and inspired the 
most effective of his mountain writing. 
His tastes found expression in that long 
Alpine journey which is recorded in The 
Alps from End to End (1895). In 1892 he 
mapped 2,000 square miles of the Kara- 
koram (Himalayas) range, an achievement 
which earned him his Imighthood in 1895. 
He made the first crossing of Spitsbergen 
in 1896, and his experiments with ski on 
that occasion placed him among the 
pioneers of British ski-ing. In 1898 he 
visited the Bolivian Andes and cUmbed 
Illimani, Sorate, and Aconcagua (22,900 
ft.). He was president of the Alpine Club 
from 1902 to 1904, and first president of 
the Alpine Ski Club in 1908. 

Conway's Zermatt Pocket Book (1881) 
is the ancestor of an immense and inter- 



national family of technical guides for the 
climber, and in particular for the guideless 
chmber. By chronicling the routes which 
had been climbed, he indirectly gave an 
impetus, as has been remarked, to the 
pioneering of new routes. Conway was 
responsible for many beautiful mountain 
names, such as Wellenkuppe, Windjoch, 
and Dent du Requin. His gift of con- 
veying in words the elusive qualities of a 
painting explains the evocative power of 
his best movmtain writing. He looked at 
peaks and glaciers with the trained eye of 
a connoisseur of colour and form, quick 
to note not only the more dramatic efiects, 
but also the elusive beauty of some ap- 
parently featureless snowfield, such as 
the Plaine Morte, the theme of one of the 
finest descriptive passages in Alpine litera- 
ture, his contributions to which are also 
marked by his keen, discerning interest 
in the peoples and historic traditions of 
the coimtries in which he climbed. His 
swan song as a moimtaineer and his 
favourite book. Mountain Memories, was 
published in 1920. 

Conway, who received honorary degrees 
from the universities of Durham and 
Manchester in 1919, represented the com- 
bined English Universities as a imionist 
from 1918 vmtil he was raised to the peerage 
as Baron Conway of Allington in 1931. 
He would not have welcomed 'the century 
of the common man', for he did not believe 
in the infallibility of the majority, and 
the Conway who, as a young man, referred 
with contempt to 'the insane cry of 
"Liberty, Equality and Fraternity" under 
the echoes of which the revolutionaries of 
Paris banished the reality of all three from 
the soil of Europe', expressed his mature 
mind in his depreciatory diagnosis of The 
Crowd in Peace and War (1915). He 
considered this to be his best book. 
Conway was indulgent to human folly, 
and felt, to paraphrase Montaigne, that 
it was paying a man's views too high a 
compliment to bum with indignation 
because of them. His political friends were 
drawn indiscriminately from aU parties. 
He was a genuine conservative but he was 
created a peer by Ramsay MacDonald, 
and he was on such friendly terms with 
Leonid Borisovich KJrassin that he was 
among the first to obtain permission to 
visit the new Russia, where the Bolshe- 
vists surrendered to his charm and gave 
him every facility to collect material for 
his book The Art Treasures in Soviet 
Russia (1925). In the mountaineering 
world he had the distinction of being the 



191 



Conway, W. M. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



only eminent mountaineer with whom 
W. A. B, CooHdge [q.v.] found it impossible 
to pick a quarrel. Few men had a larger 
circle of friends, and few men could have 
felt less need for the more intimate and 
enduring forms of friendship. 'Whether 
in the Alps or the Himalayas his friend- 
ships seldom remained coherent for very 
long.' 

Conway was twice married: first, in 
1884 to Katrina (died 1933), the beautiful 
daughter of Charles Lambard, of Augusta, 
Maine, U.S.A., builder of the Chicago and 
Western Railway; secondly, in 1934 to 
Iva, daughter of Daniel Christian and 
widow of Reginald Lawson, of Saltwood 
Castle, Kent. By his first marriage he had 
one daughter. He died in London 19 April 
1937. 

[Lord Conway, Episodes in a Varied Life, 
1932, and A Pilgrim'' s Quest for the Divine, 
1936; Alpine Journal, November 1937; 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 
Arnold Lunn. 

COOK, ARTHUR JAMES (1883-1931), 
miners' leader, was born at Wookey, 
Somerset, 22 November 1883, the eldest 
son in a family of three sons and seven 
daughters of Thomas Cook, by his wife, 
Selina Brock. His mother had been a 
travelling dressmaker, and as his father 
spent twenty-one years in the 20tli Foot 
(Lancashire Fusiliers), all the family 
except Arthur were born in English or 
Irish barracks. As a child he had learned 
to beat the drum and blow the bugle, but 
at the age of twelve, in rebellion against 
paternal discipline, and aided by his 
mother, he was smuggled from the Cur- 
ragh in a vessel bound for Bristol. Farm 
work at half a crown a week preceded 
mining, and migrating to South Wales he 
spent twenty-one years in imderground 
work. Christian Endeavour and Band of 
Hope membership shaped him as a boy 
preacher, who at sixteen was conducting 
singing missions among the Baptists. The 
independent labour party claimed him in 
1905 and he was kept out of many pulpits 
as a resvdt of his socialist enthusiasm. 
Association with the South Wales Miners' 
Federation afforded him a scholarship to 
study Marxian economics at the Central 
Labour College in 1911 and 1912. After 
filling various lodge offices, he was ap- 
pointed agent for Rhondda No. 1 district 
and a member of the South Wales Federa- 
tion executive in 1919. He also represented 
the Welsh miners on the Mmers' Federa- 
tion of Great Britain, and, upon the 



resignation of Frank Hodges, in 1924, was 
elected secretary and at the same time 
secretary of the International Miners' 
Federation. For a time he served on the 
Rhondda Urban District Council and was 
a governor of the Forth Schools. Mining 
disputes in 1918 and 1921 led to his 
imprisonment on two occasions; the 
second time he was charged with incite- 
ment to revolutionary rioting. He was a 
member of three coal commissions and 
was a government delegate to the coal 
conference held under the auspices of the 
International Labour Organization at 
Geneva in 1930. 

Cook became a national figure, engag- 
ing extensively in trade union and socialist 
propaganda, and in particular voicing the 
claims of the miners before the wider 
public. Associated with the South Wales 
Miners' unofficial reform committee which 
issued The Miners' Next Step (1912), Cook 
was attracted to the syndicalist policy and 
was a leading figure in the General Strike 
in 1926, by which the unions affiliated to 
the Trades Union Congress endeavoured 
to compel support for the miners after the 
government subsidies to the industry had 
ceased and demands were being made for 
reduced wages and longer hours. After 
nine days, during which the country 
generally had been caused not a little 
inconvenience, the strike collapsed andfl 
Cook was among the minority who op-S 
posed the miners' continuing the struggle 
alone. Nevertheless, accepting the ma- 
jority decision, he worked strenuously 
with his colleagues throughout the seven 
months which elapsed before defeat had 
to be acknowledged. He was elected to 
the general coimcil of the Trades Union 
Congress in 1927. 

Having suffered an injury to his leg in 
his early mining days which was ag- 
gravated in later life. Cook underwent 
amputation for cancer in the summer of 
1931. He persisted in his work, but the 
cancer re-appeared and he died in hospital 
at Hampstead 2 November 1931. In 1906 
he married Annie Edwards, and had one 
son and two daughters. 

Cook was portrayed by the press as a 
national menace in his later days, but his 
immediate colleagues, recognizing that he 
was more of an agitator than a negotiator, 
held him in regard for his warm-hearted 
though impulsive nature and his dogged 
determination to make the public realize 
the actualities of mining life. 

[The Times, 3 November 1931 ; personal 
knowledge.] J. S. Middleton. 



i 



192 



D.N.B. 1981-1940 



Cowen 



COOKE, GEORGE ALBERT (1865- 
1939), regius professor of Hebrew and 
canon of Christ Church, Oxford, was born 
in London 26 November 1865, the elder 
son of George Isaac Foster Cooke, bar- 
rister, of Lincoln's Inn, by his wife, Agnes 
Marian, daughter of Stephen Mackenzie, 
a surgeon, and sister of Sir Morell Mac- 
kenzie and Sir Stephen Mackenzie [qq.v.]. 
He was educated at Merchant Taylors 
School (where Hebrew was still taught as 
a school subject) and in 1884 gained a 
Hebrew scholarship at Wadham College, 
Oxford. He was awarded a second class 
in theology (1888) and won the second 
Pusey and Ellerton Hebrew scholarship 
(1886), the junior Kennicott Hebrew 
scholarship (1888), and the Houghton 
Syriac prize (1889). In 1889 he was 
ordained and hcensed by the bishop of 
Oxford to the curacy of Headington, 
and St. John's College appointed him 
senior scholar and Hebrew lecturer. He 
became chaplain (1890) and fellow (1892- 
1899) of Magdalen College, serving mean- 
while as curate to Cosmo Lang at the 
university church (1894-1896) and as 
rector of Beaconsfield (1896-1899). He 
was private chaplain at Dalkeith to the 
Duke of Buccleuch (1899-1908), war- 
den of the Commxmity of St. Andrew 
of Scotland (1904-1908), and canon of 
St. Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh (1907- 
1908). He received the honorary degree 
of D.D. from Edinburgh University in 
1911. 

Returning to Oxford in 1908, Cooke 
succeeded T. K. Cheyne [q.v.] as Oriel 
professor of the interpretation of Holy 
Scripture, canon of Rochester Cathedral, 
and fellow of Oriel CoUege. In 1914 he 
succeeded S. R. Driver [q.v.] as regius 
professor of Hebrew and canon of Clu-ist 
Church. This position he voluntarily 
resigned in 1936 to become rector of the 
tiny parish of Bettiscombe-with-Pilsdon, 
near Bridport. He died suddenly at 
Cheltenham 9 September 1939, while 
undergoing an operation. He married in 
1897 Frances Helen (died 1932), daugh- 
ter of Patrick Anderson, a man of 
business in Dundee, and had four daugh- 
ters. 

Cooke's most valuable work is a Text- 
book of North-Semitic Inscriptions (1903) 
which opened up the field of Hebrew and 
Aramaic epigraphy to English-speaking 
students and still remains unsuperseded. 
Following on smaller commentaries (for 
the 'Cambridge Bible') on the Books of 
Judges and Ruth (1913) and Joshua (1918), 



he wrote a large-scale Critical and Exe- 
getical Commentary on the Book of Ezekiel 
(1937) and, in an attempt to combine 
Coverdale's style with accuracy of render- 
ing. The Prayer Book Psalter Revised 
(1939). His standard of scholarship was 
high and his writing conspicuous for 
kindliness and caution : the scholar in him 
never overcame the instincts of the con- 
scientious parish priest. 

There is a portrait of Cooke by Hugh 
Riviere (1935) in the lodgings of the Pro- 
fessor of Hebrew, Christ Church. 

[The Times, 11 and 13 September 1939; 
Oxford Magazine, 26 October 1939; private 
information ; personal knowledge.] 

H. Danby. 

COWEN, Sib FREDERIC HYMEN 

(1852-1935), composer and conductor, 
whose original name was Hyman 
Frederick Cowen, was born at Kingston, 
Jamaica, 29 January 1852, the younger 
son of Frederick Augustus Cowen, who 
later became secretary to William Ward, 
first Earl of Dudley, and treasurer to Her 
Majesty's Opera in London, by his wife, 
EmUy, second daughter of James Davis, 
of Kingston. Brought by his parents to 
England at the age of four, Frederic 
Cowen early displayed his musical capacity 
by composing a waltz (which was pub- 
lished) when six, and an operetta, Gari- 
baldi, when eight, to a libretto by his 
sister, aged seventeen: this latter was 
privately printed. Becoming a pupil of 
(Sir) John Goss and (Sir) Juhus Benedict 
[qq.v.], in 1863 he gave a piano recital at 
Her Majesty's Theatre, and in 1864 played 
Mendelssohn's D minor concerto at 
Dudley House, (Sir) Charles Santley [q.v.] 
and Joseph Joachim also taking part in 
the concert. A year later he won the 
Mendelssohn scholarship, the blue riband 
of British musical scholarships, but 
relinquished it, as his parents wished to 
retain control of his education. They took 
him to Leipzig, where he entered the con- 
servatorium and became a pupil of Louis 
Plaidy, Ignaz Moscheles, Carl Heinrich 
Garstin Reinecke, Ernst Friedrich Eduard 
Richter, and Moritz Hauptmann. In 1867 
he went to the Stern Conservatorium in 
Berlin, where he studied under Friedrich 
Kiel and laid the foundations of his skill as 
a conductor. 

Returning to England in 1868, Cowen 
made a name as a pianist, playing at con- 
certs of the Philharmonic Society and 
elsewhere, and became noted as an ac- 
companist, assisting Sir Michael Costa 



193 



Cowen 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



[q.v.] in that capacity at Her Majesty's 
Opera at Drury Lane Theatre, and on 
tour, under the management of J. H. 
Mapleson [q.v.], from 1871 to 1877. His 
gifts as a conductor led to his appoint- 
ment as conductor of the Covent Garden 
promenade concerts in 1880 and to an 
engagement for five concerts of the Phil- 
harmonic Society in 1884; from 1888 to 
1892 he was the society's permanent 
conductor in succession to Sir Arthur 
Sullivan [q.v.]. The unprecedented fee of 
£5,000 was paid him to go to Australia to 
conduct the daily orchestral concerts at 
the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition for 
six months (August 1888-January 1889). 
He conducted the Halle Orchestra in 
Manchester from 1896 to 1899 ; and among 
other conductorships which Cowen held 
were those of the Liverpool Philharmonic 
Society, the Bradford Festival Choral 
Society, and the Scottish Orchestra. He 
returned to the Philharmonic Society 
from 1900 to 1907, and conducted the 
famous triennial Handel festivals at the 
Crystal Palace from 1903 to 1912, and 
again in 1920 and 1923. 

As a composer, Cowen wrote a number of 
operas, one of which, Signa, was first pro- 
duced at Milan in 1893, but they have not 
held the stage : his oratorios and cantatas, 
often written for festivals and produced 
there, have been of use to choral societies, 
and his orchestral works display marked 
fancy, and are excellently scored, his skill 
in this respect owing nothing to instruction. 
His 'Scandinavian' symphony(1880),which 
owed its origin to three tours in Sweden, 
Denmark, and Norway as accompanist to 
the famous mezzo-soprano Zelia Trebelli, 
may be mentioned as presenting imagina- 
tive use of orchestral colouring then new 
to English audiences, and the suite 'The 
Language of Flowers' (also 1880), may be 
cited as an example of individual fantastic 
grace. Cowen composed nearly three 
hundred songs : quite a number of them 
deserve remembrance for their lyrical art : 
others, Victorian ballads of sentiment, 
among which may be named 'The Better 
Land' and 'The Children's Home', achieved 
a 'best-selling' success which was at times 
embarrassing. 

Cowen was knighted in 1911, and 
received honorary degrees from the uni- 
versities of Cambridge (1900) and Edin- 
burgh (1910). He married in 1908 
Frederica Gwendoline, only daughter of 
Frederick Richardson, of London; there 
was no issue of the marriage. He died 
in London 6 October 1935, and was 



buried in the Jewish cemetery at Golders 
Green. 

[The Times, 7 October 1935; Sir F. H. 
Cowen, My Art and My Friends, 1913 ; Grove's 
Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 4th ed., 
vol. i, edited by H. C. CoUes ; H. Saxe Wynd- 
ham and Geoffrey L'Epine, Who^s Who in 
Music, 1913; Oxford Companion to Music, 
edited by Percy Scholes, 6th ed., 1945; 
Musical Times, November 1935 ; personal 
knowledge.] J. Mewburn Levien. 

COWLEY, Sm ARTHUR ERNEST 

(1861-1931), orientalist and Bodley's 
librarian, the fourth son among the 
seventeen children of Frederick Thomas 
Cowley, of Forest Hill, Sydenham, by 
his wife, Louisa Emily Boddy, was born 
at Forest Hill 13 December 1861, and 
educated at St. Paul's School and at 
Trinity College, Oxford, where he was an 
exhibitioner. He graduated without high 
honours because his interests even from 
schooldays had come to lie not in the 
classics but in oriental, notably the 
Semitic, languages. There being then no 
school of oriental languages at Oxford 
Cowley was practically self-taught, and 
his early departure from Oxford precluded 
his competing for any of the prizes offered 
in such subjects. After taking his degree 
in 1883 he studied at Lausanne and later 
taught French and German, in which he 
had unusual proficiency, at Sherborne and 
at Magdalen School, Oxford. This last 
appointment enabled him to follow up his 
study of Samaritan liturgies in the British 
Museum and put within his reach the 
Semitic collections of the Bodleian Library. 
From being quite unknown as an ori- 
entalist, Cowley saw his reputation rapidly 
grow, and in 1892 he was sent by the uni- 
versity to examine (along with Mr. John 
Frederick Stenning) the library of St. 
Catherine's monastery on Mount Sinai. 
The fruits of the expedition were not com- 
mensurate with the expectations, but may 
be seen in Anecdota Oxoniensia (Semitic 
series, vol. i, part ix, 1896). 

In 1896 Cowley was appointed assistant 
to Adolf Neubauer [q.v.] in the Bodleian 
Library, and in 1899 succeeded him as 
sub-librarian in charge of the oriental 
department; and in 1902 he was elected 
a feUow of Magdalen College and charged 
with the duty of giving instruction in 
Rabbinic Hebrew literature, on which he 
became the leading non-Jewish authority 
in the world. In 1919 he succeeded 
Falconer Madan as Bodley's librarian, 
holding that office until his resignation in 
July 1931. 



194 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Cox, H. 



Cowley's librarianship was marked by 
academic agitation, not always based on 
experience, for wider facilities for access 
to shelves. With these movements there 
was coupled the question of the enlarge- 
ment and future site of the library, and 
the present compromise was adopted 
during his last illness in May 1931. Much 
of his administrative work aimed at 
objects wholly desirable, such as uniform 
administration of various collections 
scattered all over Oxford and the in- 
auguration of a much-needed printed 
catalogue. 

Cowley was, however, pre-eminent as a 
scholar and a friend. Besides brief articles, 
he published important work falling un- 
der three heads: Hebrew, Aramaic, and 
Hittite. In the first of these categories he 
published (with Neubauer) The Original 
Hebrew of a Portion of Ecclesiasticus (1897) 
followed by Facsimiles of the Fragments 
hitherto recovered of the Book of Ecclesi- 
asticus in Hebrew (1901) which gathered 
together everything then known of this 
long-lost text. He edited (with Neubauer) 
the second volume of the Catalogue of 
Hebrew Manuscripts in the Bodleian 
Library (1906) and (as sole editor) the 
Concise Catalogue of the Hebrew Printed 
Books in the Bodleian Library (1929), two 
works indispensable to all students of 
Hebrew literature and important works 
of scholarship. In this class translations of 
two successive German editions of F. H. W 
Gesenius's Hebrew Grammar (1898, 1910) 
may be included. The second category 
contains equally important work in a very 
different field; the two volumes of The 
Samaritan Liturgy (1909) ; a volume edited 
from Aramaic papyri of the fifth century 
B.C. presented to the Bodleian Library by 
A. H. Sayce [q.v.], and published by 
Cowley and Sayce as Aramaic Papyri 
discovered at Assuan (1906) ; finally, join- 
ing to this an edition of the documents 
which had gone to Berlin, he was able in 
1 923 to publish a corpus entitled Aramaic 
Papyri of the 5th Century B.C. in which he 
presented the Aramaic text of every 
known document of this class with transla- 
tion, notes, and glossary. The last category 
contains his attempts, in the Schweich 
lectures for 1918 {The Hittites, 1920), to 
decipher Hittite hieroglyphic texts, but his 
lack of success here is not surprising as the 
task was one for which he was not ade- 
quately equipped either by temperament 
)r scholarship. 

Cowley's strength as a scholar lay not so 
much in high originality as in a complete 



mastery of the field to which he had de- 
voted himself, with an accuracy so pains- 
taking and thorough that some of the 
texts which he edited may never require 
to be done again. His knowledge of 
Hebrew and Aramaic was exhaustive, 
and he coupled with it a sound knowledge 
of Arabic and some acquaintance with 
Accadian literature. On problems of 
biblical criticism his views were somewhat 
conservative ; but his outlook was in the 
strictest sense scientific. He was a single- 
minded scholar, entirely free from self- 
seeking or self-assertion, but he also stood 
out for his remarkable talent for friend- 
ship with old and young alike, being 
quickly on easy terms with all sorts and 
conditions of men. He was much in 
demand for attendance at international 
conferences where his knowledge of 
languages and powers of conciliation made 
him a more than usually valuable member. 
He represented the Royal Asiatic Society 
at an orientalist meeting of the American 
Academy of Arts and Science at Boston 
(1921) and the university of Oxford at the 
centenary of the Societe Asiatique in Paris 
(1922). He was an enthusiastic freemason. 
Of the academic honours conferred upon 
him, Cowley was especially proud of his 
corresponding membership of the Institut 
de France. He was Sandars reader in 
bibliography at Cambridge for 1912-1913 
and was elected F.B.A. in 1914. In 1931 
he was nominated for knighthood, but his 
death at Oxford after a long illness, on 
12 October of that year, anticipated his 
receiving the accolade. He married in 
1913 the owner of the historic priory of 
St. Osyth, near Colchester, Mabel Beatrice, 
second daughter of William Longmore 
Watts, rector of Boxted, Essex. He 
adopted two sons but had no issue of his 
body. He bequeathed his estate to the 
Bodleian Library, where a portrait by 
Harry CoUison hangs in the curators' 
room. 

[The Times, 13 October 1931 ; T. W. Allen, 
Arthur Ernest Cowley, 1861—1931 in Proceed- 
ings of the British Academy, vol. xix, 1933 ; 
personal knowledge.] G. R. Driver. 

COX, HAROLD (1859-1936), econo- 
mist and journalist, is reputed to have 
been born at Wimbledon in 1859, the 
second son of Homersham Cox, a county 
court judge. He was educated at Ton- 
bridge School, whence he obtained a 
mathematical scholarship at Jesus Col- 
lege, Cambridge. He was president of the 
Union in 1881, and after graduating as a 



195 



Cox, H. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



senior optime in the mathematical tripos 
of 1882, became a university extension 
lecturer in Yorkshire. Coming under the 
influence of Edward Carpenter [q.v.], 
according to his own accoxmt he spent 
nearly a year working as an agricultural 
labourer in Kent and Sussex 'in order to 
gain an insight into the life of English 
labourers'. From 1885 to 1887 he taught 
mathematics in the Mohammedan Anglo- 
Oriental College at Aligarh in India. 

On his return to England in 1887 Cox 
joined Gray's Inn and read for the bar, 
but, turning to journalism and authorship, 
he was appointed secretary of the Cobden 
Club in 1899, and in that position took an 
active part in opposing the tariff reform 
proposals of Joseph Chamberlain [q.v.]. 
He resigned the secretaryship in 1904 and 
in recognition of his services to free trade 
he was adopted as candidate by the liberal 
party in Preston, and won the seat at the 
general election in 1906. But in 1909, 
when Lloyd George's 'people's' budget 
brought up new issues. Cox took a line of 
his own which was unsatisfactory to the 
local liberals, and he did not stand for 
parliament again. His independence 
attracted admiration and in 1909 he was 
honoured by a dinner given by the British 
Constitutional Association 'in recognition 
of his great services in the late Parliament 
to the cause of personal liberty and 
personal responsibility'. Lord Rosebery, 
who presided, described Cox as 'embody- 
ing the very principle of Uberty', in an 
oration which one of those present pro- 
nounced to be 'the most brilliant after- 
dinner speech I have ever heard'. Cox, 
in a long reply, set forth at length the 
duties of a member of parliament. 'Excel- 
lent, but impracticable' , was the whispered 
comment of one guest to another; and 
this obsei^ation marked a defect in Cox's 
fine quaUties, which often made it difficult 
for others to co-operate with him in public 
life. 

After his retirement from parliament 
Cox constantly spoke and wrote against 
the growth of pubUc expenditure and of 
bureaucracy. Although in early life he had 
been friendly with Sidney Webb and had 
collaborated with him in a book on the 
Eight Hours Day (1891), he was now an 
imcompromising opponent of socialism; 
and his book on Economic Liberty (1920) 
is an admirable exposition of the case. 
His public work included membership 
(1914-1915) of the inquiry into alleged 
German atrocities in Belgium held mider 
the chairmanship of LordBryce and (1916) 



of the Committee on Public Retrenchment. 
From 1910 to 1912 he was an alderman of 
the London County Cotuicil, and on the 
death of A. R. D. Elliot [q.v.] in 1912 he 
was appointed editor of the Edinburgh 
Review, a post which he held until 1929 
when it ceased to be published. He was 
elected anhonorary fellow of Jesus College, 
Cambridge, in 1913. 

Cox married Helen Clegg; she died 
childless in 1930 after they had removed 
from Gray's Inn to Old Kennards, Leigh, 
near Tonbridge, where he also died 1 May 
1936. One of his neighbours there writes : 
'He was a scholar, but without a trace of 
pedantry, and a most attractive speaker. 
I was very fond of him. He had great 
personal charm and maintained to the last 
his interest in a wide range of public prob- 
lems. One of his obsessions was the new 
phonetic spelling. Gardening was his 
favourite hobby in his charming cottage 
at Old Kennards.' 

[The Times, 2 May 1936; Economic 
Journal, September 1936; private informa- 
tion ; personal knowledge.] 

Francis W. Hihst. 



COX, Sir PERCY ZACHARIAH 

(1864-1937), soldier, administrator, and 
diplomatist, was born at Herongate, 
Essex, 20 November 1864, the youngest 
of the three sons of Arthur Zachariah Cox 
(formerly surnamed Button), of Harwood 
Hall, Essex, deputy-lieutenant of the 
county, by his wife. Julienne EmUy, 
younger daughter of Richard Saunders, 
of Largey, co. Cavan, and Hawley House, 
Kent. He was educated at Harrow and 
the Royal Mihtary College and was com- 
missioned to the 2nd Cameronians, then 
stationed in India, in 1884. He took 
his profession seriously, learnt oriental 
languages quickly, became an excellent 
rider and shot, and studied geography and 
natural history with ardour. In 1889 he 
married Louisa Belle, youngest daughter 
of Surgeon-General John Butler Hamilton, 
of the Royal Army Medical Corps, after 
joining the Indian Staff Corps as a step- 
ping stone to the Political Department. 
After holding minor political appoint 
ments in the Mahratta states of Kolhapur 
and Savantwadi he accepted in 1893 the 
post of assistant political resident at Zeila 
in the British Somaliland Protectorate 
in the hope that he would enjoy more 
responsibility and independence in that 
primitive country than a junior could 
expect to do in India. 



196 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Cox, P, Z. 



Cox's chance came in May 1895 after 
his transfer to Berbera in the previous 
year. The Rer Hared clan had closed the 
trade routes and was terrorizing the coastal 
tribes. Lieutenant-Colonel William Butler 
Ferris, the resident, decided without 
official authorization to send an expedi- 
tion against the tribesmen. He put Cox, 
now captain, in command of 52 trained 
Indian and Somali camelry and 1,500 
irregulars whom Cox's diary shows to have 
been as absurdly unreliable as Falstaff' s 
braves. Taking Lieutenant (afterwards 
Sir John) Harrington as his second-in- 
command. Cox in six weeks defeated the 
Rer Hared, detached their allies, and 
forced their surrender. This unauthorized 
'little war' gave the Protectorate several 
years of peace and established Cox's 
reputation for decision and ability. 

Later in 1895 Cox was appointed 
assistant to the governor-general's agent 
in Baroda. In 1899 he was preparing to 
join the American explorer and hunter A. 
Donaldson-Smith in an expedition to the 
then unknown regions between Lake 
Rudolf and the Nile, when Lord Curzon 
offered him the post of political agent and 
consul at Muscat which he took up in 
October. He had a delicate task to per- 
form. Great Britain and France had 
recognized the independence of Muscat, 
but in 1891 the Indian government had 
signed a secret convention with its ruler. 
Sultan Feisal, who bound himself not to 
alienate any territory except to the British 
government. Meanwhile, French agents 
distributed French flags and papers to 
Muscat shipowners — thus in effect giving 
French protection to their traffic in slaves 
and arms — and in 1898 persuaded Feisal 
to lease a coaling station to the French 
government. An over-hasty ultimatum 
from Calcutta was modified, but Feisal, 
jwho had been ordered on board the 
\Eclipse, the guns of which were trained 
|on his palace, and who had lost his subsidy 
'from the government of India, was left 
w ith a grievance. Cox's first care was to 
restore good relations with the Sultan, 
.V hom his knowledge of Arabic, his dignity, 
•ourtesy, and Wellingtonian presence had 
nipressed favourably at their first meeting, 
le secured the restoration of the subsidy, 
k;feated several French attempts to cajole 
ir bully Feisal into further concessions, 
md persuaded him to send his son Taimur 
the Delhi Durbar of 1903. Curzon's visit 
o Muscat and the investiture of Feisal 
nth the G.C.I.E. in November marked the 
riumph of Cox's masterly diplomacy. 



Early in 1904 Cox, a major and CLE. 
since 1902, was promoted to acting poU- 
tical resident in the Persian Gulf and 
consul-general for the Persian provinces 
of Fars, Luristan, and Khuzistan with the 
Persian coasts and islands of the Gulf. He 
was gazetted resident in 1909. As consul- 
general he was charged, under the British 
minister in Teheran, with the defence of 
this coimtry's interests in a region where 
the Persian revolution of 1905-1907 pro- 
moted lawlessness to an extent which 
compelled the British government to land 
saUors at Bushire in 1909, and to dispatch 
Indian troops to Shiraz in 1911. An 
exception to the general disorder was the 
autonomous Arab district of Mohammera 
bordering on Turkey in the Euphrates 
Delta. Cox won the friendship of its stern 
but intelligent ruler, Sheikh Khazaal, 
secured him British support when Turkey 
threatened aggression, and in 1909 
negotiated an agreement whereby Khazaal 
leased a frontage on the navigable Euph- 
rates estuary (Shatt-el-Arab) to the Anglo- 
Persian Oil Company for the construction 
of refineries and the terminus of its pipe- 
line. As political resident Cox combined 
the powers of an official guardian and an 
ambassador to the small Arab states on 
the southern shores of the Gulf, and it 
was well for them and for the British and 
Indian governments that their common 
interests were placed in his skilled charge. 
Local politics mirrored changes in the 
European balance of power, and while the 
Anglo-French and Anglo-Russian agree- 
ments had dissipated one threat to the 
beneficent naval paramountcy of Great 
Britain in the Gulf, the Turco-German 
thrust towards its waters constituted 
a more serious danger. At Kuweit, 
an important strategic position. Cox 
strengthened British ties with its ruler, 
Mubarak ibn Sabah, and through him 
opened relations with a greater figure, 
Abdulaziz ibn Saud, who had regained his 
ancestral throne in Nejd. Cox recognized 
his commanding abilities, and in 1906 
suggested that the British goverrunent 
should conclude a treaty with the ambi- 
tious Wahabi ruler. The suggestion found 
no favour with the liberal government 
which feared oriental entanglements. Cox, 
however, managed to maintain good rela- 
tions with ibn Saud, and he must be given 
the entire credit for having been the first 
British diplomatist to foresee the ascen- 
dancy of that warrior statesman and the 
first to urge the importance of securing 
his confidence and friendship. 



197 



Cox, P. Z. 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Such were the most striking of Cox's 
achievements during his ten years of almost 
continuous service in an appaUing climate 
which could not sap his energies. There 
were others to his credit. The lighting of 
the Gulf from end to end, the re-survey of 
its coasts, the erection of wireless installa- 
tions, the suppression of the arms traffic 
were changes in which he played an im- 
portant part. British trade in the Gulf 
had more than doubled since he took up 
its defence in 1904. Above all, his single- 
minded devotion to the public service, his 
unerring choice of subordinates, the 
methodical accuracy of his official reports 
and letters — for whether he wrote in 
Arabic, Persian, or English his meaning 
was always clear — and the confidence 
which he inspired among all races and 
classes were of immense service to his 
country in the troubled years to come. 

In 1911 the K.C.I.E. was conferred 
upon Cox, who had been appointed C.S.I, 
in 1909 and promoted lieutenant-colonel 
in 1910. Early in 1914 he was appointed 
secretary to the government of India in 
the Foreign Department. When it was 
decided to send Indian Expeditionary 
Force 'D' to the Gulf he accompanied it, 
in October, as chief political officer, and 
on the outbreak of war with Turkey 
(31 October) he took charge in that 
capacity of the army's political relations 
in Mesopotamia, where his prestige and 
experience were invaluable. His influence 
on ibn Saud enabled him to negotiate a 
treaty tantamount to an alliance with that 
ruler in December 1915, and subsequently 
to prevent the rivalry between the Wahabi 
Amir and King Hussein of the Hejaz from 
becoming dangerous. He saw several 
engagements during the campaign, ac- 
companying Major-General (Sir) Charles 
Townshend [q.v.] to Ctesiphon, and being 
promoted honorary major-general (1917), 
but his chief tasks were administrative 
and he proved a first-class administrator, 
adapting and improving the Turkish 
system with rare skill. At the beginning 
he worked almost alone, but he gradually 
assembled and trained an admirable team 
of political and administrative officers 
which included (Sir) Arnold Wilson [q.v.] 
and was joined later by Gertrude Bell 
[q.v.], who became oriental secretary. 
The Iraqi Arabs admired him and not 
least for his silences — for Cox, although 
by no means tacitvu-n, never talked for 
talking's sake. Cox's relations with the 
military authorities were good until the 
appointment of Major-General Sir F. S. 



Maude [q.v.] as army commander, in 
August 1915. Maude's reluctance to per- 
mit his chief political officer to furnish the 
British government with information and 
to safeguard its declared Arab policy 
would have caused Cox's resignation but 
for Curzon's decisive intervention in the 
War Cabinet on a warning received from 
Gertrude Bell. He was appointed K.C.S.I. 
in 1915 and G.C.I.E. in 1917. 

Shortly before the armistice Cox was 
sent as acting-minister to Teheran. The 
position there was difficult since Persia's 
neutrality had not prevented British, 
Russian, and Turkish miUtary operations 
on Persian territory. After the armistice 
Cox negotiated an Anglo-Persian treaty 
by which Curzon set great store. Un- 
fortunately, it never became effective, 
partly owing to Persian fears that it 
involved a surrender of national indepen- 
dence but stiU more to Curzon's over- 
emphasis of its importance. In June 1920 
Cox was summoned to London by Curzon 
who informed him that his appointment 
as high commissioner of Iraq under the 
British mandate would be announced in 
order to pacify nationalist discontent. 
The announcement came too late to pre- 
vent a tribal rising. Asked his opinion 
whether Great Britain should abandon 
Iraq and the mandate or set up a nation 
government. Cox told the government thai 
he considered evacuation to be unthin! 
able and that the risk involved in settin] 
up an Arab government was, 'withoul 
over-confidence', worth nmning. 

Cox, who had been appointed K.C.M.G. 
in August, arrived in Bagdad in October 
to undertake the most difficult task in his 
career. It was first necessary to form a 
provisional government and to pacify the 
disturbed districts. Next, a ruler must be 
chosen. The British government favoured 
the candidature of Amir Feisal, son of 
King Hussein. Cox agreed, provided that 
the candidate was not imposed upon the 
Iraqis. Feisal came to Iraq in June 1921, 
and soon won widespread support. A 
referendum held in July gave him a 
comfortable majority, and he was en- 
throned on 23 August. The next step was 
to conclude a treaty embodying the obli- 
gations of Great Britain to Iraq under the 
mandate. Here difficulties arose largely 
owing to the weakness of King Feisal who 
allowed himself to be manoeuvred into 
opposition to the mandate and his own 
ministers by extremist politicians who 
wished to substitute the treaty for the 
mandate. On 25 August 1922 Feisal fell 



Dn 

1 



198 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Craig 



dangerously ill. The council had resigned. 
To the general relief, Cox immediately 
took over the government. On his recovery 
Feisal realized his mistake and agreed 
to accept the British requirements. The 
treaty of alliance was signed on 10 October. 
This done. Cox went to meet ibn Saud 
whose tribesmen had been raiding Iraqi 
territory, and fixed the boundary between 
the two Arab states. In April 1923, when 
he was about to retire, he signed the 
protocol to the treaty of alliance. He left 
Iraq on 4 May. He had been appointed 
G.C.M.G. in 1922. 

In retirement Cox, as chairman of the 
Mount Everest Committee and president 
(1933-193G) of the Royal Geographical 
Society, kept in touch with some of the 
interests of his active career. He received 
honorary degrees from the universities 
of Oxford (1925) and Manchester (1929). 
He died in the hunting field near Bedford 
20 February 1937. His wife, who endured 
the heat of the Gulf and Iraq for so many 
years and is gratefully remembered for her 
hospitality, survived him: she was ap- 
pointed D.B.E. in 1923. His only son was 
killed in action in 1917, and his only 
daughter died at birth. In memory of him 
children in Iraq are still called 'Kokkus'. 

[The Times, 22 February 1937; P. P. 
Graves, The Life of Sir Percy Cox, 1941; 
private information ; personal knowledge.] 
PmLip P. Graves. 

CRADDOCK, Sir REGINALD 
HENRY (1864-1937), Indian civil ser- 
vant, the youngest son of Surgeon-Major 
William Craddock, of the Bengal Medical 
EstabUshment, by his wife, Mary Charlotte, 
daughter of Francis Spencer Hawkins, was 
bom at Dharmsala, Punjab, 11 March 1864. 
Educated at Wellington and at Keble Col- 
lege, Oxford, he passed the open competi- 
tion for the Indian civil service in 1882 
and the fllnal examination in 1884, when 
he proceeded to India, being posted to the 
Central Provinces which had then been 
constituted less than a quarter of a 
century and were far more remote from 
the main currents of Indian life than they 
are to-day. Craddock rose rapidly in the 
interesting work and congenial air of the 
Provinces where so many interests and a 
robust, vigorous life could be had for the 
asking. As a settlement and district officer, 
as a very capable and industrious chief 
secretary to the chief commissioner, he 
was plainly the coming man of the Pro- 
vinces. In 1907 he was made chief com- 
missioner by Lord Minto [q.v.], and, in a 



time of considerable unrest, won general 
appreciation from all classes and was ap- 
pointed K.C.S.I. at the coronation Durbar 
of 1911. He was then (1912) advanced to 
be home member of the viceroy's execu- 
tive coimcil on which he served for the 
rest of Lord Hardinge of Penshurst's term 
of office and for a few months of Lord 
Chelmsford's. In 1917 he was promoted 
to be lieutenant-governor of Burma, but 
left at the end of 1922 on the eve of the 
change under which Sir (Spencer) Harcourt 
Butler [q.v.] returned as governor to that 
province . The Rangoon University scheme 
was initiated by Craddock, who was the 
first chancellor. 

Craddock retired in 1923 and was 
appointed G.C.I.E. ; and soon afterwards 
became chairman of the Indian Civil 
Service (Retired) Association. In 1923- 
1924 he served as a member of the royal 
commission on the superior civil services 
in India under the chairmanship of Lord 
Lee of Fareham. In 1931 he entered 
parliament as a conservative member for 
the Combined English Universities. From 
1932 to 1934 he served on the joint select 
parliamentary committee on Indian con- 
stitutional reform and spoke often in com- 
mittee on the bill in 1935. He had an 
uphill battle to fight, but he remained 
popular with his fellow members. 

Craddock married in 1888 Frances 
Henrietta (died 1932), younger daughter 
of General Henry Ralph Browne, and had 
one son and two daughters. He was 
elected an honorary fellow of Keble Col- 
lege in 1931. He died in London 10 Feb- 
ruary 1937. In The Dilemma in India 
(1929) Craddock left a valuable record of 
his work and his views on affairs in India. 
It was written to be of service at the time 
when the constitution then existing was 
under consideration, but it deserves to be 
studied for other reasons. It is the work 
of a man who knew India exceptionally 
well, was thoroughly respected and ap- 
preciated by all with whom he came into 
contact, and was a tower of strength in 
Lord Hardinge' s successful administra- 
tion in years of crisis. 

[The Times, 11 and 13 February 1937 ; 
R. H. Craddock, The Dilemma in India, 1929 ; 
personal knowledge.] H. V. Lovett. 

CRAIG, JAMES, first Viscount 
Craigavon (1871-1940), statesman, was 
bom at Sydenham, a suburb of Belfast, 
8 January 1871 , the youngest of the six sons 
of James Craig, J.P., of Craigavon and 
Tyrella, co. Down, a successful business 



199 



Craig 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



man in Belfast, by his wife, Eleanor 
Gilmour, daughter of Robert Brown. 
Educated at a private school at Holjrwood 
in county Down and afterwards at Mer- 
chiston Castle, Edinburgh, he became a 
stockbroker. 

After the South African war, in which 
he served with distinction, Craig turned to 
politics, and at the general election of 
1906, after an imsuccessful candidature in 
North Fermanagh (1903), he was elected 
member for East Down and held the seat 
until 1918. He was member for Mid-Down 
from 1918 to 1921. His sagacity, honesty 
of purpose, and courage were fully 
recognized at Westminster, and he served 
as parhamentary secretary to the Ministry 
of Pensions (1919-1920) and as parlia- 
mentary and financial secretary to the 
Admiralty in 1920-1921. He resigned on 
becoming, in June of the last-named year, 
under the Government of Ireland Act of 
December 1920, the jBrst prime minister 
of Northern Ireland. Thenceforth he sat 
as one of the members for county Down 
in the parliament of Northern Ireland 

Craig's time at Westminster was mainly 
occupied in a struggle against the Irish 
separatist movement, which was relegated 
to the background in the general election 
of 1906 and by the majority given then to 
the liberals in the House of Commons. 
But the constitutional crisis following on 
the rejection of the finance bill of 1909 
by the House of Lords, involved two 
appeals to the electorate (January and 
December 1910), the outcome of which 
was to make the nationalist vote a deci- 
sive factor in parliament. Thereupon the 
liberal government committed itself to 
another home rule bill, and in the bitter 
struggle which followed Craig took a lead- 
ing part as the chief lieutenant of Sir 
Edward Carson [q.v.], the Ulster leader. 

Both leaders knew well the difficulties 
and dangers of the task that lay ahead, 
but they also knew that the loyalists of 
Ulster would never surrender their birth- 
right as citizens of the United Kingdom. 
Ulster people were convinced that home 
rule for Ireland would lead to an Irish 
republic, disloyal to the Empire, and that 
Ulster's industries would be seriously 
affected by legislation promoted by men 
imacquainted with its industrial affairs. 

Between the two leaders it was agreed 
that Carson would mainly devote himself 
to upholding Ulster's interests at West- 
minster and on public platforms through- 
out the kingdom, and that Craig would 
chiefly deal with organizing the means of 



resistance which, it was felt, must be 
adopted. The intention was that if the 
home rule bill became law, Ulster should 
be held in trust, in the King's name, until 
the Act was repealed. To this end a pro- 
visional government, with a judiciary, 
was planned, the Ulster Volunteer Force 
was brought into existence and armed, 
and the Ulster Covenant was signed 
(28 September 1912) by almost half a 
million people who pledged themselves to 
shirk nothing which might be required to 
prevent dismemberment of the kingdom. 
In 1914 there followed a crisis of su- 
preme gravity marked by the gun-rimning 
incident at Larne (24 April), but the war 
of 1914-1918 supervened, and at Carson's 
call the Ulster Volunteer Force, to the 
mihtary qualities of which Kitchener 
afterwards paid tribute, became the 
Ulster Division and won imdying glory in 
France. 

Meanwhile the home rule bill had been 
placed on the Statute Book, but with a 
stay on its operation. With the advent of 
peace, however, the Irish question (com- 
plicated by the Sinn Fein rising at Easter- 
tide 1916) again became a very dangerous 
issue, and after the provisional 'settlement' 
of 1920, promoted by Lloyd George as 
head of the coaUtion government, had 
been repudiated by the Southern Irish, 
the 'treaty' of 6 December 1921 led to 
immediate 'opting out' by Northern 
Ireland. Craig, a baronet since 1918, re- 
mained prime minister of Northern Ire- 
land. He faced a task of great difficulty. 
The members of his government had to be 
chosen for the most part from men with 
no former parliamentary experience; a 
new police force had to be brought into 
being; and order established. Lawless- 
ness was rampant at the time, murder and 
outrage of almost daily occurrence, and 
ministers carried on their work at great 
personal risk. In an attempt to make 
government impossible, nationalists boy- 
cotted the new parUament and the new 
Royal Ulster Constabulary Force and 
demanded a revision of the Ulster 
boundary. In due course a boundary 
commission was set up by the British 
government but its report was never 
published, the status quo being maintained 
as a result of a financial deal between the 
ministers of London and DubUn. 

For nineteen years, until his death, 
Craig, who was raised to the peerage as 
Viscount Craigavon, of Stormont, co. 
Down, in 1927, remained prime minister 
of Northern Ireland, slowly and surely 



I 



200 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Crawfurd 



steering the small ship of state into rela- 
tively calm waters, and setting himself to 
strengthen its defences against future 
storms. During his premiership parlia- 
ment passed many measures such as those 
maintaining social services similar to those 
in Great Britain, providing for improved 
housing and drainage, and creating a new 
educational system, as well as legislation 
designed to further the establishment of 
new industries and improve the agri- 
cultural position. 

As parliamentarian and statesman, 
Craigavon possessed qualities of a very 
high order. He was a man of undaunted 
courage, high character, sound judgement, 
and devotion to duty, and his powers of 
leadership were conspicuous. He was a 
great organizer. He trusted his colleagues 
and his colleagues trusted him. 

Craigavon died suddenly at Glencraig, 
CO. Down, 24 November 1940, and was 
buried in the grounds of the parliament 
with the establishment of which his name 
is pectiliarly connected. The aftermath of 
his work has been described in Mr. 
Churchill's commentary on the part played 
by Ulster since the outbreak of war in 
1939. 'Only one great channel of entry 
remained open. That channel remained 
open because loyal Ulster gave us the full 
use of the Northern Irish ports and waters, 
and thus ensured the free working of the 
Clyde and the Mersey. But for the loyalty 
of Northern Ireland and its devotion to 
what has now become the cause of thirty 
governments or nations, we should have 
been confronted with slavery and death, 
and the light which now shines so strongly 
throughout the world would have been 
quenched.' 

Craig married in 1905 Cecil Mary No well 
Dering, only child of Sir Daniel Alfred 
Anley Tupper, an officer of the King's 
household, and had twin sons and a 
daughter all of whom survived him. He 
was succeeded as second viscount by his 
elder son, James (bom 1906). He was 
sworn of the Irish Privy Council in 1921, 
and of that of Northern Ireland in 1922. 
He received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from Queen's University, Belfast, in 1922, 
and that of D.C.L. from Oxford in 1926. 

A statue of Craigavon by L. S. Merri- 
field was placed in the Northern Ireland 
House of Commons at Stormont in 1945. 

[The Times, 25 November 1940; Hugh 
I Shearman, Not an Inch. A Study of Northern 

Ireland and Lord Craigavon, 1942 ; St. John 
' Ervine, Craigavon, Ulsterman, 1948 ; personal 

knowledge.] John M. Andrews. 



CRAIGAVON, first Viscount (1871- 
1940), statesman. [See Craig, James.] 

CRAIGMYLE, first Baron (1850- 
1937), lawyer and politician. [See Shaw, 
Thomas.] 

CRAWFORD, twenty-seventh Earl of 
(1871-1940), politician and art connois- 
seur. [See Lindsay, David Alexander 
Edward.] 

CRAWFURD, Sir RAYMOND 
HENRY PAYNE (1865-1938), physi- 
cian and scholar, was born at East 
Grinstead, Sussex, 9 November 1865, the 
sixth son of the Rev. Charles Walter Payne 
Crawfurd, by his wife, Mary, daughter of 
James Adey Ogle, regius professor of medi- 
cine at Oxford [q.v.]. He was educated at 
Winchester, New College, Oxford, and 
King's College Hospital, at all of which he 
gained scholarships or prizes. He qualified 
B.Ch. (Oxon.) in 1894 and M.D. (Oxon.) 
in 1896. After holding resident appoint- 
ments at his hospital and the Victoria 
Hospital for Children, Chelsea, he became 
in 1898 assistant physician to King's Col- 
lege Hospital and later (1905) full physi- 
cian, as well as lecturer there and at the 
London School of Medicine for Women. 
He continued with active work at King's 
College Hospital until 1930. 

Crawfurd took a keen interest in the 
history of medicine and played a leading 
part in the foundation of the section of the 
history of medicine of the Royal Society 
of Medicine, of which section he became 
president. He contributed to the Pro- 
ceedings of the society many interesting 
papers such as 'Martial and Medicine' 
(1913), 'Oliver Goldsmith and Medicine' 
(1914), and 'Superstitions concerning 
Menstruation' (1915). He also published 
a monograph entitled The Last Days of 
Charles II (1909). Besides his historical 
work he was the author of a thesis on 
exophthalmic goitre, and was joint editor 
with (Sir) Farquhar Buzzard of Burmoy 
Yeo's Manual of Medical Treatment (1913). 

Crawfurd took an active part in the 
affairs of the Royal College of Physicians, 
of which he was elected a member in 1894, 
a fellow in 1901, and registrar in 1925, 
holding this post imtil his death in 1938. 
He also gave the Fitzpatrick lectures in 
1911-1912 which were expanded and 
published as The King's Evil (1911) and 
as Plagtie and Pestilence in Literature and ' 
Art (1914), and delivered the Harveian 
oration in 1919. His skill as an organizer, 
for which he was knighted in 1933, was 



201 



Crawfurd 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



shown by the active part which he took 
in the removal of King's College Hospital 
from its position near the Strand to its 
present site on Denmark Hill. Reference 
should also be made to his administrative 
ability as regards Epsom College of which 
he was the ideal chairman of the coimcil 
for many years (1923-1936). 

Crawfurd married in 1898 Ethelberta 
Ormrod, yoimgest daughter of Colonel 
Arthur Bailey, J.P., of Bolton, and had 
three sons. He died in London, after a 
few days' illness, 9 March 1938. 

[The Times, 10 March 1938 ; British Medical 
Journal, 1938, vol. i, p. 651 (portrait) ; Lancet, 
1938, vol. i, p. 697 (portrait).] 

J. D. ROLUESTON. 

CREED, JOHN MARTIN (1889-1940), 
divine, was born at Leicester 14 October 
1889, the eldest son of Colin John Creed, 
vicar of All Saints' church, Leicester, and 
later rector of Farthinghoe, Northampton- 
shire, by his wife, Etheldreda Wright, 
daughter of Frederick Robert Spackman, 
M.D., of Harpenden, Hertfordshire. He 
was educated at the Wyggeston Grammar 
School, Leicester, and in 1908 went as a 
scholar to Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge, where he was a Bell scholar 
in 1909 and obtained first classes in part i 
of the classical tripos (1911) and in part ii 
of the theological tripos (1912). In 1913 
he was ordained to an assistant cur- 
acy at St. Paul's church, Manningham, 
Bradford, and in the following year was 
elected a fellow of his college, to which he 
returned as chaplain in 1915. From 1917 
to 1919 he was a chaplain to the forces in 
France. In the last-named year he was 
elected a fellow of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and appointed dean and lecturer 
in theology. In 1926 he succeeded A. E. 
Brooke [q.v.] as Ely professor of divinity 
and in the canonry of Ely Cathedral 
annexed to the chair, and he held these 
offices imtil his death at Cambridge 
17 February 1940. He was elected a 
fellow of the British Academy in 1939. 
In 1927 he married May Geraldine, yovmger 
daughter of Alfred Leslie Lilley, canon of 
Hereford, and had one son and three 
daughters, the youngest of whom pre- 
deceased her father. 

In his exact scholarship and historical 
outlook Creed inherited and maintained 
the Cambridge theological tradition which 
had come down from the time of J. B. 
Lightfoot [q.v.]. His principal contribu- 
tions to theology lay in the field of the New 
Testament and the early Christian age. 



His work in this field is represented by 
The Gospel according to St. Luke. The 
Greek Text with Introduction, Notes, and 
Indices (1930), a critical commentary con- 
cerned especially with the composition of 
St. Luke's narrative and the stage which 
it marks in the development of the Gospel 
tradition, and by articles in the Journal of 
Theological Studies, of which he became 
an editor towards the end of 1935, and 
elsewhere. Noteworthy amongst these 
articles is a discussion of the early Christian 
document known as the Didache {Journal 
of Theological Studies, October 1938). A 
second field of study, to which he devoted 
himself increasingly, was the history of 
rehgious thought in the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. Although widely 
separated in time, these periods were not 
dissociated in his thought, both because 
the later period gave him the background 
against which to view the modem study 
of the earlier and the problems to which 
it had given rise, and because his strong 
historical sense led him always to ap- 
preciate the continuity, yet changing con- 
ditions, of Christian theology. His work 
in the later field is represented by Reli- 
gious Thought in the Eighteenth Century 
Illustrated from Writers of the Period (1934), 
prepared in collaboration with the Rev. ! 
J. S. Boys Smith, and by his Hulsean ^ 
lectures delivered at Cambridge in 1936 fl 
and published in 1938 under the title of" 
The Divinity of Jesus Christ. A Study in 
the History of Christian Doctrine since Kant, 
which illustrates the characteristic lucidity 
of his thought and his gift of literary 
presentation. 

Creed was always deeply interested in 
the history and nature of the Church of 
England, and as a churchman he repre- 
sented, as well perhaps as any man of his 
time, its central tradition, liberal in out- 
look and resting upon sound learning. He 
knew that the intimate association of the 
Church of England with the history and 
people of England is integral to the idea 
of the historic Church of England. In his 
view, a national Church was a natural 
coimterpart to the political and social order 
of a world in which the nation was the 
fundamental political and cultural imit. 
It was thus a proper, though not the only 
legitimate, form of Church polity, fitted 
to express a cathoUc tone and temper and 
able to preserve the religious and the non- 
religious activities of man in their true 
and organic relation. The association of 
Church and State in England had fostered 
this wholesome contact between the sacred 



202 



D.N.B. 1931-1940 



Crompton 



and the secular, which was characteristic 
of the special ethos of the Church of 
England and of the religion of the English 
people. This position, stated in a number 
of published articles and sermons and sup- 
ported by wide learning and with notable 
fairness of mind, gave to Creed's outlook 
a representative importance, and it added 
weight to the part which he played as a 
member of the Archbishops' Commission 
on Christian Doctrine, the Report of which 
was published in 1938 as Doctrine in the 
Church of England. 

[The Times, 21 and 22 February 1940; 
J. F. Bethune-Baker, John Martin Creed, 
1889-1940 in Proceedings of the British 
Academy, vol. xxvi, 1940 (portrait) ; Journal 
of Theological Studies, April 1940; Cambridge 
Review, 1 March 1940; The Eagle (magazine 
of St. John's College, Cambridge), vol. lii, 
pp. 51-54, 1941 ; private information ; personal 
knowledge.] J. S. Boys Smith. 

CRICHTON-BROWNE, Sir JAMES 
(1840-1938), physician and psychologist. 
[See Bkowne.] 

CROIVIPTON, ROOKES EVELYN 
BELL (1845-1940), engineer, was born at 
Sion HiU, near Thirsk, 31 May 1845, the 
fourth son and youngest child of Joshua 
Samuel Crompton, by his first wife, Mary, 
daughter of Sir Claud Alexander and a 
friend and pupil of Mendelssohn. The 
names Rookes Evelyn record his kinship 
through the Rookes, his grandmother's 
family, with the diarist John Evelyn. 

During the Crimean war Crompton was 
allowed to accompany Captain (Sir) Wil- 
liam Houston Stewart [q.v.], his mother's 
cousin, commander of the Dragon; and 
was officially enrolled as a naval cadet. 
He visited his elder brother in the trenches 
and actually came under fire ; thus at the 
age of eleven he had the Crimean medal 
and Sebastopol clasp. 

School at Elstree prepared Crompton 
for Harrow (1858-1860). During his 
holidays he built, in a workshop at home, 
a full-size steam-driven road engine ; but 
before his true engineering career began 
he served for four years in India (1864- 
1868) as an ensign in the Rifle Brigade. 
Even there, however, he equipped a 
travelling workshop and had his machine 
tools sent out from England. His strong 
views on the inefficiency and slowness of 
the bullock trains impressed R. S. Bourke, 
Earl of Mayo [q.v.], then viceroy, and 
within a short time Crompton introduced 
steam road-haulage, receiving a govern- 
ment grant of £500 for his services. 



Returning in 1875, Crompton left the 
army and bought a partnership in a 
Chelmsford engineering firm, and, when 
adviser at the Stanton iron-works belong- 
ing to the Derbyshire branch of his family, 
purchased some of the new Gramme 
dynamos in order to improve the lighting 
of the foundry. Their success provided a 
turning-point; from that date (1878) 
electricity and engineering became for 
him almost inseparable. Co-operating 
with Emil Biirgin, of Basle, who was then 
working on dynamo design, Crompton 
obtained the rights of manufacture and 
sale of Biirgin's machine, improved it, and 
developed it to commercial success. He 
began making electric light plant, and 
carried out many installations, those at 
the Mansion House and the Law Courts in 
London and the Ring Theatre in Vienna 
being especially notable. In 1881 the firm 
of Crompton's was awarded the first gold 
medal ever given for electric lighting plant. 

Towards the end of 1886 Crompton 
formed the Kensington Court Company, 
financed by a few friends, for electricity 
supply to neighbouring premises. This 
pioneer enterprise, one of the first of its 
kind, became the Kensington and Knights- 
bridge Electric Supply Company. Cromp- 
ton advocated the direct current system ; 
S. Z. de Ferranti [q.v.], engineer of the 
London Electric Supply Corporation, 
believed in alternating current and led the 
opposing school. The resulting 'battle of 
the systems', with these two as friendly 
antagonists, has its place in electrical 
history. 

Between 1890 and 1899 Crompton re- 
visited India, advising the government on 
electrical projects. On his return he took 
charge of a volunteer corps of Electrical 
Engineers, and by May 1900 was in South 
Africa with his men, whose efficiency in 
maintaining communications and skill in 
emergencies won high praise. Crompton 
had gone out as capt